Imperial College London

Dr Aula Abbara MBBS DTMH MD(Res)

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Infectious Disease

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

a.abbara15 Website

 
 
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Location

 

St Marys Multiple BuildingsSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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121 results found

Kaloti R, Diab JL, Alkhalil M, Rayes D, Abbara Aet al., 2024, Compounding challenges for Syrian refugees in Türkiye in the wake of the earthquake., Lancet Glob Health

Journal article

Osman M, Daaboul D, Tajani AG, El Omari K, Bisha B, Hassan J, Cazer CL, Fiorella KJ, Karah N, Abbara A, Hamze M, Cummings KJ, Naas T, Kassem IIet al., 2023, Multidrug-resistant pathogens contaminate river water used in irrigation in disenfranchised communities., J Glob Antimicrob Resist, Vol: 36, Pages: 175-180

OBJECTIVES: The contamination of fresh surface waters poses a significant burden on human health and prosperity, especially in marginalized communities with limited resources and inadequate infrastructure. Here, we performed in-depth genomic analyses of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR-B) isolated from Al-Oueik river water that is used for irrigation of agricultural fields in a disenfranchised area that also hosts a makeshift Syrian refugee camp. METHODS: A composite freshwater sample was filtered. Faecal coliforms were counted and extended spectrum cephalosporins and/or ertapenem resistant bacteria were screened. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS and analysed using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to identify the resistome, sequence types, plasmid types, and virulence genes. RESULTS: Approximately 106 CFU/100 mL of faecal coliforms were detected in the water. Four drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria were identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Pseudomonas otitidis. Notably, the E. coli isolate harboured blaNDM-5 and a YRIN-inserted PBP3, representing an emerging public health challenge. The K. pneumoniae isolate carried blaSHV-187 as well as mutations in the gene encoding the OmpK37 porin. Enterobacter hormaechei and P. otitidis harboured blaACT-16 and blaPOM-1, respectively. CONCLUSION: This report provides comprehensive genomic analyses of MDR-B in irrigation water in Lebanon. Our results further support that irrigation water contaminated with faecal material can be a reservoir of important MDR-B, which can spread to adjacent agricultural fields and other water bodies, posing both public health and food safety issues. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement effective water quality monitoring and management programs to control the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in irrigation water in Lebanon.

Journal article

Haar R, Abbara A, Rubenstein L, Spiegel P, Alnahhas Het al., 2023, Attacks on health are war crimes and a public health catastrophe., Lancet, Vol: 402

Journal article

Tarnas MC, Almhawish N, Karah N, Sullivan R, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Communicable diseases in northwest Syria in the context of protracted armed conflict and earthquakes, LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 23, Pages: E477-E481, ISSN: 1473-3099

Journal article

Abbara A, Rayes D, Tappis H, Hamze M, Wais R, Alahmad H, Almhawish N, Rubenstein L, Haar Ret al., 2023, "Actually, the psychological wounds are more difficult than physical injuries:" a qualitative analysis of the impacts of attacks on health on the personal and professional lives of health workers in the Syrian conflict, CONFLICT AND HEALTH, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1752-1505

Journal article

Hmaideh A, Tarnas MC, Zakaria W, Rifai AO, Ibrahem M, Hashoom Y, Ghazal N, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Geographical Origin, WASH Access, and Clinical Descriptions for Patients Admitted to a Cholera Treatment Center in Northwest Syria between October and December 2022., Avicenna J Med, Vol: 13, Pages: 223-229, ISSN: 2231-0770

Background  On September 10, 2022, a cholera outbreak was declared in Syria for the first time in over a decade of protracted conflict. As of May 20, 2023, 132,782 suspected cases had been reported, primarily in northwest and northeast Syria. We aim to provide a detailed description of water sources and clinical status of a patient cohort seen at a cholera treatment center (CTC) in northwest Syria. Methods  We retrospectively identified patients with confirmed cholera who presented to the CTC in Idlib governorate between October 8 and December 18, 2022. Data were obtained from clinical case records and analyzed in R v4.0.4. Results  Ninety-four patients (55.3% men) were treated at the CTC. Thirty-five patients were severely dehydrated (Plan C treatment), 54 had some dehydration (Plan B), and 5 had no dehydration (Plan A). Most patients were between 11 and 20 years old ( n  = 25, 26.6%) or 31 and 40 years old ( n  = 19, 20.2%). Note that 70.2% ( n  = 66) of patients were seen in November 2022 and most were from Harim district ( n  = 44, 46.8%). Public wells ( n  = 46, 48.9%) and water trucking ( n  = 41, 43.6%) were the most commonly used water sources. Note that 76.6% ( n  = 72) did not have access to chlorine-treated water. Forty-seven patients (50%) had more than five water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related cholera risk factors. Following treatment, six patients were transferred to another treatment center, three died (case fatality rate: 3.2%), and the remainder were discharged. Conclusion  Most patients reported WASH-related risk factors for cholera, reflecting the poor state of WASH in northwest Syria after over a decade of conflict. This relates to the direct and indirect impacts of urban and periurban violence as well as the underfunded humanitarian response. Strengthening WASH and health promotion are important components to control the

Journal article

Basha L, Socarras A, Akhter MW, Hamze M, Albaik A, Hussein I, Tarakji A, Hamadeh M, Loutfi R, Kewara M, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Impact of the Syrian conflict and forced displacement on respiratory health: an analysis of primary data from a humanitarian organisation, BMJ Open Respiratory Research, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4439

Background Despite a decade of conflict, there has been little exploration of respiratory health in Syria, notwithstanding the known impacts of conflict on lung health. Our aim is to explore the burden and trends of respiratory consultations in Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS) facilities in northwest Syria through an ecological analysis.Methods We performed a retrospective review of routinely collected data relating to respiratory presentations in SAMS’ facilities between March 2017 and June 2020; we compared data by facility type, infectious versus non-infectious aetiologies and age.Results Data were available for 5 058 864 consultations, of which 1 228 722 (24%) were respiratory presentations, across 22 hospitals, 22 primary healthcare centres, 3 mobile clinics and 1 polyclinic. The median number of respiratory consultations per month was 30 279 (IQR: 25 792–33 732). Key findings include: 73% of respiratory consultations were for children; respiratory presentations accounted for up to 38% of consultations each month, seasonal variation was evident; respiratory tract infections accounted for 91% of all respiratory presentations. A steep decrease in consultations occurred between the end of 2019 (160 000) and the first quarter of 2020 (90 000), correlating with an escalation of violence in Idlib governorate.Conclusion This study presents the largest quantitative analysis of respiratory data collected during the Syrian conflict. It supports the need for improved measures to aid the prevention, diagnosis and management of respiratory conditions during conflict as well as further research to explore the impact of conflict on respiratory health.

Journal article

Ghobrial A, Sabouni A, Rayes D, Janoudi S, Bdaiwi Y, Howard N, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Policy versus practice: Syrian refugee doctors in Egypt., Med Confl Surviv, Vol: 39, Pages: 222-228, ISSN: 1362-3699

The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest in streamlining processes which allow refugee doctors and other healthcare workers to make up for the shortfall in healthcare delivery, which many countries are facing increasingly. The protracted conflict in Syria is the biggest driver of forced displacement internationally with refugees, including healthcare workers seeking safety in host countries, however many face challenges to entering the workforce in a timely manner. The majority are in countries surrounding Syria (Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey) however the restrictive labour policies in these countries, particularly for healthcare workers have forced many to look further afield to Europe or the Gulf. Egypt's context is interesting in this regard, as it hosts a smaller number of registered Syrian refugees and was initially welcoming of Syrian medical students and doctors. However, recent socio-political changes have led to restrictions in training and work, leading doctors who initially considering staying in Egypt to increasingly consider it a transit country rather than a destination country. Here, we explore the processes by which Syrian doctors in Egypt can work and how documented policies may differ to practice. We do this through a document review and from the first-hand experiences of the authors.

Journal article

Kampalath V, Tarakji A, Hamze M, Loutfi R, Cohn K, Abbara Aet al., 2023, The impacts of the Syrian conflict on child and adolescent health: a scoping review, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 45, Pages: 621-630, ISSN: 1741-3842

Journal article

Ghobrial A, Rayes D, Sabouni A, Bdaiwi Y, Janoudi S, Howard N, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Experiences of Egypt as a destination and transit country for Syrian refugee healthcare workers: a qualitative study, BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1472-6963

Background:Refugee healthcare workers (HCWs) can make important contributions in host countries, particularly in the wake of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which has exacerbated existing shortages of frontline HCWs. However, refugee HCWs often face challenges entering the labour markets of such countries even where needs exist. Syria’s decade-long conflict has forced thousands of HCWs from their homes; however, data on this population are limited, impeding the formation of policies that can support them. This study explores the experiences of Syrian refugee HCWs in Egypt.Methods:Key informants (KIs) were selected using purposive and snowball sampling method and semi-structured interviews were conducted in person in Cairo and remotely from the UK during July 2019. Interviews were conducted in Arabic and analysed using a combined deductive and inductive thematic analysis framework after transcription into English.Results:Fifteen KI interviews were analysed. The main emerging themes from the qualitative interviews are those relating to 1. Education, training, and licensing 2. Politics and bureaucracy 3. Societal factors 4. Economic factors. Political changes in Egypt altered opportunities for Syrian HCWs over time; however, refugee HCWs broadly reported acceptance among Egyptian patients and colleagues. Bureaucratic factors which impede the ability of Syrian refugee HCWs to obtain a full license to practice and leave to remain and the absence of clearly defined policies were reported as barriers. Economic factors including the risk of economic exploitation e.g. in the informal sector and financial insecurity were noted to have a negative psychosocial impact.Conclusions:This is the first qualitative research study which explores the experiences of Syrian refugee HCWs in Egypt. It adds to the sparse literature on the topic of Syrian refugee HCWs but provides evidence for further discussions on how to support refugee HCWs in Egypt and in other host countries in the

Journal article

Bdaiwi Y, Sabouni A, Patel P, Ekzayez A, Alchalati S, Abdrabbuh O, Abbara A, Glogowska Met al., 2023, Impact of armed conflict on health professionals' education and training in Syria: a systematic review, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Attal B, Dureab F, Abbara A, 2023, Yemen: current peace talks must also prioritise health, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 381, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Tarnas MC, Karah N, Almhawish N, Aladhan I, Alobaid R, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Politicization of water, humanitarian response, and health in Syria as a contributor to the ongoing cholera outbreak, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 131, Pages: 115-118, ISSN: 1201-9712

Journal article

Alkhalil M, Ekzayez A, Rayes D, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Inequitable access to aid after the devastating earthquake in Syria, LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 11, Pages: 653-654, ISSN: 2214-109X

Journal article

Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Abbara A, Ntoumi F, Kapata N, Mwaba P, Yeboah-Manu D, Maeurer M, Dar O, Abubakar I, Zumla Aet al., 2023, World tuberculosis day 2023-Reflections on the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis by travellers and reducing risk in forcibly displaced populations, TRAVEL MEDICINE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Vol: 53, ISSN: 1477-8939

Journal article

Jabbour S, Abbara A, Ekzayez A, Fouad FM, Katoub M, Nasser Ret al., 2023, The catastrophic response to the earthquake in Syria: the need for corrective actions and accountability, LANCET, Vol: 401, Pages: 802-805, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Cinar EN, Abbara A, Yilmaz E, 2023, Earthquakes in Turkey and Syria-collaboration is needed to mitigate longer terms risks to health, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 380, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Abbara A, Ruby T, Naser A, Ibrahim A, Maia T, Richard S, Nabil K, Mark Z, Ruwan Ret al., 2023, Disruption to water supply and waterborne communicable diseases in northeast Syria: a spatiotemporal analysis, Conflict and Health, Vol: 17, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1752-1505

BackgroundIn Syria, disruption to water and sanitation systems, together with poor access to vaccination, forced displacement and overcrowding contribute to increases in waterborne diseases (WBDs). The aim of this study is to perform a spatiotemporal analysis to investigate potential associations between interruptions to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and WBDs in northeast Syria using data collected by the Early Warning Alert and Response Network (EWARN) from Deir-ez-Zor, Raqqa, Hassakeh and parts of Aleppo governorates.MethodsWe reviewed the literature databases of MEDLINE and Google Scholar and the updates of ReliefWeb to obtain information on acute disruptions and attacks against water infrastructure in northeast Syria between January 2015 and June 2021. The EWARN weekly trends of five syndromes representing waterborne diseases were plotted and analysed to identify time trends and the influence of these disruptions. To investigate a potential relationship, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare districts with and without disruptions. Time series analyses were carried out on major disruptions to analyse their effect on WBD incidence.ResultsThe literature review found several instances where water infrastructure was attacked or disrupted, suggesting that water has been deliberately targeted by both state and non-state actors in northeast Syria throughout the conflict. Over time, there was an overall upwards trend of other acute diarrhoea (OAD, p < 0.001), but downwards trends for acute jaundice syndrome, suspected typhoid fever and acute bloody diarrhoea. For the major disruption of the Alouk water plant, an interrupted time series analysis did not find a strong correlation between the disruption and changes in disease incidence in the weeks following the incident, but long-term increases in WBD were observed.ConclusionsWhile no strong immediate correlation could be established between disruptions to WASH and WBDs in northeast Syria

Journal article

Stafford A, Rimmer S, Gilchrist M, Sun K, Davies EP, Waddington CS, Chiu C, Armstrong-James D, Swaine T, Davies F, Gomez CHM, Kumar V, ElHaddad A, Awad Z, Smart C, Mora-Peris B, Muir D, Randell P, Peters J, Chand M, Warrell CE, Rampling T, Cooke G, Dhanji S, Campbell V, Davies C, Osman S, Abbara Aet al., 2023, Use of cidofovir in a patient with severe mpox and uncontrolled HIV infection, LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 23, Pages: E218-E226, ISSN: 1473-3099

Journal article

Rimmer S, Barnacle J, Gibani M, Wu M-S, Dissanayake O, Mehta R, Herdman T, Gilchrist M, Muir D, Ebrahimsa U, Mora-Peris B, Dosekun O, Garvey L, Peters J, Davies F, Cooke G, Abbara Aet al., 2023, The clinical presentation of monkeypox: a retrospective case-control study of patients with possible or probable monkeypox in a West London cohort, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 126, Pages: 48-53, ISSN: 1201-9712

Objectives: Since May 2022, cases of human monkeypox virus (hMPXV) with human-to-human cross-transmission have significantly increased in non-endemic countries. Our aim was to characterise diagnostic features of patients with confirmed and possible monkeypox to guide future risk stratification, and to describe a virtual care model.Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 140 patients assessed and screened for suspected monkeypox; on hMPXV PCR testing, 70 were confirmed positive and 70 negative. Data were compared to generate odds ratios of demographic and clinical features.Results: Positive patients were predominantly cis-male (99%) and self-identified as gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) (94%). Lymphadenopathy at presentation was associated with a higher likelihood of a positive result (OR 7.69 [95% CI 3.58, 16.51]). Positive patients were more likely to have a rash affecting the genital (OR 5.38 [95% CI 2.57, 11.23]) or buttocks/perianal region (OR 3.79 [1.70, 8.45]) compared with negative controls. 79% of patients engaged with virtual ward follow-up.Conclusions: These data can inform a risk-based approach to management of suspected monkeypox in GBMSM populations. Lymphadenopathy at presentation and the location of the rash were more associated with a positive hMPXV result. Health authorities can consider a virtual ward approach in the hMPXV outbreak.

Journal article

Naderi H, Abbara A, Viviano A, Asaria P, Pabari PA, Flora R, Punjabi PP, Rana BSet al., 2023, Re-emphasising the importance of histopathological diagnosis in suspected bacterial endocarditis, PERFUSION-UK, Vol: 38, Pages: 197-199, ISSN: 0267-6591

Journal article

Carew JW, Hamze M, Atassi B, Abbara A, Khoshnood Ket al., 2023, Investment in Cancer Prevention and Care for Forcibly Displaced Syrians Is an Urgent Priority., JCO Glob Oncol, Vol: 9

Journal article

Parkes P, Pillay T, Bdaiwi Y, Simpson R, Almoshmosh N, Murad L, Abbara Aet al., 2022, Telemedicine interventions in six conflict-affected countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region: a systematic review, Conflict and Health, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1752-1505

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has escalated the use of telemedicine in both high and low resource settings however its use has preceded this, particularly in conflict-affected settings. Several countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) region are affected by complex, protracted crises. Though telemedicine has been used in such settings, there has been no comprehensive assessment of what interventions are used, their efficacy, barriers, or current research gaps. Objectives: To perform a systematic review of academic and grey literature, identifying telemedicine interventions in select, EMR conflict-affected settings and relevant enablers and barriers to their implementation.Methods: A systematic search of ten academic databases and 3 grey literature sources from January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2020 was completed. Included articles reported on telemedicine use in six conflict-affected EMR countries (or territories) graded as WHO Health Emergencies: Afghanistan, Gaza, Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen. Data were extracted and narratively synthesised due to heterogeneity in study design and outcomes.Results: Of 3419 articles identified, twenty-one peer-reviewed and three grey literature sources met the inclusion criteria. We analysed these by context, intervention, and evaluation. Context: eight related to Afghanistan, eight to Syria and seven to Iraq with one each in Yemen and Gaza. Most were implemented by humanitarian or academic organisations with projects mostly initiated in the United States or Europe and mostly by physicians. The in-country links were mostly health professionals rather than patients seeking specialist inputs for specialities not locally available. Interventions: These included both SAF (store and forward) and RT (real-time) with a range of specialities represented including radiology, histopathology, dermatology, mental health, and intensive care. Evaluation: most papers were observational or descriptive with few describing quality measur

Journal article

Abbara A, Almhawish N, Aladhan I, Alobaid R, Karah Net al., 2022, Weaponisation of water, LANCET, Vol: 400, Pages: 1925-1925, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Atassi B, Tse G, Mkhallalati H, Debel J, Jemmo A, Khalil M, Alrahal Y, Almalki M, Hamadeh M, Tarakji A, Abbara Aet al., 2022, Cancer Diagnoses during Active Conflict: Experience from a Cancer Program in Northwest Syria., Avicenna J Med, Vol: 12, Pages: 157-161, ISSN: 2231-0770

Background  Protracted conflict has destroyed Syria's health system with severe impacts on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic and high-cost diseases including cancer. Here, we review the type and (where possible) the stage of cancers diagnosed in a pathology laboratory serving Northwest Syria. Methods  We retrospectively reviewed all pathology reports which reported a diagnosis of cancer from a pathology department in Northwest Syria from January to December 2020. Results  A total of 397 new cancers were diagnosed during 2020 of which 191 were among males (48.1%) and 20 cases were in children aged 17 years or under (5%). The most common cancer in men was bladder cancer (15.7%) and skin cancers (14.7%) followed by cancers in the lymph nodes (includes primary and secondary; 9.9%.) In women, breast cancer (38.3%) followed by skin cancer skin (9.7%) and uterine cancer (8.7%) was the most common. The overall proportion of cancer diagnoses were breast cancer (20.2%), skin cancer (12.1%), cancer affecting lymph nodes (8.8%), and urinary bladder (8.3%) and colorectal cancer (7.3%). Discussion  This preliminary analysis is the first report of cancer types and demographics in areas outside of government control in Syria since the onset of the conflict. Despite limitations, it presents some indication of the burden of oncological diagnoses in this area. Further research which aims to describe and address the burden of cancer on populations under ongoing conflict and humanitarian crises remains essential, especially in Northwest Syria given ongoing attacks and severe underfunding. There is a particular need to investigate how best to apply interventions and support health systems and cancer services within conflict settings. More support and resources need to be allocated to cancer centers with long-term health partnership models. The underresourced and understaffed conditions of the hospital are significant limits to a more detailed report.

Journal article

Petersen E, Zumla A, Hui DS, Blumberg L, Valdoleiros SR, Amao L, Ntoumi F, Asogun D, Simonsen L, Haider N, Traore T, Kapata N, Dar O, Nachega J, Abbara A, Al Balushi A, Kock R, Maeurer M, Lee SS, Lucey DR, Ippolito G, Koopmans MPGet al., 2022, Vaccination for monkeypox prevention in persons with high-risk sexual behaviours to control on-going outbreak of monkeypox virus clade 3, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 122, Pages: 569-571, ISSN: 1201-9712

Journal article

Tarnas MC, Desai AN, Parker DM, Almhawish N, Zakieh O, Rayes D, Whalen-Browne M, Abbara Aet al., 2022, Syndromic surveillance of respiratory infections during protracted conflict: experiences from northern Syria 2016-2021, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 122, Pages: 337-344, ISSN: 1201-9712

Journal article

Abbara A, Sara B, Alex S, Mohammed A, Mohamed H, ahmad A, Imad H, Ahmad T, Mufaddal H, Randa L, Mazen Ket al., 2022, Protracted armed conflict and maternal health: a scoping review of literature and a retrospective analysis of primary data from northwest Syria, BMJ Global Health, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2059-7908

Introduction: Syria’s protracted conflict has devastated the health system reversing progress made on maternal health pre-conflict. Our aim is to understand the state of maternal health in Syria focused on underage pregnancy and caesarean-sections using a scoping review and quantitative analysis; the latter draws on data from the Syrian American Medical Society’s (SAMS) maternal health facilities in northwest Syria. Methods: We performed a scoping review of academic and grey literature on the state of maternal health across Syria since the onset of conflict (taken as March 2011). Identified articles were screened using pre-established criteria and themes identified. We also performed a retrospective quantitative analysis of maternal health data from SAMS’ facilities in a micro-context in north-west Syria between March 2017 and July 2020, analysing the trends in the proportion of births by caesarean-section and age at pregnancy. Results: Scoping review: of 2824 articles, 21 remained after screening. Main themes related to maternal mortality rates, caesarean-sections, maternal age and perinatal care. 12 studies reported caesarean-section rates; these varied from 16 to 64% of all births: northern Syria (19-45%,) Damascus (16-54%,) Lattakia (64%) and Tartous (59%.) Quantitative analysis: Of 77,746 births across 17 facilities, trend data for caesarean-sections showed a decrease from 35% in March 2017 to 23% in July 2020 across SAMS facilities. Girls under 18 years accounted for 10% of births and had a lower proportion of caesarean-section births. There was notable geographical and inter-facility variation in the findings. Conclusion: The quality of available literature was poor with country level generalisations. Research which explores micro-contexts in Syria is important given the different effects of conflict across the country and the fragmented health system. Our quantitative analysis provides some evidence around the changes to caesarean-section

Journal article

Abbara A, Rao B, Titanji BK, Boum Y, Zumla Aet al., 2022, The monkeypox outbreak must amplify hidden voices in the global discourse (vol 400, pg 23, 2022), LANCET, Vol: 400, Pages: 160-160, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

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