This scanning electron microscope is fitted with Oxford Instruments INCA energy dispersive analyti-cal system (EDS) for elemental X-ray analysis and digital image capture enabling line scans and X-ray maps to be produced. Samples should ideally be flat and polished for quantitative analysis and mapping. Samples up to 32 mm across can be accommodated for semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis. Samples can be any dry solid or powder. The X-ray microanalysis provides important information about features that affect behaviour of materials in working environments. This technique can be employed to examine wide range of materials.

The images below show the presence of carbon in a human tissue after medical surgery, which caused infection.

Image of human tissueX-ray map showing carbon distribution in human tissue

Accurate analysis needs expertise and good understanding of the analytical system as well as knowledge of materials that is being analysed. Dr Mahmoud Ardakani has a number of years experience in analysing wide range of materials, including metals, glass and ceramic and polymers.

Apart form chemical analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD - one of the many signal generated as result of electron beam and specimen interaction) is used in conjunction with HKL (EBSD analytical software) to study the local crystal orientation and texture in metals and ceramics. Example below exhibits local orientation across a 3mm diameter single crystal, deformed under creep conditions, using stage scanning. This information cannot be obtained using any other technique. Dr Mahmoud Ardakani has been working with EBSD since its early development in late 1980s.

EBSD pattern of nickel single crystalOrientation map and texture of nickel single crystal





EBSD pattern, orientation map of entire cross section and texture of [111] nickel single crystal creep tested at 850°C/820 MPa.

JSM6400 SEM help and support

  • Dr Mahmoud Ardakani

    Personal details

    Dr Mahmoud Ardakani Research Officer, Harvey Flowers Electron Microscopy Suite

    +44 (0)20 7594 6739


    Department of Materials
    Royal School of Mines
    Lower Ground Floor, LG05