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  • Journal article
    Steer RR, McGregor AH, Bull AMJ, 2006,

    A comparison of kinematics and performance measures of two rowing ergometers

    , JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCE AND MEDICINE, Vol: 5, Pages: 52-59, ISSN: 1303-2968
  • Journal article
    Cuomo P, Edwards A, Giron F, Bull AM, Amis AA, Aglietti Pet al., 2006,

    Validation of the 65 degrees Howell guide for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    , ARTHROSCOPY, ISSN: 0749-8063
  • Journal article
    Giron F, Cuomo P, Aglietti P, Bull AM, Amis AAet al., 2006,

    Femoral attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament.

  • Journal article
    Smith CD, Alexander S, Hill AM, Huijsmans PE, Bull AMJ, Amis AA, De Beer JF, Wallace ALet al., 2006,

    A Biomechanical Comparison of Single and Double-Row Fixation in Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    , J Bone Joint Surg Am, Vol: 88, Pages: 2425-2431
  • Journal article
    McGregor AH, Patankar ZS, Bull AMJ, 2005,

    Spinal kinematics in elite oarswomen during a routine physiological "step test"

    , MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE, Vol: 37, Pages: 1014-1020, ISSN: 0195-9131

    Spinal Kinematics in Elite Oarswomen during a Routine Physiological“Step Test.” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 1014 –1020, 2005. Introduction: Biomechanical measures of movement arebeing used increasingly to understand injury mechanisms and enhance performance. Frequently, rowing injuries are attributed to poorrowing technique. This suggests a need to understand technique and its influencing factors. This study aimed to quantify rowingtechnique in terms of lumbopelvic motion, force production, and work done at different work intensities. Methods: An electromagneticmotion measuring device in conjunction with a load cell was used to determine the ergometer rowing kinematics of 12 elite internationaloarswomen during a routine step test. This test comprised six steps at a series of different stroke ratings starting at 18 strokes per minuteand ending at maximal-output rowing. Results: As work intensity increased, force output increased significantly (P 0.0001). Strokelength remained relatively consistent throughout the steps, although there was a nonsignificant shortening from 136.5 cm (6.4 SD)at 18 strokes per minute to 130.6 cm (8.1) at maximal testing. Changes in kinematics were also observed, particularly at the catchand finish positions. There was a trend towards less anterior pelvic rotation occurring at the catch with an associated reduction in lumbarrotation and greater extensions occurring in both at the finish at the higher rating. Overall, rowers underutilized pelvic rotation toachieve these positions relying predominately on lumbar rotation. Conclusion: This study quantified the spinal kinematics of eliterowers at different incremental work intensities and noted subtle but important changes to lumbopelvic and spinal kinematics atincreasing work levels, particularly at maximal intensity. Such changes particularly are thought to be important with respect to thedevelopment of low-back pain.

  • Journal article
    Robinson JR, Bull AMJ, Amis AA, 2005,

    Structural properties of the medial collateral ligament complex of the human knee

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 38, Pages: 1067-1074, ISSN: 0021-9290
  • Journal article
    Lee RYW, McGregor AH, Bull AMJ, Wragg Pet al., 2005,

    Dynamic response of the cervical spine to posteroanterior mobilisation

    , CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 20, Pages: 228-231, ISSN: 0268-0033
  • Journal article
    Dietrich S, Bull AMJ, Leher A, McGregor AH, Lechner K-H, Toumazou C, Ahlers MOet al., 2005,

    The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (cmd) in male competitive rowers.

    , J. Musculoskeletal Res., Vol: 9, Pages: 35-43
  • Journal article
    McGregor AH, Bull AMJ, Byng-Maddick R, 2004,

    A comparison of rowing technique at different stroke rates: A description of sequencing, force production and kinematics

    , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 25, Pages: 465-470, ISSN: 0172-4622

    Low back pain is the commonest musculoskeletal complaint in rowers. Research into the relationship between rowing technique, the forces generated during the rowing stroke and the kinematics of spinal motion are increasing, but to date none have investigated the impact of different rowing intensities on this relationship. A technique has been developed using an electromagnetic motion system and strain gauge instrumented load cell to measure spinal and pelvic motion and force generated at the handle during rowing on an exercise rowing ergometer. Using this technique ten collegiate male rowers (mean age 22.1 ± 2.8 years) from local rowing clubs were investigated. The test protocol consisted of rowing on an ergometer at three different stroke ratings; 17 - 20 strokes per minute; 24 - 28 strokes per minute; and 28 - 36 strokes per minute. Each rating was held for four minutes, with a five-minute rest between each rating. Marked changes in the force output curve and lumbopelvic kinematics were observed at the different rowing intensities. Although there was no change in the magnitude of peak torque generated during the different rating, there was a marked shift in when this occurred during the stroke. In terms of kinematic changes, these centred around changes in pelvic rotation at the catch and finish stages of the stroke with significantly less anterior rotation occurring at the catch position at higher rowing intensities. To conclude, this study suggests that rowing kinematics and force profiles do change at higher rowing intensities. These changes may be an important factor with respect to injury mechanisms, however, further work is required at an elite level.

  • Journal article
    McGregor AH, Bull AMJ, Lee R, Wragg Pet al., 2004,

    Dynamic response of the human spine to anteroposterior mobilisation manual therapy: an interventional magnetic resonance imaging study (short communication)

    , Physiotherapy, Vol: 90, Pages: 165-166, ISSN: 0031-9406

    ObjectivesThe biomechanics of posteroanterior mobilisation (PA) is poorly understood. Studies to date have recorded static spinal kinematics but have failed to quantify the force applied during the technique. The aims of this study were to develop and validate a tool to measure the force applied to the cervical spine during the administration of PA manual therapy.Study populationNineteen control subjects (10 males, 9 females, mean age 29.1 (S.D. 6.2) years) with no history of cervical pain requiring intervention were recruited into this study and written informed consent obtained.MethodsDevice developmentThe force measurement device had to be MR compatible, give the correct feel to the examiner to simulate the normal PA manipulation technique, easy to read from within the iMR suite by the examiner, calibrated for specific levels of force application and the force values had to be recorded simultaneously with the MR images. The design of the device was fraught with complexities relating to obtaining a precise measure of force, and the magnetic environment. A simple low cost approach was used to address this problem and a fluid-filled device was constructed that could be placed between the therapists hands and the subjects neck. Synchronisation was achieved by videoing the whole test procedure and logging this video with the image sequence number and time of scanning. Although a working system was achieved the device developed was found to be limited with respect to recording absolute force and consequently the values of force recorded were lower than expected, and the extraction of force data from the videos time consuming and complex.Imaging protocolSubjects were scanned using a General Electric Signa SP10 Interventional MRI scanner (iMR) at St. Mary’s Hospital, London. This is an open MRI scanner consisting of two connected but opposing ring “doughnut” magnets. The gap between these magnets is 56 cm generating a uniform field of 0.5 T. Subjects we

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