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  • Conference paper
    Greenhalgh ES, Shirshova N, Kucernak A, Shaffer MSP, Teixeira R, Bismarck A, Kireitseu M, Shelton Ret al., 2015,

    RECENT ADVANCES IN STRUCTURAL SUPERCAPACITORS FOR TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS

    , 20th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM), Publisher: AALBORG UNIV PRESS
  • Journal article
    Shirshova N, Qian H, Houlle M, Steinke JHG, Kucernak ARJ, Fontana QPV, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2014,

    Multifunctional structural energy storage composite supercapacitors

    , Faraday Discussions, Vol: 172, Pages: 81-103, ISSN: 1359-6640

    This paper addresses the challenge of producing multifunctional composites that can simultaneously carry mechanical loads whilst storing (and delivering) electrical energy. The embodiment is a structural supercapacitor built around laminated structural carbon fibre (CF) fabrics. Each cell consists of two modified structural CF fabric electrodes, separated by a structural glass fibre fabric or polymer membrane, infused with a multifunctional polymeric electrolyte. Rather than using conventional activated carbon fibres, structural carbon fibres were treated to produce a mechanically robust, high surface area material, using a variety of methods, including direct etching, carbon nanotube sizing, and carbon nanotube in situ growth. One of the most promising approaches is to integrate a porous bicontinuous monolithic carbon aerogel (CAG) throughout the matrix. This nanostructured matrix both provides a dramatic increase in active surface area of the electrodes, and has the potential to address mechanical issues associated with matrix-dominated failures. The effect of the initial reaction mixture composition is assessed for both the CAG modified carbon fibre electrodes and resulting devices. A low temperature CAG modification of carbon fibres was evaluated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to enhance the electrochemical performance. For the multifunctional structural electrolyte, simple crosslinked gels have been replaced with bicontinuous structural epoxy–ionic liquid hybrids that offer a much better balance between the conflicting demands of rigidity and molecular motion. The formation of both aerogel precursors and the multifunctional electrolyte are described, including the influence of key components, and the defining characteristics of the products. Working structural supercapacitor composite prototypes have been produced and characterised electrochemically. The effect of introducing the necessary multifunctional resin on the mechanical properties

  • Journal article
    Iden H, Kucernak AR, 2014,

    Analysis of effective surface area for electrochemical reaction derived from mass transport property

    , JOURNAL OF ELECTROANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 734, Pages: 61-69, ISSN: 1572-6657
  • Journal article
    Obeisun OA, Meyer Q, Robinson J, Gibbs CW, Kucernak AR, Shearing PR, Brett DJLet al., 2014,

    Development of open-cathode polymer electrolyte fuel cells using printed circuit board flow-field plates: Flow geometry characterisation

    , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 39, Pages: 18326-18336, ISSN: 0360-3199
  • Patent
    kucernak, 2014,

    fuel cell

    A fuel cell assembly is disclosed comprising a fuel cell electrode component and a reactant gas flow component ink bonded thereto. In one aspect direct bonding of a gas diffusion layer with a flow field is achieved allowing a simplified structural configuration. In another aspect improved component printing techniques reduce corrosion effects. In a further aspect flow fields are described providing reactant channels extending in both the horizontal and vertical directions, i.e. providing three dimensional flow. In a further aspect an improved wicking material allows wicking away and reactant humidification. In a further aspect improved mechanical fastenings and connectors are provided. In a further aspect improved humidification approaches are described. Further improved aspects are additionally disclosed.

  • Journal article
    Greenhalgh ES, Ankersen J, Asp LE, Bismarck A, Fontana QPV, Houlle M, Kalinka G, Kucernak A, Mistry M, Nguyen S, Qian H, Shaffer MSP, Shirshova N, Steinke JHG, Wienrich Met al., 2014,

    Mechanical, electrical and microstructural characterisation of multifunctional structural power composites

    , Journal of Composite Materials, Vol: 49, Pages: 1823-1834, ISSN: 1530-793X
  • Journal article
    Kucernak ARJ, Sundaram VNN, 2014,

    Nickel phosphide: the effect of phosphorus content on hydrogen evolution activity and corrosion resistance in acidic medium

    , Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 2, Pages: 17435-17445, ISSN: 2050-7496

    Transition metal phosphides possess novel, structural, physical and chemical properties and are an emerging new class of materials for various catalytic applications. Electroplated or electrolessly plated nickel phosphide alloy materials with achievable phosphorus contents <15 at% P are known to be more corrosion resistant than nickel alone, and have been investigated as hydrogen evolution catalysts in alkaline environments. However, there is significant interest in developing new inexpensive catalysts for solid polymer electrolyte electrolysers which require acid stable catalysts. In this paper, we show that by increasing the phosphorus content beyond the limit available using electroplating techniques (∼12 at% P), the nickel based phosphides Ni12P5 and Ni2P with higher levels of phosphorus (29 and 33 at% P) may be utilised for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic medium. Corrosion resistance in acid is directly correlated with phosphorus content – those materials with higher phosphorus content are more corrosion resistant. Hydrogen evolution activity in acid is also correlated with phosphorus content – Ni2P based catalysts appear to be more active for the hydrogen evolution reaction than Ni12P5. Electrochemical kinetic studies of the HER reveal high exchange current densities and little deviation in the Tafel slope especially in the lower overpotential regime for these nickel phosphide catalysts. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the respective system in acidic medium reveals the presence of two time constants associated with the HER.

  • Journal article
    Varcoe JR, Atanassov P, Dekel DR, Herring AM, Hickner MA, Kohl PA, Kucernak AR, Mustain WE, Nijmeijer K, Scott K, Xu T, Zhuang Let al., 2014,

    Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems

    , Energy & Environmental Science, Vol: 7, Pages: 3135-3191, ISSN: 1754-5706

    This article provides an up-to-date perspective on the use of anion-exchange membranes in fuel cells, electrolysers, redox flow batteries, reverse electrodialysis cells, and bioelectrochemical systems (e.g. microbial fuel cells). The aim is to highlight key concepts, misconceptions, the current state-of-the-art, technological and scientific limitations, and the future challenges (research priorities) related to the use of anion-exchange membranes in these energy technologies. All the references that the authors deemed relevant, and were available on the web by the manuscript submission date (30th April 2014), are included.

  • Patent
    Kucernak ARJ, brett, 2014,

    Fuel Cell Comprising at Least Two Stacked Printed Circuit Boards with a Plurality of Interconnected Fuel Cell Units

    A fuel cell comprising at least two stacked fuel cell boards (22) which each comprise a membrane of substantially gas impervious electrolyte material and at least two electrode pairs wherein the anode and cathode of each said electrode pair are arranged on respective faces of said membrane. An electrode of each pair of electrodes is connected to an electrode of an adjacent pair of electrodes by a through-membrane connection (13) or by an external connection on a Printed Circuit Board, comprising an electrically conductive region of said electrolyte material. A method for forming the through-membrane electrical connections in the electrolyte membrane is also disclosed.

  • Journal article
    Smith G, Zalitis CM, Kucernak ARJ, 2014,

    Thin solid state reference electrodes for use in solid polymer electrolytes

    , ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 43, Pages: 43-46, ISSN: 1388-2481
  • Journal article
    Kalyvas C, Kucernak A, Brett D, Hinds G, Atkins S, Brandon Net al., 2014,

    Spatially resolved diagnostic methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: a review

    , WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 3, Pages: 254-275, ISSN: 2041-8396
  • Journal article
    Kakati BK, Kucernak ARJ, 2014,

    Gas phase recovery of hydrogen sulfide contaminated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    , JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 252, Pages: 317-326, ISSN: 0378-7753
  • Journal article
    Daniels FA, Attingre C, Kucernak AR, Brett DJLet al., 2014,

    Current collector design for closed-plenum polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    , JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 249, Pages: 247-262, ISSN: 0378-7753
  • Conference paper
    Obeisun OA, Meyer Q, Robinson J, Gibbs CW, Kucernak AR, Shearing P, Brett DJLet al., 2014,

    Advanced diagnostics applied to a self-breathing fuel cell

    , Pages: 249-258, ISSN: 1938-5862

    In a self-breathing fuel cell, oxygen is taken directly from ambient air which provides the benefit of reduced system complexity and system operation. This study explores the use of, printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flow field plates to design a self-breathing fuel cell which helps reduce overall volume and cost of the system. It investigates the effect opening ratios have on fuel cell performance using polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The result obtained indicates that greater opening ratios improve the mass transport properties of the fuel cell but increased Ohmic resistance as a result of the increased openings and reduced area of lands/ribs respectively. A maximum power density of 188 mW cm-2 was achieved.

  • Journal article
    Ahmad EA, Mallia G, Kramer D, Kucernak AR, Harrison NMet al., 2013,

    Erratum: The stability of LaMnO<inf>3</inf> surfaces: A hybrid exchange density functional theory study of an alkaline fuel cell catalyst (Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2013) (DOI:10.1039/c3ta11382e))

    , Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2050-7488
  • Patent
    kucernak, brandon, yufit, 2013,

    regenerative fuel cells

    The present invention provides a regenerative fuel cell comprising an anionic membrane capable of selectively passing anions, wherein the pH of the anolyte and/or catholyte is at least 10. The present invention also relates to a method of operating a regenerative fuel cell comprising an anionic membrane capable of selectively passing anions, wherein the pH of the anolyte and/or catholyte is at least 10.

  • Journal article
    Turek VA, Elliott LN, Tyler AII, Demetriadou A, Paget J, Cecchini MP, Kucernak AR, Kornyshev AA, Edel JBet al., 2013,

    Self-Assembly and Applications of Ultra-Concentrated Nanoparticle Solutions

    , ACS Nano
  • Conference paper
    Thepkaew J, Therdthianwong S, Therdthianwong A, Kucernak A, Wongyao Net al., 2013,

    Promotional roles of Ru and Sn in mesoporous PtRu and PtRuSn catalysts toward ethanol electrooxidation

    , 3rd International Conference of Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technology (ICFCHT), Publisher: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, Pages: 9454-9463, ISSN: 0360-3199
  • Journal article
    Qian H, Kucernak AR, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2013,

    Multifunctional Structural Supercapacitor Composites Based on Carbon Aerogel Modified High Performance Carbon Fiber Fabric

    , ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 5, Pages: 6113-6122, ISSN: 1944-8244
  • Journal article
    Cousens NEA, Kucernak AR, 2013,

    Electrochemistry of the ionic liquid vertical bar oil interface: A new water-free interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    , ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 31, Pages: 63-66, ISSN: 1388-2481
  • Journal article
    Zalitis CM, Kramer D, Kucernak AR, 2013,

    Electrocatalytic performance of fuel cell reactions at low catalyst loading and high mass transport

    , PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 15, Pages: 4329-4340, ISSN: 1463-9076
  • Journal article
    Ahmad EA, Mallia G, Kramer D, Kucernak AR, Harrison NMet al., 2013,

    The stability of LaMnO3 surfaces: a hybrid exchange density functional theory study of an alkaline fuel cell catalyst

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 1, Pages: 11152-11162, ISSN: 2050-7488
  • Journal article
    Shirshova N, Bismarck A, Carreyette S, Fontana QPV, Greenhalgh ES, Jacobsson P, Johansson P, Marczewski MJ, Kalinka G, Kucernak ARJ, Scheers J, Shaffer MSP, Steinke JHG, Wienrich Met al., 2013,

    Structural supercapacitor electrolytes based on bicontinuous ionic liquid-epoxy resin systems

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 1, Pages: 15300-15309, ISSN: 2050-7488
  • Conference paper
    Zalitis CM, Kramer D, Sharman J, Wright E, Kucernak ARet al., 2013,

    Pt Nano-Particle Performance for PEFC Reactions At Low Catalyst Loading and High Reactant Mass Transport

    , 13th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium (PEFC), Publisher: ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, Pages: 39-47, ISSN: 1938-5862
  • Journal article
    Ahmad EA, Mallia G, Kramer D, Kucernak AR, Harrison NMet al., 2013,

    The stability of LaMnO3 surfaces: a hybrid exchange density functional theory study of an alkaline fuel cell catalyst (vol 1, pg 11152, 2013)

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 1, Pages: 15555-15555, ISSN: 2050-7488
  • Conference paper
    Greenhalgh ES, Ankersen J, Asp LE, Bismarck A, Fontana QPV, Houlle M, Kalinka G, Kucernak A, Mistry M, Nguyen S, Qian H, Shaffer MSP, Shirshova N, Steinke JHG, Wienrich Met al., 2013,

    Mechanical and microstructural characterisation of multifunctional structural power composites

    , Pages: 2228-2237
  • Conference paper
    Qian H, Kucernak AR, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2013,

    Multifunctional structural power composites based on carbon aerogel modified high performance carbon fibre fabrics

    , Pages: 2238-2243
  • Conference paper
    Mistry M, Kucernak A, Nguyen S, Ankersen J, Greenhalgh ESet al., 2013,

    Addressing engineering issues for a composite structural power demonstrator

    , Pages: 2692-2700

    Engineering issues have been addressed for a Multifunctional (MF) Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) capable of storing electrical energy and carrying mechanical load. The MF material was integrated into a technology demonstrator in the form of a car boot lid where the boot lighting was powered independently of the car main electrical system. Current collection was improved by using a thin copper mesh on the carbon electrodes while hole drilling was found to have a negligible effect on the laminate electrical performance.

  • Journal article
    Shirshova N, Qian H, Shaffer MSP, Steinke JHG, Greenhalgh ES, Curtis PT, Kucernak A, Bismarck Aet al., 2013,

    Structural composite supercapacitors

    , Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol: 46, Pages: 96-107, ISSN: 1359-835X

    This paper presents the development of multifunctional materials that perform a structural role whilst simultaneously storing electrical energy as a supercapacitor. Two structural carbon fibre woven electrodeswere separated by a woven glass fibre layer, and infused with a multifunctional polymer electrolyte. Following characterisation of electrochemical and compressive performance, working structural supercapacitor prototypes were demonstrated. Since the relative mechanical and electrical demands are application specific, an optimisation methodology is proposed. Multifunctional composites were achieved, which had compressive moduli of up to 39 GPa and capacitances of up to 52 mF g 1.

  • Journal article
    Kucernak A, Bidault F, Smith G, 2012,

    Membrane electrode assemblies based on porous silver electrodes for alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    , ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, Vol: 82, Pages: 284-290, ISSN: 0013-4686

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