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  • Book chapter
    Rodríguez M, Sylaidi A, Faisal AA, 2016,

    An fMRI-Compatible System for 3DOF Motion Tracking of Objects in Haptic Motor Control Studies

    , Advances in Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics, Editors: Londral, Encarnação, Publisher: Springer International Publishing, Pages: 115-123, ISBN: 978-3-319-26240-6
  • Book chapter
    Lourenço PR, Abbott WW, Faisal AA, 2016,

    Supervised EEG ocular artefact correction through eye-tracking

    , Advances in Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics, Editors: Londral, Encarnação, Publisher: Springer International Publishing, Pages: 99-113, ISBN: 978-3-319-26240-6

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a widely used brain signal recording technique with many uses. The information conveyed in these recordings is a useful tool in the diagnosis of some diseases and disturbances, basic science, as well as in the development of non-invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI). However, the electrical recording setup comes with two major downsides, a. poor signal-to-noise ratio and b. the vulnerability to any external and internal noise sources. One of the main sources of artefacts is eye movements due to the electric dipole between the cornea and the retina. We have previously proposed that monitoring eye-movements provides a complementary signal for BMIs. Here we propose a novel technique to remove eye-related artefacts from the EEG recordings. We coupled Eye Tracking with EEG allowing us to independently measure when ocular artefact events occur through the eye tracker and thus clean them up in a targeted “supervised” manner instead of using a “blind” artefact clean up correction technique. Three standard methods of artefact correction were applied in an event-driven, supervised manner: 1. Independent Components Analysis (ICA), 2. Wiener Filter and 3. Wavelet Decomposition and compared to “blind” unsupervised ICA clean up. These are standard artefact correction approaches implemented in many toolboxes and experimental EEG systems and could easily be applied by their users in an event-driven manner. Already the qualitative inspection of the clean up traces shows that the simple targeted artefact event-driven clean up outperforms the traditional “blind” clean up approaches. We conclude that this justifies the small extra effort of performing simultaneous eye tracking with any EEG recording to enable simple, but targeted, automatic artefact removal that preserves more of the original signal.

  • Conference paper
    Jameel ASMM, Mace M, Wang S, Vaidyanathan R, Al Mamun KAet al., 2016,

    Predicting Movement and Laterality From Deep Brain Local Field Potentials

    , 1st International Conference on Medical Engineering, Health Informatics and Technology (MediTec), Publisher: IEEE
  • Conference paper
    Hassan S, Nightingale AM, Leong CL, Zhang Y, Evans G, Boutelle MG, Niu XZet al., 2016,

    Wearable droplet-based microfluidic sensor device for continuous sampling and real-time analysis

    , Pages: 43-44

    This paper reports a wearable droplet-microfluidic based continuous chemical sensing device. The device combines microdialysis and droplet microfluidic techniques, can continuously sample from interstitial or other body fluids into nanolitre droplets and perform biochemical assays and measurements in situ and in real-time.

  • Conference paper
    Huang JV, Wang Y, Krapp HG, 2016,

    Wall Following in a Semi-closed-loop Fly-Robotic Interface

    , 5th International Conference on Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems (Living Machines), Publisher: SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 85-96, ISSN: 0302-9743
  • Book chapter
    Faisal A, Krebs HI, Pedotti A, 2016,

    Hands on neurotechnology

    , Pages: VII-VIII, ISBN: 9789897582042
  • Conference paper
    Lorenz R, Monti RP, Hampshire A, Koush Y, Anagnostopoulos C, Faisal AA, Sharp D, Montana G, Leech R, Violante IRet al., 2016,

    Towards tailoring non-invasive brain stimulation using real-time fMRI and Bayesian optimization

    , 6th International Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Neuroimaging (PRNI), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 49-52, ISSN: 2330-9989
  • Conference paper
    Angeles P, Mace M, Admiraal M, Burdet E, Pavese N, Vaidyanathan Ret al., 2016,

    A Wearable Automated System to Quantify Parkinsonian Symptoms Enabling Closed Loop Deep Brain Stimulation

    , 17th Annual Conference on Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems (TAROS), Publisher: SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 8-19, ISSN: 0302-9743
  • Conference paper
    Jeanneret M, Bagnato C, Allievi AG, Burdet Eet al., 2016,

    A Versatile Robotic Haptic Stimulator to Study the Influence of Pain on Human Motor Control and Learning

    , 10th International Conference on Haptics - Perception, Devices, Control, and Applications (EuroHaptics), Publisher: SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 101-110, ISSN: 0302-9743
  • Journal article
    Casale AE, Foust AJ, Bal T, McCormick DAet al., 2015,

    Cortical Interneuron Subtypes Vary in Their Axonal Action Potential Properties

    , JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 35, Pages: 15555-15567, ISSN: 0270-6474
  • Journal article
    Jarvis S, Schultz SR, 2015,

    Prospects for optogenetic augmentation of brain function

    , Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1663-3563

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically ``implanted'' novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function.

  • Conference paper
    Dehkhoda F, Soltan A, Ramezani R, Zhao H, Liu Y, Constandinou TG, Degenaar Pet al., 2015,

    Smart Optrode for Neural Stimulation and Sensing

    , 2015 IEEE Sensors Conference, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1-4

    Implantable neuro-prosthetics considerable clinical benefit to a range of neurological conditions. Optogenetics is a particular recent interest which utilizes high radiance light for photo-activation of genetic cells. This can provide improved biocompatibility and neural targeting over electrical stimuli. To date the primary optical delivery method in tissue for optogenetics has been via optic fibre which makes large scale multiplexing difficult. An alternative approach is to incorporate optical micro-emitters directly on implantable probes but this still requires electrical multiplexing. In this work, we demonstrate a fully active optoelectronic probe utilizing industry standard 0.35μm CMOS technology, capable of both light delivery and electrical recording. The incorporation of electronic circuits onto the device further allows us to incorporate smart sensors to determine diagnostic state to explore long term viability during chronic implantation.

  • Conference paper
    Williams I, Luan S, Jackson A, Constandinou TGet al., 2015,

    A scalable 32 channel neural recording and real-time FPGA based spike sorting system

    , IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems (BioCAS) Conference, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 187-191

    This demo presents a scalable a 32-channel neuralrecording platform with real-time, on-node spike sorting ca-pability. The hardware consists of: an Intan RHD2132 neuralamplifier; a low power Igloo ® nano FPGA; and an FX3 USB3.0 controller. Graphical User Interfaces for controlling thesystem, displaying real-time data, and template generation witha modified form of WaveClus are demonstrated.

  • Journal article
    Mamun KA, Mace M, Lutman ME, Stein J, Liu X, Aziz T, Vaidyanathan R, Wang Set al., 2015,

    Movement decoding using neural synchronization and inter-hemispheric connectivity from deep brain local field potentials

    , Journal of Neural Engineering, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 1741-2552

    Objective: Correlating electrical activity within the human brain to movement is essential for developing and refining interventions (e.g. deep brain stimulation (DBS)) to treat central nervous system disorders. It also serves as a basis for next generation brain–machine interfaces (BMIs). This study highlights a new decoding strategy for capturing movement and its corresponding laterality from deep brain local field potentials (LFPs). Approach: LFPs were recorded with surgically implanted electrodes from the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna in twelve patients with Parkinson's disease or dystonia during a visually cued finger-clicking task. We introduce a method to extract frequency dependent neural synchronization and inter-hemispheric connectivity features based upon wavelet packet transform (WPT) and Granger causality approaches. A novel weighted sequential feature selection algorithm has been developed to select optimal feature subsets through a feature contribution measure. This is particularly useful when faced with limited trials of high dimensionality data as it enables estimation of feature importance during the decoding process. Main results: This novel approach was able to accurately and informatively decode movement related behaviours from the recorded LFP activity. An average accuracy of 99.8% was achieved for movement identification, whilst subsequent laterality classification was 81.5%. Feature contribution analysis highlighted stronger contralateral causal driving between the basal ganglia hemispheres compared to ipsilateral driving, with causality measures considerably improving laterality discrimination. Significance: These findings demonstrate optimally selected neural synchronization alongside causality measures related to inter-hemispheric connectivity can provide an effective control signal for augmenting adaptive BMIs. In the case of DBS patients, acquiring such signals requires no additional surgery whilst providing a rela

  • Conference paper
    De Marcellis A, Palange E, Liberatore V, Nubile L, Faccio M, Constandinou TGet al., 2015,

    A new modulation technique for high data rate low power UWB wireless optical communication in implantable biotelemetry systems

    , Eurosensors 2015

    We report on the development of a novel modulation technique for UWB wireless optical communication systems for application in a transcutaneous biotelemetry. The solution, based on the generation of short laser pulses, allows for a high data rate link whilst achieving a significant power reduction (energy per bit) compared to the state-of-the-art. These features make this particularly suitable for emerging biomedical applications such as implantable neural/biosensor systems. The relatively simple architecture consists of a transmitter and receiver that can be integrated in a standard CMOS technology in a compact Silicon footprint. These parts include circuits for bias and drive current generation, conditioning and processing, optimised for low-volt age/low-power operation. Preliminary experimental findings validate the new paradigm and show good agreement with expected results. The complete system achieves a BER less than 10-7, with maximum data rate of 125Mbps and estimated total power consumption of less than 3mW.

  • Conference paper
    Tolkiehn M, Schultz, 2015,

    Multi-Unit Activity contains information about spatial stimulus structure in mouse primary visual cortex

    , 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3771-3774, ISSN: 1557-170X

    This study investigates the spatial and directionaltuning of Multi-Unit Activity (MUA) in mouse primary visualcortex and how MUA can reflect spatiotemporal structurescontained in moving gratings. Analysis of multi-shank laminarelectrophysiological recordings from mouse primary visualcortex indicates a directional preference for moving gratingsaround 180 , while preferred spatial frequency peaks around0.02 cycles per degree, which is similar as reported in single-unitstudies. Using only features from MUA, we further achieved asignificant performance in decoding spatial frequency or directionof moving gratings, with average decoding performancesof up to 58.54% for 8 directions, and 44% correctly identifiedspatial frequencies against chance level of 16.7%.

  • Conference paper
    Schuck R, Quicke P, Hwang JK, Annecchino L, Schultz SRet al., 2015,

    Rapid three dimensional two photon neural population scanning

    , 37th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 5867-5870, ISSN: 1557-170X

    Recording the activity of neural populationsat high sampling rates is a fundamental requirement forunderstanding computation in neural circuits. Two photonmicroscopy provides one promising approach towards this.However, neural circuits are three dimensional, and functionalimaging in two dimensions fails to capture the 3D natureof neural dynamics. Electrically tunable lenses (ETLs) providea simple and cheap method to extend laser scanningmicroscopy into the relatively unexploited third dimension.We have therefore incorporated them into our Adaptive SpiralScanning (SSA) algorithm, which calculates kinematicallyefficient scanning strategies using radially modulated spiralpaths. We characterised the response of the ETL, incorporatedits dynamics using MATLAB models of the SSA algorithmand tested the models on populations of Izhikevich neuronsof varying size and density. From this, we show that ouralgorithms can theoretically at least achieve sampling rates of36.2Hz compared to 21.6Hz previously reported for 3D scanningtechniques.

  • Conference paper
    Hallett E, Woodward R, Schultz SR, Vaidyanathan Ret al., 2015,

    Rapid bicycle gear switching based on physiological cues

    , IEEE CASE 2015, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 377-382

    This paper discusses the merits of Mechanomyography (MMG) sensors in capturing and isolating muscle activity in high interference environs, with application to `hands free' gear shifting on a bicycle for users with limited extremity movement. MMG (acoustic) muscle sensing provides a simple and rugged alternative to physiological sensing for machine interface in the field, but suffers from interfering artifacts (in particular motion) which has limited its mainstream use. We introduce a system fusing MMG with a filter based on Inertial Measurement (IMU) to isolate muscle activity in the presence of interfering motion and vibrations. The system identifies user-initiated muscle trigger profiles during laboratory testing, allowing parameterization of MMG and IMU signals to identify purposeful muscle contractions (triggers) and to omit false triggers resulting from cycle/road vibration or rider movement. During laboratory testing the success rate of trigger identification was 88.5% while cycling with an average of 0.87 false triggers /min. During road testing the success rate was 72.5% and false triggers were more frequent at 3.7 /min. These results hold strong promise for alternative triggering mechanisms to the standard bar-end shifters used in current off-the-shelf cycling group sets, enabling amputees or people of reduced arm or hand dexterity to change gears while riding. Further testing will explore the use of signal filters on MMG data and further use of IMU data as feedback to increase false triggers rejection. Wider applications include a broad range of machine-interaction research.

  • Patent
    Jackson A, Constandinou TG, Eftekhar A, Quiroga RQ, Navajas JAet al., 2015,

    System for a Brain-Computer Interface

  • Conference paper
    Rapeaux A, Nikolic K, Williams I, Eftekhar A, Constandinou TGet al., 2015,

    Fiber size-selective stimulation using action potential filtering for a peripheral nerve interface: A simulation study

    , 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Pages: 3411-3414

    Functional electrical stimulation is a powerfultool for restoration of function after nerve injury. Howeverselectivity of stimulation remains an issue. This paper presentsan alternative stimulation technique to obtain fiber size-selectivestimulation of nerves using FDA-approved electrode implants.The technique was simulated for the ventral roots ofXenopus Laevis, motivated by an application in bladder control. Thetechnique relies on applying a high frequency alternatingcurrent to filter out action potentials in larger fibers, resultingin selective stimulation of the smaller fibers. Results predict thatthe technique can distinguish fibers with only a 2 µm differencein diameter (for nerves not exceeding 2 mm in diameter). Thestudy investigates the behaviour of electrically blocked nervesin detail. Model imperfections and simplifications yielded someartefacts in the results, as well as unexpected nerve behaviourwhich is tentatively explained.

  • Journal article
    Sadeh S, Clopath C, Rotter S, 2015,

    Processing of Feature Selectivity in Cortical Networks with Specific Connectivity (vol 10, e0127547, 2015)

    , PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
  • Journal article
    Reichenbach JDT, Meltzer B, Reichenbach CS, Braiman C, Schiff ND, Hudspeth AJet al., 2015,

    The steady-state response of the cerebral cortex to the beat of music reflects both the comprehension of music and attention

    , Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1662-5161

    The brain's analyses of speech and music share a range of neural resources and mechanisms. Music displays a temporal structure of complexity similar to that of speech, unfolds over comparable timescales, and elicits cognitive demands in tasks involving comprehension and attention. During speech processing, synchronized neural activity of the cerebral cortex in the delta and theta frequency bands tracks the envelope of a speech signal, and this neural activity is modulated by high-level cortical functions such as speech comprehension and attention. It remains unclear, however, whether the cortex also responds to the natural rhythmic structure of music and how the response, if present, is influenced by higher cognitive processes. Here we employ electroencephalography (EEG) to show that the cortex responds to the beat of music and that this steady-state response reflects musical comprehension and attention. We show that the cortical response to the beat is weaker when subjects listen to a familiar tune than when they listen to an unfamiliar, nonsensical musical piece. Furthermore, we show that in a task of intermodal attention there is a larger neural response at the beat frequency when subjects attend to a musical stimulus than when they ignore the auditory signal and instead focus on a visual one. Our findings may be applied in clinical assessments of auditory processing and music cognition as well as in the construction of auditory brain-machine interfaces.

  • Conference paper
    Yu X, Zecharia A, Zhang Z, Yang Q, Yustos R, Jager P, Vyssotski AL, Maywood ES, Chesham JE, Ma Y, Brickley SG, Hastings MH, Franks NP, Wisden Wet al., 2015,


    , 44th Annual Meeting of the European-Histamine-Research-Society (EHRS), Publisher: SPRINGER BASEL AG, Pages: S20-S20, ISSN: 1023-3830
  • Journal article
    Woods S, Constandinou TG, 2015,

    Engineering Micro Mechanical Systems for the Next Generation Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

    , BioMed Research International, Vol: 2015, ISSN: 2314-6141

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables the detection and diagnosis of in ammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However treatment of these pathologies through the administering of therapy can only be achieved through conventional means. This paper describes the next generation wireless capsule endoscopy which has increased functionality to allow for targeted drug delivery in the small intestinal tract. A prototype microrobot fabricated in Nylon 6 is presented which is capable of resisting natural peristaltic pressure through the deployment of an integrated holding mechanism and delivering targeted therapy. The holding action is achieved by extending an \anchor" spanning an effective 60.4mm circumference, for a 11.0mm diameterWCE. This function is achieved by a mechanism that occupies only 347.0mm3 volume, including mechanics and actuator. A micro-positioning mechanism is described which utilises a single micromotor to radially position then deploy a needle 1.5mm outside the microrobot's body for the purpose of delivering a 1 ml dose of medication to a targeted site. An analysis of the mechanics required to drive the holding mechanism is presented and an overview of micro-actuators and the state of the art in WCE is discussed. The novel mechanisms offer increased functionality to WCE. It is envisaged that this increased ability to perform targeted therapy will empower the next generation of WCE to help diagnose and treat pathologies of the GI tract.

  • Conference paper
    Faliagkas K, Leene L, Constandinou TG, 2015,

    A Novel Neural Recording System Utilising Continuous Time Energy Based Compression

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits & Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3000-3003

    This work presents a new data compression methodthat uses an energy operator to exploit the correlated energy inneural recording features in order to achieve adaptive sampling.This approach enhances conventional data converter topologieswith the power saving of asynchronous systems while maintaininglow complexity & high efficiency. The proposed scheme enablesthe transmission of 0:7kS/s, while preserving the features of thesignal with an accuracy of 95%. It is also shown that the operationof the system is not susceptible to noise, even for signals with 1dBSNR. The whole system consumes 3:94mWwith an estimated areaof 0:093mm2.

  • Journal article
    Rivera-Rubio J, Alexiou I, Bharath AA, 2015,

    Appearance-based indoor localization: a comparison of patch descriptor performance

    , Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol: 66, Pages: 109-117, ISSN: 1872-7344

    Vision is one of the most important of the senses, and humans use it extensively during navigation. We evaluated different types of image and video frame descriptors that could be used to determine distinctive visual landmarks for localizing a person based on what is seen by a camera that they carry. To do this, we created a database containing over 3 km of video-sequences with ground-truth in the form of distance travelled along different corridors. Using this database, the accuracy of localization—both in terms of knowing which route a user is on—and in terms of position along a certain route, can be evaluated. For each type of descriptor, we also tested different techniques to encode visual structure and to search between journeys to estimate a user’s position. The techniques include single-frame descriptors, those using sequences of frames, and both color and achromatic descriptors. We found that single-frame indexing worked better within this particular dataset. This might be because the motion of the person holding the camera makes the video too dependent on individual steps and motions of one particular journey. Our results suggest that appearance-based information could be an additional source of navigational data indoors, augmenting that provided by, say, radio signal strength indicators (RSSIs). Such visual information could be collected by crowdsourcing low-resolution video feeds, allowing journeys made by different users to be associated with each other, and location to be inferred without requiring explicit mapping. This offers a complementary approach to methods based on simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms.

  • Journal article
    Zhang Z, Ferretti V, Guentan I, Moro A, Steinberg EA, Ye Z, Zecharia AY, Yu X, Vyssotski AL, Brickley SG, Yustos R, Pillidge ZE, Harding EC, Wisden W, Franks NPet al., 2015,

    Neuronal ensembles sufficient for recovery sleep and the sedative actions of alpha(2) adrenergic agonists

    , Nature Neuroscience, Vol: 18, Pages: 553-561, ISSN: 1546-1726

    Do sedatives engage natural sleep pathways? It is usually assumed that anesthetic-induced sedation and loss of righting reflex (LORR) arise by influencing the same circuitry to lesser or greater extents. For the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine, we found that sedation and LORR were in fact distinct states, requiring different brain areas: the preoptic hypothalamic area and locus coeruleus (LC), respectively. Selective knockdown of α2A adrenergic receptors from the LC abolished dexmedetomidine-induced LORR, but not sedation. Instead, we found that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation resembled the deep recovery sleep that follows sleep deprivation. We used TetTag pharmacogenetics in mice to functionally mark neurons activated in the preoptic hypothalamus during dexmedetomidine-induced sedation or recovery sleep. The neuronal ensembles could then be selectively reactivated. In both cases, non-rapid eye movement sleep, with the accompanying drop in body temperature, was recapitulated. Thus, α2 adrenergic receptor–induced sedation and recovery sleep share hypothalamic circuitry sufficient for producing these behavioral states.

  • Conference paper
    Reynolds S, Onativia J, Copeland CS, Schultz SR, Dragotti PLet al., 2015,

    Spike Detection Using FRI Methods and Protein Calcium Sensors: Performance Analysis and Comparisons

    , International Conference on Sampling Theory and Applications (SampTA), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 533-537
  • Conference paper
    Reichenbach T, Stefanovic A, Nin F, Hudspeth AJet al., 2015,

    Otoacoustic Emission Through Waves on Reissner's Membrane

    , 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing, Publisher: AMER INST PHYSICS, ISSN: 0094-243X
  • Conference paper
    Rivera-Rubio J, Alexiou I, Bharath AA, 2015,

    Associating Locations Between Indoor Journeys from Wearable Cameras

    , 13th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, Pages: 29-44, ISSN: 0302-9743

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