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  • Journal article
    Livingston AG, 1993,

    A novel membrane bioreactor for detoxifying industrial wastewater: I. Biodegradation of phenol in a synthetically concocted wastewater.

    , Biotechnol Bioeng, Vol: 41, Pages: 915-926, ISSN: 0006-3592

    A novel process has been used to biodegrade phenol present in an acidic (1 M HCI) and salty (5% w/w NaCl) synthetically bioreactor, in which the phenol present in the wastewater is separated from the inorganic components by means of a silicone rubber membrane. Transfer of the phenol from the wastewater and into a biological growth medium allows biodegradation to proceed under controlled conditions which are unaffected by the hostile inorganic composition of the wastewater. At a wastewater flow rate of 18 mL h(-1) (contact time 6 h), 98.5% of the phenol present in the wastewater at an inlet concentration of 1000 mg ((-1)) was degraded; at a contact time of 1.9 h, 65% of the phenol was degraded. Phenol degradation was accompanied by growth of a biofilm on the membrane tubes and by conversion of approximately 80% of the carbon entering the system to CO(2) carbon. Analysis of the transport of phenol across the membrane revealed that the major resistance to mass transfer arose in the diffusion of phenol across the silicone rubber membrane. A mathematical model was used to describe the transfer of phenol across the membrane and the subsequent diffusion and reaction of phenol in the biofilm attached to the membrane tube. This analysis showed that (a) the attached biofilm significantly lowers the mass transfer driving force for phenol across the membrane, and (b) oxygen concentration limits the phenol degradation rate in the biofilm. These conclusions from the model are consistent with the experimental results.

  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, 1993,

    A NOVEL MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR DETOXIFYING INDUSTRIAL WASTE-WATER .1. BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOL IN A SYNTHETICALLY CONCOCTED WASTE-WATER

    , BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, Vol: 41, Pages: 915-926, ISSN: 0006-3592
  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, 1993,

    A NOVEL MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR DETOXIFYING INDUSTRIAL WASTE-WATER .2. BIODEGRADATION OF 3-CHLORONITROBENZENE IN AN INDUSTRIALLY PRODUCED WASTE-WATER

    , BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, Vol: 41, Pages: 927-936, ISSN: 0006-3592
  • Journal article
    Livingston AG, 1993,

    A novel membrane bioreactor for detoxifying industrial wastewater: II. Biodegradation of 3-chloronitrobenzene in an industrially produced wastewater.

    , Biotechnol Bioeng, Vol: 41, Pages: 927-936, ISSN: 0006-3592

    A novel membrane bioreactor has been used for the treatment of an industrially produced wastewater arising in the manufacture of 3-chloronitrobenzene. This wastewater is not amenable to direct biological treatment without some form pretreatment or dilution, due to the inorganic composition (pH <1, salt concentration 4% w/w) of the wastewater. In the membrane bioreactor, the organic pollutants are first separated from the wastewater by selective membrane permeation, and then biodegraded in the biological growth compartment of the bioreactor. At a wastewater flow rate of 64 mL h(-1) (corresponding to a contact time of approximately 1.7 hours) over 99% of the 3-chloronitrobenzene and over 99% of the nitrobenzene in the wastewater were degraded. Degradation of 3-chloronitrobenzene was accompanied by evolution of chloride ions in a stoichiometric ratio. Both 3-chloronitrobenzene and nitrobenzene degradation were accompanied by the evolution of carbon dioxide; approximately 80% of the carbon entering the system was oxidized to CO(2) carbon. Analysis of mass transport across the membrane revealed that 3-chloronitrobenzene and nitrobenzene are transported more rapidly than phenol. This is explained in terms of a resistances-in-series model, which shows phenol transfer to be rate limited by the membrane diffusion step, whereas the chloronitrobenzene and nitrobenzene transfer are rate limited by the liquid film mass transfer.

  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, NOBLE JB, 1993,

    MASS-TRANSFER IN LIQUID SOLID FLUIDIZED-BEDS OF ION-EXCHANGE RESINS AT LOW REYNOLDS-NUMBERS

    , CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, Vol: 48, Pages: 1174-1178, ISSN: 0009-2509
  • Conference paper
    Livingston AG, 1993,

    Removal and destruction of priority pollutants from chemical industry wastewaters using and innovative membrane bioreactor

    , Pages: 131-137, ISSN: 0307-0492

    An innovative membrane bioreactor technology is described, based on the extraction of toxic pollutants from a wastewater into a controlled biomedium where they are mineralized. The inorganic composition of the wastewater is physically independent from the inorganic composition of the biomedium, where growth conditions can be controlled to maintain biodegradation. The performance of this technology in treating three separate wastewaters is described. In spite of the harsh inorganic composition of the wastewaters, over 99% of the toxic organics (3 chloronitrobenzene, 3,4 dichloroaniline, and 1,2 dichloroethane ) are removed and biodegraded in the membrane bioreactor. The separation of aerating gas from the wastewater also allows the effective treatment of toxic VOC compounds such as dichloroethane while eliminating losses due to air stripping.

  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, 1991,

    BIODEGRADATION OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE IN A FLUIDIZED-BED BIOREACTOR AND A STEADY-STATE BIOFILM KINETIC-MODEL

    , BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOENGINEERING, Vol: 38, Pages: 260-272, ISSN: 0006-3592
  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, WILLACY A, 1991,

    DEGRADATION OF 3,4-DICHLOROANILINE IN SYNTHETIC AND INDUSTRIALLY PRODUCED WASTEWATERS BY MIXED CULTURES FREELY SUSPENDED AND IMMOBILIZED IN A PACKED-BED REACTOR

    , APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 551-557, ISSN: 0175-7598
  • Journal article
    Livingston AG, Chase HA, 1991,

    Development of a phenol degrading fluidized bed bioreactor for constant biomass holdup

    , Chemical engineering journal, Vol: 45, ISSN: 0300-9467

    Phenol degrading biofilms were grown on Celite diatomaceous earth particles in three-phase fluidized beds. Investigations were undertaken to establish conditions in the fluidized beds that could be used to maintain a constant reactor biomass holdup. Initially, a conventional three-phase fluidized bed, in which fluidization occurred primarily by virtue of a recycled liquid flow entering at the base of the bed, was utilized. Insufficient turbulence was generated to control the biomass growth and the bioparticles were washed out of the reactor because of over expansion of the fluidized bed. Subsequently, a draft tube fluidized bed was employed. The gas flow rate through this reactor and the resulting level of turbulence could be manipulated to control and stabilize the biomass holdup.

  • Journal article
    Livingston AG, Chase HA, 1991,

    Development of a phenol degrading fluidized bed bioreactor for constant biomass holdup

    , The Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol: 45, ISSN: 0300-9467

    Phenol degrading biofilms were grown on Celite diatomaceous earth particles in three-phase fluidized beds. Investigations were undertaken to establish. © 1991.

  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, CHASE HA, 1990,

    LIQUID SOLID MASS-TRANSFER IN A 3-PHASE DRAFT TUBE FLUIDIZED-BED REACTOR

    , CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 92, Pages: 225-244, ISSN: 0098-6445
  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, CHASE HA, 1989,

    MODELING PHENOL DEGRADATION IN A FLUIDIZED-BED BIOREACTOR

    , AICHE JOURNAL, Vol: 35, Pages: 1980-1992, ISSN: 0001-1541
  • Journal article
    LIVINGSTON AG, CHASE HA, 1989,

    PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADSORBENTS FOR USE IN HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID AFFINITY-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    , JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY, Vol: 481, Pages: 159-174, ISSN: 0021-9673

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