32 results found
Hughes F, Barr A, Thomas P, 2023, Patterns of interdivision time correlations reveal hidden cell cycle factors, eLife, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2050-084X
The time taken for cells to complete a round of cell division is a stochastic process controlled, in part, by intracellular factors. These factors can be inherited across cellular generations which gives rise to, often non-intuitive, correlation patterns in cell cycle timing between cells of different family relationships on lineage trees. Here, we formulate a framework of hidden inherited factors affecting the cell cycle that unifies known cell cycle control models and reveals three distinct interdivision time correlation patterns: aperiodic, alternator and oscillator. We use Bayesian inference with single-cell datasets of cell division in bacteria, mammalian and cancer cells, to identify the inheritance motifs that underlie these datasets. From our inference, we find that interdivision time correlation patterns do not identify a single cell cycle model but generally admit a broad posterior distribution of possible mechanisms. Despite this unidentifiability, we observe that the inferred patterns reveal interpretable inheritance dynamics and hidden rhythmicity of cell cycle factors. This reveals that cell cycle factors are commonly driven by circadian rhythms, but their period may differ in cancer. Our quantitative analysis thus reveals that correlation patterns are an emergent phenomenon that impact cell proliferation and these patterns may be altered in disease.
Swadling JB, Warnecke T, Morris KL, et al., 2022, Conserved Cdk inhibitors show unique structural responses to tyrosine phosphorylation, BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 121, Pages: 2312-2329, ISSN: 0006-3495
Barr AR, McClelland SE, 2022, Cells on lockdown: long-term consequences of CDK4/6 inhibition, EMBO JOURNAL, Vol: 41, ISSN: 0261-4189
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Thomsen I, Kunowska N, de Souza R, et al., 2021, RUNX1 regulates a transcription program that affects the dynamics of cell cycle entry of naive resting B cells, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 207, Pages: 2976-2991, ISSN: 0022-1767
RUNX1 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in hematopoietic development and in hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. In this article, we report that RUNX1 regulates a gene expression program in naive mouse B cells that affects the dynamics of cell cycle entry in response to stimulation of the BCR. Conditional knockout of Runx1 in mouse resting B cells resulted in accelerated entry into S-phase after BCR engagement. Our results indicate that Runx1 regulates the cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) gene, the immediate early genes Fosl2, Atf3, and Egr2, and the Notch pathway gene Rbpj in mouse B cells, reducing the rate at which transcription of these genes increases after BCR stimulation. RUNX1 interacts with the chromatin remodeler SNF-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP), recruiting it to promoter and enhancer regions of the Ccnd2 gene. BCR-mediated activation triggers switching between binding of RUNX1 and its paralog RUNX3 and between SRCAP and the switch/SNF remodeling complex member BRG1. Binding of BRG1 is increased at the Ccnd2 and Rbpj promoters in the Runx1 knockout cells after BCR stimulation. We also find that RUNX1 exerts positive or negative effects on a number of genes that affect the activation response of mouse resting B cells. These include Cd22 and Bank1, which act as negative regulators of the BCR, and the IFN receptor subunit gene Ifnar1 The hyperresponsiveness of the Runx1 knockout B cells to BCR stimulation and its role in regulating genes that are associated with immune regulation suggest that RUNX1 could be involved in regulating B cell tolerance.
Pennycook BR, Barr AR, 2021, Palbociclib-mediated cell cycle arrest can occur in the absence of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, Open Biology, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2046-2441
The use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of a wide range of cancers is an area of ongoing investigation. Despite their increasing clinical use, there is limited understanding of the determinants of sensitivity and resistance to these drugs. Recent data have cast doubt on how CDK4/6 inhibitors arrest proliferation, provoking renewed interest in the role(s) of CDK4/6 in driving cell proliferation. As the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in cancer therapies becomes more prominent, an understanding of their effect on the cell cycle becomes more urgent. Here, we investigate the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors in promoting cell cycle arrest. Two main models explain how CDK4/6 inhibitors cause G1 cell cycle arrest, which differ in their dependence on the CDK inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. We have used live and fixed single-cell quantitative imaging, with inducible degradation systems, to address the roles of p21 and p27 in the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors. We find that CDK4/6 inhibitors can initiate and maintain a cell cycle arrest without p21 or p27. This work clarifies our current understanding of the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors and has implications for cancer treatment and patient stratification.
Pennycook B, Barr A, 2021, Palbociclib-mediated cell cycle arrest can occur in the absence of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27
The use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of a wide range of cancers is an area of ongoing investigation. Despite their increasing clinical use, there is limited understanding of the determinants of sensitivity and resistance to these drugs. Recent data has cast doubt on how CDK4/6 inhibitors arrest proliferation, provoking renewed interest in the role(s) of CDK4/6 in driving cell proliferation. As the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in cancer therapies becomes more prominent, an understanding of their effect on the cell cycle becomes more urgent. Here, we investigate the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors in promoting cell cycle arrest. Two main models explain how CDK4/6 inhibitors cause G1 cell cycle arrest, which differ in their dependence on the CDK inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. We have used live and fixed single-cell quantitative imaging, with inducible degradation systems, to address the roles of p21 and p27 in the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors. We find that CDK4/6 inhibitors can initiate and maintain a cell cycle arrest without p21 or p27. This work clarifies our current understanding of the mechanism of action of CDK4/6 inhibitors and has implications for cancer treatment and patient stratification.
Pennycook BR, Vesela E, Peripolli S, et al., 2020, E2F-dependent transcription determines replication capacity and S phase length, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2041-1723
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 10
Pennycook BR, Barr AR, 2020, Restriction point regulation at the crossroads between quiescence and cell proliferation, FEBS Letters, Vol: 594, Pages: 2046-2060, ISSN: 0014-5793
The coordination of cell proliferation with reversible cell cycle exit into quiescence is crucial for the development of multicellular organisms and for tissue homeostasis in the adult. The decision between quiescence and proliferation occurs at the restriction point, which is widely thought to be located in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, when cells integrate accumulated extracellular and intracellular signals to drive this binary cellular decision. On the molecular level, decision-making is exerted through the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) transcriptional repressor to regulate the expression of cell cycle genes. Recently, the classical view of restriction point regulation has been challenged. Here, we review the latest findings on the activation of CDKs, Rb phosphorylation and the nature and position of the restriction point within the cell cycle.
Barr AR, 2020, Editorial, FEBS LETTERS, Vol: 594, Pages: 2029-2030, ISSN: 0014-5793
Hegarat N, Crncec A, Rodriguez MFSP, et al., 2020, Cyclin A triggers Mitosis either via the Greatwall kinase pathway or Cyclin B, The EMBO Journal, Vol: 39, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 0261-4189
Two mitotic cyclin types, cyclin A and B, exist in higher eukaryotes, but their specialised functions in mitosis are incompletely understood. Using degron tags for rapid inducible protein removal, we analyse how acute depletion of these proteins affects mitosis. Loss of cyclin A in G2‐phase prevents mitotic entry. Cells lacking cyclin B can enter mitosis and phosphorylate most mitotic proteins, because of parallel PP2A:B55 phosphatase inactivation by Greatwall kinase. The final barrier to mitotic establishment corresponds to nuclear envelope breakdown, which requires a decisive shift in the balance of cyclin‐dependent kinase Cdk1 and PP2A:B55 activity. Beyond this point, cyclin B/Cdk1 is essential for phosphorylation of a distinct subset of mitotic Cdk1 substrates that are essential to complete cell division. Our results identify how cyclin A, cyclin B and Greatwall kinase coordinate mitotic progression by increasing levels of Cdk1‐dependent substrate phosphorylation.
Stojic L, Lun ATL, Mascalchi P, et al., 2020, A high-content RNAi screen reveals multiple roles for long noncoding RNAs in cell division, Nature Communications, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2041-1723
Genome stability relies on proper coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis, where dynamic microtubules capture and faithfully segregate chromosomes into daughter cells. With a high-content RNAi imaging screen targeting more than 2,000 human lncRNAs, we identify numerous lncRNAs involved in key steps of cell division such as chromosome segregation, mitotic duration and cytokinesis. Here, we provide evidence that the chromatin-associated lncRNA, linc00899, leads to robust mitotic delay upon its depletion in multiple cell types. We perform transcriptome analysis of linc00899-depleted cells and identify the neuronal microtubule-binding protein, TPPP/p25, as a target of linc00899. We further show that linc00899 binds TPPP/p25 and suppresses its transcription. In cells depleted of linc00899, upregulation of TPPP/p25 alters microtubule dynamics and delays mitosis. Overall, our comprehensive screen uncovers several lncRNAs involved in genome stability and reveals a lncRNA that controls microtubule behaviour with functional implications beyond cell division.
Barr AR, Mansfeld J, 2019, FEBS Letters Special Issue: Cell Cycle Control, FEBS LETTERS, Vol: 593, Pages: 2803-2804, ISSN: 0014-5793
Stojic L, Lun ATL, Mascalchi P, et al., 2019, A high-content RNAi screen reveals multiple roles for long noncoding RNAs in cell division, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Genome stability relies on proper coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis, where dynamic microtubules capture and faithfully segregate chromosomes into daughter cells. The role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in controlling these processes however remains largely unexplored. To identify lncRNAs with mitotic functions, we performed a high-content RNAi imaging screen targeting more than 2,000 human lncRNAs. By investigating major hallmarks of cell division such as chromosome segregation, mitotic duration and cytokinesis, we discovered numerous lncRNAs with functions in each of these processes. The chromatin-associated lncRNA,<jats:italic>linc00899,</jats:italic>was selected for in-depth studies due to the robust mitotic delay observed upon its depletion. Transcriptome analysis of<jats:italic>linc00899</jats:italic>-depleted cells together with gain-of-function and rescue experiments across multiple cell types identified the neuronal microtubule-binding protein,<jats:italic>TPPP/p25,</jats:italic>as a target of<jats:italic>linc00899</jats:italic>.<jats:italic>Linc00899</jats:italic>binds the genomic locus of<jats:italic>TPPP/p25</jats:italic>and suppresses its transcription through a<jats:italic>cis</jats:italic>-acting mechanism. In cells depleted of<jats:italic>linc00899,</jats:italic>the consequent upregulation of<jats:italic>TPPP/p25</jats:italic>alters microtubule dynamics and is necessary and sufficient to delay mitosis. Overall, our comprehensive screen identified several lncRNAs with roles in genome stability and revealed a new lncRNA that controls microtubule behaviour with functional implications beyond cell division.</jats:p>
Hégarat N, Crncec A, Peredoa Rodri-guez MFS, et al., 2018, Cyclin A triggers Mitosis either via Greatwall or Cyclin B, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Two mitotic Cyclins, A and B, exist in higher eukaryotes, but their specialised functions in mitosis are poorly understood. Using degron tags we analyse how acute depletion of these proteins affects mitosis. Loss of Cyclin A in G2-phase prevents the initial activation of Cdk1. Cells lacking Cyclin B can enter mitosis and phosphorylate most mitotic proteins, because of parallel PP2A:B55 phos-phatase inactivation by Greatwall kinase. The final barrier to mitotic establishment corresponds to nuclear envelope breakdown that requires a decisive shift in the balance of Cdk1 and PP2A:B55 activity. Beyond this point Cyclin B/Cdk1 is essential to phosphorylate a distinct subset mitotic Cdk1 substrates that are essential to complete cell division. Our results identify how Cyclin A, B and Greatwall coordinate mitotic progression by increasing levels of Cdk1-dependent substrate phos-phorylation.</jats:p>
Stojic L, Lun ATL, Mangei J, et al., 2018, Specificity of RNAi, LNA and CRISPRi as loss-of-function methods in transcriptional analysis, Nucleic Acids Research, Vol: 46, Pages: 5950-5966, ISSN: 0305-1048
Loss-of-function (LOF) methods such as RNA interference (RNAi), antisense oligonucleotides or CRISPR-based genome editing provide unparalleled power for studying the biological function of genes of interest. However, a major concern is non-specific targeting, which involves depletion of transcripts other than those intended. Little work has been performed to characterize the off-target effects of these common LOF methods at the whole-transcriptome level. Here, we experimentally compared the non-specific activity of RNAi, antisense oligonucleotides and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi). All three methods yielded non-negligible off-target effects in gene expression, with CRISPRi also exhibiting strong clonal effects. As an illustrative example, we evaluated the performance of each method for determining the role of an uncharacterized long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Several LOF methods successfully depleted the candidate lncRNA but yielded different sets of differentially expressed genes as well as a different cellular phenotype upon depletion. Similar discrepancies between methods were observed with a protein-coding gene (Ch-TOG/CKAP5) and another lncRNA (MALAT1). We suggest that the differences between methods arise due to method-specific off-target effects and provide guidelines for mitigating such effects in functional studies. Our recommendations provide a framework with which off-target effects can be managed to improve functional characterization of genes of interest.
Heldt FS, Barr AR, Cooper S, et al., 2018, A comprehensive model for the proliferation-quiescence decision in response to endogenous DNA damage in human cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol: 115, Pages: 2532-2537, ISSN: 0027-8424
Human cells that suffer mild DNA damage can enter a reversible state of growth arrest known as quiescence. This decision to temporarily exit the cell cycle is essential to prevent the propagation of mutations, and most cancer cells harbor defects in the underlying control system. Here we present a mechanistic mathematical model to study the proliferation–quiescence decision in nontransformed human cells. We show that two bistable switches, the restriction point (RP) and the G1/S transition, mediate this decision by integrating DNA damage and mitogen signals. In particular, our data suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (Cip1/Waf1), which is expressed in response to DNA damage, promotes quiescence by blocking positive feedback loops that facilitate G1 progression downstream of serum stimulation. Intriguingly, cells exploit bistability in the RP to convert graded p21 and mitogen signals into an all-or-nothing cell-cycle response. The same mechanism creates a window of opportunity where G1 cells that have passed the RP can revert to quiescence if exposed to DNA damage. We present experimental evidence that cells gradually lose this ability to revert to quiescence as they progress through G1 and that the onset of rapid p21 degradation at the G1/S transition prevents this response altogether, insulating S phase from mild, endogenous DNA damage. Thus, two bistable switches conspire in the early cell cycle to provide both sensitivity and robustness to external stimuli.
Stojic L, Lun A, Mangei J, et al., 2017, Specificity of RNAi, LNA and CRISPRi as loss-of-function methods in transcriptional analysis, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Loss-of-function (LOF) methods, such as RNA interference (RNAi), antisense oligonucleotides or CRISPR-based genome editing, provide unparalleled power for studying the biological function of genes of interest. When coupled with transcriptomic analyses, LOF methods allow researchers to dissect networks of transcriptional regulation. However, a major concern is nonspecific targeting, which involves depletion of transcripts other than those intended. The off-target effects of each of these common LOF methods have yet to be compared at the whole-transcriptome level. Here, we systematically and experimentally compared non-specific activity of RNAi, antisense oligonucleotides and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi). All three methods yielded non-negligible offtarget effects in gene expression, with CRISPRi exhibiting clonal variation in the transcriptional profile. As an illustrative example, we evaluated the performance of each method for deciphering the role of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) with unknown function. Although all LOF methods reduced expression of the candidate lncRNA, each method yielded different sets of differentially expressed genes upon knockdown as well as a different cellular phenotype. Therefore, to definitively confirm the functional role of a transcriptional regulator, we recommend the simultaneous use of at least two different LOF methods and the inclusion of multiple, specifically designed negative controls.</jats:p>
Cooper S, Barr AR, Glen R, et al., 2017, NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application, Bioinformatics, Vol: 33, Pages: 3320-3322, ISSN: 1367-4803
Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack’s interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly.
Asghar US, Barr AR, Cutts R, et al., 2017, Single-cell dynamics determines response to CDK4/6 inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 5561-5572, ISSN: 1078-0432
Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of breast cancer that is associated with a poor prognosis. We evaluated the activity of CDK4/6 inhibitors across the TNBC subtypes and investigated mechanisms of sensitivity.Experimental Design: A panel of cell lines representative of TNBC was tested for in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibition. A fluorescent CDK2 activity reporter was used for single-cell analysis in conjunction with time-lapse imaging.Results: The luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype of TNBC was highly sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition both in vitro (P < 0.001 LAR vs. basal-like) and in vivo in MDA-MB-453 LAR cell line xenografts. Single-cell analysis of CDK2 activity demonstrated differences in cell-cycle dynamics between LAR and basal-like cells. Palbociclib-sensitive LAR cells exit mitosis with low levels of CDK2 activity, into a quiescent state that requires CDK4/6 activity for cell-cycle reentry. Palbociclib-resistant basal-like cells exit mitosis directly into a proliferative state, with high levels of CDK2 activity, bypassing the restriction point and the requirement for CDK4/6 activity. High CDK2 activity after mitosis is driven by temporal deregulation of cyclin E1 expression. CDK4/6 inhibitors were synergistic with PI3 kinase inhibitors in PIK3CA-mutant TNBC cell lines, extending CDK4/6 inhibitor sensitivity to additional TNBC subtypes.Conclusions: Cell-cycle dynamics determine the response to CDK4/6 inhibition in TNBC. CDK4/6 inhibitors, alone and in combination, are a novel therapeutic strategy for specific subgroups of TNBC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5561–72.
Barr AR, Cooper S, Heldt FS, et al., 2017, DNA damage during S-phase mediates the proliferation-quiescence decision in the subsequent G1 via p21 expression, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2041-1723
Following DNA damage caused by exogenous sources, such as ionizing radiation, the tumour suppressor p53 mediates cell cycle arrest via expression of the CDK inhibitor, p21. However, the role of p21 in maintaining genomic stability in the absence of exogenous DNA-damaging agents is unclear. Here, using live single-cell measurements of p21 protein in proliferating cultures, we show that naturally occurring DNA damage incurred over S-phase causes p53-dependent accumulation of p21 during mother G2- and daughter G1-phases. High p21 levels mediate G1 arrest via CDK inhibition, yet lower levels have no impact on G1 progression, and the ubiquitin ligases CRL4Cdt2 and SCFSkp2 couple to degrade p21 prior to the G1/S transition. Mathematical modelling reveals that a bistable switch, created by CRL4Cdt2, promotes irreversible S-phase entry by keeping p21 levels low, preventing premature S-phase exit upon DNA damage. Thus, we characterize how p21 regulates the proliferation-quiescence decision to maintain genomic stability.
Chavali PL, Chandrasekaran G, Barr AR, et al., 2016, A CEP215-HSET complex links centrosomes with spindle poles and drives centrosome clustering in cancer, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2041-1723
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 48
Barr AR, Heldt FS, Zhang T, et al., 2016, A Dynamical Framework for the All-or-None G1/S Transition, CELL SYSTEMS, Vol: 2, Pages: 27-37, ISSN: 2405-4712
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 76
Barr AR, Bakal C, 2015, A sensitised RNAi screen reveals a ch-TOG genetic interaction network required for spindle assembly (vol 5, 10564, 2015), SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2045-2322
Barr AR, Bakal C, 2015, A sensitised RNAi screen reveals a ch-TOG genetic interaction network required for spindle assembly, Scientific Reports, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2045-2322
How multiple spindle assembly pathways are integrated to drive bipolar spindle assembly is poorly understood. We performed an image-based double RNAi screen to identify genes encoding Microtubule-Associated Proteins (MAPs) that interact with the highly conserved ch-TOG gene to regulate bipolar spindle assembly in human cells. We identified a ch-TOG centred network of genetic interactions which promotes centrosome-mediated microtubule polymerisation, leading to the incorporation of microtubules polymerised by all pathways into a bipolar structure. Our genetic screen also reveals that ch-TOG maintains a dynamic microtubule population, in part, through modulating HSET activity. ch-TOG ensures that spindle assembly is robust to perturbation but sufficiently dynamic such that spindles can explore a diverse shape space in search of structures that can align chromosomes.
Yin Z, Sadok A, Sailem H, et al., 2013, A screen for morphological complexity identifies regulators of switch-like transitions between discrete cell shapes, NATURE CELL BIOLOGY, Vol: 15, Pages: 860-+, ISSN: 1465-7392
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 125
Barr AR, Bakal C, 2012, A direct look at RNAi screens, Molecular Systems Biology, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1744-4292
Sir J-H, Barr AR, Nicholas AK, et al., 2011, A primary microcephaly protein complex forms a ring around parental centrioles, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 43, Pages: 1147-U150, ISSN: 1061-4036
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 152
Barr AR, Kilmartin JV, Gergely F, 2010, CDK5RAP2 functions in centrosome to spindle pole attachment and DNA damage response, Journal of Cell Biology, Vol: 189, Pages: 23-39, ISSN: 0021-9525
The centrosomal protein, CDK5RAP2, is mutated in primary microcephaly, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by reduced brain size. The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of CDK5RAP2, centrosomin (Cnn), maintains the pericentriolar matrix (PCM) around centrioles during mitosis. In this study, we demonstrate a similar role for CDK5RAP2 in vertebrate cells. By disrupting two evolutionarily conserved domains of CDK5RAP2, CNN1 and CNN2, in the avian B cell line DT40, we find that both domains are essential for linking centrosomes to mitotic spindle poles. Although structurally intact, centrosomes lacking the CNN1 domain fail to recruit specific PCM components that mediate attachment to spindle poles. Furthermore, we show that the CNN1 domain enforces cohesion between parental centrioles during interphase and promotes efficient DNA damage–induced G2 cell cycle arrest. Because mitotic spindle positioning, asymmetric centrosome inheritance, and DNA damage signaling have all been implicated in cell fate determination during neurogenesis, our findings provide novel insight into how impaired CDK5RAP2 function could cause premature depletion of neural stem cells and thereby microcephaly.
Barr AR, Zyss D, Gergely F, 2009, Knock-in and Knock-out: The Use of Reverse Genetics in Somatic Cells to Dissect Mitotic Pathways, MITOSIS: METHODS AND PROTOCOLS, Vol: 545, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1064-3745
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 2
Barr AR, Gergely F, 2008, MCAK-Independent Functions of ch-Tog/XMAP215 in Microtubule Plus-End Dynamics, MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, Vol: 28, Pages: 7199-7211, ISSN: 0270-7306
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 39
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