BibTex format

author = {Sugand, K and Akhtar, K and Khatri, C and Cobb, J and Gupte, C},
doi = {10.3109/17453674.2015.1071111},
journal = {Acta Orthopaedica},
pages = {695--701},
title = {Training effect of a virtual reality haptics-enabled dynamic hip screw simulator.},
url = {},
volume = {86},
year = {2015}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background and purpose - Virtual reality (VR) simulation offers a safe, controlled, and effective environment to complement training but requires extensive validation before it can be implemented within the curriculum. The main objective was to assess whether VR dynamic hip screw (DHS) simulation has a training effect to improve objective performance metrics. Patients and methods - 52 surgical trainees who were naïve to DHS procedures were randomized to 2 groups: the training group, which had 5 attempts, and the control group, which had only one attempt. After 1 week, both cohorts repeated the same number of attempts. Objective performance metrics included total procedural time (sec), fluoroscopy time (sec), number of radiographs (n), tip-apex distance (TAD; mm), attempts at guide-wire insertion (n), and probability of cut-out (%). Mean scores (with SD) and learning curves were calculated. Significance was set as p < 0.05. Results - The training group was 68% quicker than the control group, used 75% less fluoroscopy, took 66% fewer radiographs, had 82% less retries at guide-wire insertion, achieved a reduced TAD (by 41%), had lower probability of cut-out (by 85%), and obtained an increased global score (by 63%). All these results were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The participants agreed that the simulator provided a realistic learning environment, they stated that they had enjoyed using the simulator, and they recognized the need for the simulator in formal training. Interpretation - We found a significant training effect on the VR DHS simulator in improving objective performance metrics of naïve surgical trainees. Patient safety, an important priority, was not compromised.
AU - Sugand,K
AU - Akhtar,K
AU - Khatri,C
AU - Cobb,J
AU - Gupte,C
DO - 10.3109/17453674.2015.1071111
EP - 701
PY - 2015///
SN - 1745-3682
SP - 695
TI - Training effect of a virtual reality haptics-enabled dynamic hip screw simulator.
T2 - Acta Orthopaedica
UR -
UR -
VL - 86
ER -