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  • Journal article
    Sun Y, Reynolds HM, Parameswaran B, Wraith D, Finnegan ME, Williams S, Haworth Aet al., 2019,

    Multiparametric MRI and radiomics in prostate cancer: a review

  • Conference paper
    Li L, Yang G, Wu F, Wong T, Mohiaddin R, Firmin D, Keegan J, Xu L, Zhuang Xet al., 2019,

    Atrial Scar Segmentation via Potential Learning in the Graph-Cut Framework

    , Pages: 152-160, ISSN: 0302-9743

    Late Gadolinium Enhancement Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LGE MRI) emerges as a routine scan for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, due to the low image quality automating the quantification and analysis of the atrial scars is challenging. In this study, we proposed a fully automated method based on the graph-cut framework, where the potential of the graph is learned on a surface mesh of the left atrium (LA), using an equidistant projection and a deep neural network (DNN). For validation, we employed 100 datasets with manual delineation. The results showed that the performance of the proposed method was improved and converged with respect to the increased size of training patches, which provide important features of the structural and texture information learned by the DNN. The segmentation could be further improved when the contribution from the t-link and n-link is balanced, thanks to the inter-relationship learned by the DNN for the graph-cut algorithm. Compared with the existing methods which mostly acquired an initialization from manual delineation of the LA or LA wall, our method is fully automated and has demonstrated great potentials in tackling this task. The accuracy of quantifying the LA scars using the proposed method was 0.822, and the Dice score was 0.566. The results are promising and the method can be useful in diagnosis and prognosis of AF.

  • Conference paper
    Wang C, MacGillivray T, Macnaught G, Yang G, Newby Det al., 2019,

    A Two-Stage U-Net Model for 3D Multi-class Segmentation on Full-Resolution Cardiac Data

    , Pages: 191-199, ISSN: 0302-9743

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performances for multi-class segmentation of medical images. However, a common problem when dealing with large, high resolution 3D data is that the volumes input into the deep CNNs has to be either cropped or downsampled due to limited memory capacity of computing devices. These operations can lead to loss of resolution and class imbalance in the input data batches, thus downgrade the performances of segmentation algorithms. Inspired by the architecture of image super-resolution CNN (SRCNN), we propose a two-stage modified U-Net framework that simultaneously learns to detect a ROI within the full volume and to classify voxels without losing the original resolution. Experiments on a variety of multi-modal 3D cardiac images have demonstrated that this framework shows better segmentation performances than state-of-the-art Deep CNNs with trained with the same similarity metrics.

  • Journal article
    Raschke F, Barrick TR, Jones TL, Yang G, Ye X, Howe FAet al., 2019,

    Tissue-type mapping of gliomas

    , NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, Vol: 21, ISSN: 2213-1582
  • Conference paper
    Ali A-R, Li J, O'Shea SJ, Yang G, Trappenberg T, Ye Xet al., 2019,

    A Deep Learning Based Approach to Skin Lesion Border Extraction With a Novel Edge Detector in Dermoscopy Images

    , International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2161-4393
  • Journal article
    Sun Y, Reynolds HM, Wraith D, Williams S, Finnegan ME, Mitchell C, Murphy D, Haworth Aet al., 2018,

    Voxel-wise prostate cell density prediction using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and machine learning

    , ACTA ONCOLOGICA, Vol: 57, Pages: 1540-1546, ISSN: 0284-186X
  • Journal article
    Grech-Sollars M, Zhou F-L, Waldman AD, Parker GJM, Hubbard Cristinacce PLet al., 2018,

    Stability and reproducibility of co-electrospun brain-mimicking phantoms for quality assurance of diffusion MRI sequences

    , NeuroImage, Vol: 181, Pages: 395-402, ISSN: 1053-8119

    Grey and white matter mimicking phantoms are important for assessing variations in diffusion MR measures at a single time point and over an extended period of time. This work investigates the stability of brain-mimicking microfibre phantoms and reproducibility of their MR derived diffusion parameters. The microfibres were produced by co-electrospinning and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Grey matter and white matter phantoms were constructed from random and aligned microfibres, respectively. MR data were acquired from these phantoms over a period of 33 months. SEM images revealed that only small changes in fibre microstructure occurred over 30 months. The coefficient of variation in MR measurements across all time-points was between 1.6% and 3.4% for MD across all phantoms and FA in white matter phantoms. This was within the limits expected for intra-scanner variability, thereby confirming phantom stability over 33 months. These specialised diffusion phantoms may be used in a clinical environment for intra and inter-site quality assurance purposes, and for validation of quantitative diffusion biomarkers.

  • Conference paper
    Yang G, Chen J, Gao Z, Zhang H, Ni H, Angelini E, Mohiaddin R, Wong T, Keegan J, Firmin Det al., 2018,

    Multiview sequential learning and dilated residual learning for a fully automatic delineation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins from late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI images

    , 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1123-1127, ISSN: 1557-170X

    Accurate delineation of heart substructures is a prerequisite for abnormality detection, for making quantitative and functional measurements, and for computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning. Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiac MRI (LGE-CMRI) is an emerging imaging technology for myocardial infarction or scar detection based on the differences in the volume of residual gadolinium distribution between scar and healthy tissues. While LGE-CMRI is a well-established non-invasive tool for detecting myocardial scar tissues in the ventricles, its application to left atrium (LA) imaging is more challenging due to its very thin wall of the LA and poor quality images, which may be produced because of motion artefacts and low signal-to-noise ratio. As the LGE-CMRI scan is designed to highlight scar tissues by altering the gadolinium kinetics, the anatomy among different heart substructures has less distinguishable boundaries. An accurate, robust and reproducible method for LA segmentation is highly in demand because it can not only provide valuable information of the heart function but also be helpful for the further delineation of scar tissue and measuring the scar percentage. In this study, we proposed a novel deep learning framework working on LGE-CMRI images directly by combining sequential learning and dilated residual learning to delineate LA and pulmonary veins fully automatically. The achieved results showed accurate segmentation results compared to the state-of-the-art methods. The proposed framework leads to an automatic generation of a patient-specific model that can potentially enable an objective atrial scarring assessment for the atrial fibrillation patients.

  • Journal article
    Schlemper J, Yang G, Ferreira P, Scott A, McGill LA, Khalique Z, Gorodezky M, Roehl M, Keegan J, Pennell D, Firmin D, Rueckert Det al., 2018,

    Stochastic deep compressive sensing for the reconstruction of diffusion tensor cardiac MRI

    , Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Vol: 11070 LNCS, Pages: 295-303, ISSN: 0302-9743

    © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018. Understanding the structure of the heart at the microscopic scale of cardiomyocytes and their aggregates provides new insights into the mechanisms of heart disease and enables the investigation of effective therapeutics. Diffusion Tensor Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (DT-CMR) is a unique non-invasive technique that can resolve the microscopic structure, organisation, and integrity of the myocardium without the need for exogenous contrast agents. However, this technique suffers from relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and frequent signal loss due to respiratory and cardiac motion. Current DT-CMR techniques rely on acquiring and averaging multiple signal acquisitions to improve the SNR. Moreover, in order to mitigate the influence of respiratory movement, patients are required to perform many breath holds which results in prolonged acquisition durations (e.g., ~ 30 min using the existing technology). In this study, we propose a novel cascaded Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based compressive sensing (CS) technique and explore its applicability to improve DT-CMR acquisitions. Our simulation based studies have achieved high reconstruction fidelity and good agreement between DT-CMR parameters obtained with the proposed reconstruction and fully sampled ground truth. When compared to other state-of-the-art methods, our proposed deep cascaded CNN method and its stochastic variation demonstrated significant improvements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using deep CNN based CS for the DT-CMR reconstruction. In addition, with relatively straightforward modifications to the acquisition scheme, our method can easily be translated into a method for online, at-the-scanner reconstruction enabling the deployment of accelerated DT-CMR in various clinical applications.

  • Conference paper
    Chen J, Yang G, Gao Z, Ni H, Angelini E, Mohiaddin R, Wong T, Zhang Y, Du X, Zhang H, Keegan J, Firmin Det al., 2018,

    Multiview two-task recursive attention model for left atrium and atrial scars segmentation

    , Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2018, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 455-463, ISSN: 0302-9743

    Late Gadolinium Enhanced Cardiac MRI (LGE-CMRI) for detecting atrial scars in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients has recently emerged as a promising technique to stratify patients, guide ablation therapy and predict treatment success. Visualisation and quantification of scar tissues require a segmentation of both the left atrium (LA) and the high intensity scar regions from LGE-CMRI images. These two segmentation tasks are challenging due to the cancelling of healthy tissue signal, low signal-to-noise ratio and often limited image quality in these patients. Most approaches require manual supervision and/or a second bright-blood MRI acquisition for anatomical segmentation. Segmenting both the LA anatomy and the scar tissues automatically from a single LGE-CMRI acquisition is highly in demand. In this study, we proposed a novel fully automated multiview two-task (MVTT) recursive attention model working directly on LGE-CMRI images that combines a sequential learning and a dilated residual learning to segment the LA (including attached pulmonary veins) and delineate the atrial scars simultaneously via an innovative attention model. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed MVTT achieves compelling improvement, enabling to generate a patient-specific anatomical and atrial scar assessment model.

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