35 results found
Di Lucia L, Sevigne-Itoiz E, Peterson S, et al., 2019, Project level assessment of indirect land use changes arising from biofuel production, Global Change Biology Bioenergy, Vol: 11, Pages: 1361-1375, ISSN: 1757-1693
The use of land resources has a strong influence on the sustainability of biofuel production. An assessment of both direct and indirect changes in land use is necessary if an accurate assessment of sustainability is to be made. An increasing number of studies have developed approaches to estimate the Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) impacts of biofuels at global, national or regional level, but assessing ILUC remains a challenging task and estimates vary widely. In this study, we suggest that a socially motivated, project level approach can provide robust insight into the conditions affecting land use change dynamics. We developed a causal‐descriptive approach named ILUC Project ASsessment Tool (ILUC PAST) for project level assessment of ILUC. It uses a tiered multitool analysis—from local to global—combined with extensive stakeholder engagement. A real‐world project for the production of cellulosic ethanol in Sardinia (Italy) was used to evaluate the tool and benchmark the results against two alternatives for project level assessment: the ‘Low Indirect Impact Biofuel’ methodology and the ‘iLUC Club’ method. The results of the case study of advanced biofuels suggest that the quantitative estimates of ILUC combined with the in‐depth understanding of the cause‐and‐effect dynamics provided by ILUC PAST are sufficiently credible, salient and legitimate to support project level and local decision‐making.
Bhave A, Taylor RHS, Fennell P, et al., 2017, Screening and techno-economic assessment of biomass-based power generation with CCS technologies to meet 2050 CO2 targets, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 190, Pages: 481-489, ISSN: 0306-2619
Biomass-based power generation combined with CO2 capture and storage (Biopower CCS) currently represents one of the few practical and economic means of removing large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere, and the only approach that involves the generation of electricity at the same time. We present the results of the Techno-Economic Study of Biomass to Power with CO2capture (TESBiC) project, that entailed desk-based review and analysis, process engineering, optimisation as well as primary data collection from some of the leading pilot demonstration plants. From the perspective of being able to deploy Biopower CCS by 2050, twenty-eight Biopower CCS technology combinations involving combustion or gasification of biomass (either dedicated or co-fired with coal) together with pre-, oxy- or post-combustion CO2 capture were identified and assessed. In addition to the capital and operating costs, techno-economic characteristics such as electrical efficiencies (LHV% basis), Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE), costs of CO2 captured and CO2 avoided were modelled over time assuming technology improvements from today to 2050. Many of the Biopower CCS technologies gave relatively similar techno-economic results when analysed at the same scale, with the plant scale (MWe) observed to be the principal driver of CAPEX (£/MWe) and the cofiring % (i.e. the weighted feedstock cost) a key driver of LCOE. The data collected during the TESBiC project also highlighted the lack of financial incentives for generation of electricity with negative CO2 emissions.
Pantaleo AM, Giarola S, Bauen A, et al., 2014, Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors, ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 83, Pages: 362-376, ISSN: 0196-8904
Pantaleo AM, Giarola S, Bauen A, et al., 2014, Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part I: An MILP based spatial optimization methodology, ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT, Vol: 83, Pages: 347-361, ISSN: 0196-8904
Pantaleo A, Candelise C, Bauen A, et al., 2014, ESCO business models for biomass heating and CHP: Profitability of ESCO operations in Italy and key factors assessment, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Pages: 237-253
Slade R, Bauen A, Gross R, 2014, Global bioenergy resources, Nature Climate Change, Vol: 4, Pages: 99-105, ISSN: 1758-678X
Using biomass to provide energy services is a strategically important option for increasing the global uptake of renewable energy. Yet the practicalities of accelerating deployment are mired in controversy over the potential resource conflicts that might occur, particularly over land, water and biodiversity conservation. This calls into question whether policies to promote bioenergy are justified. Here we examine the assumptions on which global bioenergy resource estimates are predicated. We find that there is a disjunct between the evidence that global bioenergy studies can provide and policymakers' desire for estimates that can straightforwardly guide policy targets. We highlight the need for bottom-up assessments informed by empirical studies, experimentation and cross-disciplinary learning to better inform the policy debate.
Panoutsou C, Bauen A, Duffield J, 2013, Policy regimes and funding schemes to support investment for next-generation biofuels in the USA and the EU-27, BIOFUELS BIOPRODUCTS & BIOREFINING-BIOFPR, Vol: 7, Pages: 685-701, ISSN: 1932-104X
Slade R, Bauen A, 2013, Micro-algae cultivation for biofuels: Cost, energy balance, environmental impacts and future prospects, BIOMASS & BIOENERGY, Vol: 53, Pages: 29-38, ISSN: 0961-9534
Panoutsou C, Bauen A, Boettcher H, et al., 2013, Biomass Futures: an integrated approach for estimating the future contribution of biomass value chains to the European energy system and inform future policy formation, BIOFUELS BIOPRODUCTS & BIOREFINING-BIOFPR, Vol: 7, Pages: 106-114, ISSN: 1932-104X
Gravouniotis P, Bauen A, Pearson P, 2012, Building markets for energy saving equipment and modelling subsidy strategies in tourism dependent economies, International Conference on Clean Energy Solutions for Sustainable Environment (TerraGreen), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 131-146, ISSN: 1876-6102
Slade R, Bauen A, Gross R, 2011, Estimating bio-energy resource potentials to 2050: Lessons from the UK experience, Energy & Environmental Science, Pages: 2645-2657
Bauen AW, Dunnett AJ, Richter GM, et al., 2010, Modelling supply and demand of bioenergy from short rotation coppice and Miscanthus in the UK, BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 101, Pages: 8132-8143, ISSN: 0960-8524
Jablonski S, Strachan N, Brand C, et al., 2010, The role of bioenergy in the UK's energy future formulation and modelling of long-term UK bioenergy scenarios, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 38, Pages: 5799-5816, ISSN: 0301-4215
Slade R, Bauen A, Shah N, 2009, The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe, BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFUELS, Vol: 2
Slade R, Panoutsou C, Bauen A, 2009, Reconciling bio-energy policy and delivery in the UK: Will UK policy initiatives lead to increased deployment?, BIOMASS & BIOENERGY, Vol: 33, Pages: 679-688, ISSN: 0961-9534
Slade R, Shah N, Bauen A, 2009, The commercial performance of cellulosic ethanol supply-chains in Europe, Biotechnology for Biofuels, Vol: 2, ISSN: 1754-6834
BackgroundThe production of fuel-grade ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass resources has the potential to increase biofuel production capacity whilst minimising the negative environmental impacts. These benefits will only be realised if lignocellulosic ethanol production can compete on price with conventional fossil fuels and if it can be produced commercially at scale. This paper focuses on lignocellulosic ethanol production in Europe. The hypothesis is that the eventual cost of production will be determined not only by the performance of the conversion process but by the performance of the entire supply-chain from feedstock production to consumption. To test this, a model for supply-chain cost comparison is developed, the components of representative ethanol supply-chains are described, the factors that are most important in determining the cost and profitability of ethanol production are identified, and a detailed sensitivity analysis is conducted.ResultsThe most important cost determinants are the cost of feedstocks, primarily determined by location and existing markets, and the value obtained for ethanol, primarily determined by the oil price and policy incentives. Both of these factors are highly uncertain. The best performing chains (ethanol produced from softwood and sold as a low percentage blend with gasoline) could ultimately be cost competitive with gasoline without requiring subsidy, but production from straw would generally be less competitive.ConclusionSupply-chain design will play a critical role in determining commercial viability. The importance of feedstock supply highlights the need for location-specific assessments of feedstock availability and price. Similarly, the role of subsidies and policy incentives in creating and sustaining the ethanol market highlights the importance of political engagement and the need to include political risks in investment appraisal. For the supply-chains described here, and with the cost and market parameters sele
Jablonski S, Pateleoa A, Bauen A, et al., 2008, The potential demand for bioenergy in residential heating applications (bio-heat) in the UK based on a market segment analysis, Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol: 32, Pages: 635-653
How large is the potential demand for bio-heat in the UK? Whilst most research has focused on the supply of biomass for energy production, an understanding of the potential demand is crucial to the uptake of heat from bioenergy. We have designed a systematic framework utilising market segmentation techniques to assess the potential demand for biomass heat in the UK. First, the heat market is divided into relevant segments, characterised in terms of their final energy consumption, technological and fuel supply options. Second, the key technical, economic and organisational factors that affect the uptake of bioenergy in each heat segment are identified, classified and then analysed to reveal which could be strong barriers, which could be surmounted easily, and for which bioenergy heat represents an improvement compared to alternatives. The defined framework is applied to the UK residential sector. We identify provisionally the most promising market segments for bioenergy heat, and their current levels of energy demand. We find that, depending on the assumptions, the present potential demand for bio-heat in the UK residential sector ranges between 3% (conservative estimate) and 31% (optimistic estimate) of the total energy consumed in the heat market.
Elghali L, Clift R, Sinclair P, et al., 2007, Developing a Sustainability Framework for the Assessment of Bioenergy Systems, Energy Policy, Vol: 35, Pages: 6075-6083, ISSN: 0301-4215
The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain operates; environmental performance, including, but not limited to, low carbon dioxide emissions over the complete fuel cycle; and social acceptability, with the benefits of using biomass recognised as outweighing any negative social impacts. This paper describes an approach to developing a methodology to establish a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems to provide practical advice for policy makers, planners and the bioenergy industry, and thus to support policy development and bioenergy deployment at different scales. The approach uses multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision-conferencing, to explore how such a process is able to integrate and reconcile the interests and concerns of diverse stakeholder groups.
Bauen A, 2006, Future energy sources and systems - Acting on climate change and energy security, 9th Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 893-901, ISSN: 0378-7753
Bauen A, 2005, Biomass in Europe, International Workshop on Biomass Potential and Utilization in Europe and Developing Countries, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 19-30
Omosun AO, Bauen A, Brandon NP, et al., 2004, Modelling system efficiencies and costs of two biomass-fuelled SOFC systems, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 131, Pages: 96-106, ISSN: 0378-7753
Joffe D, Hart D, Bauen A, 2004, Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 131, Pages: 13-22, ISSN: 0378-7753
Bauen A, Hart D, Chase A, 2003, Fuel cells for distributed generation in developing countries - an analysis, Conference on Market Challenges of Fuel Cell Commercialisation, Publisher: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, Pages: 695-701, ISSN: 0360-3199
Gross R, Leach M, Bauen A, 2003, Progress in renewable energy., Environ Int, Vol: 29, Pages: 105-122, ISSN: 0160-4120
This paper provides an overview of some of the key technological and market developments for leading renewable energy technologies--wind, wave and tidal, photovoltaics (PV) and biomass energy. Market growth, innovation and policy are closely interrelated in the development of renewables and the key issues in each area are explored for each of the main types of renewable energy technology. This enables the prospects for future development and cost reduction to be considered in detail. Key issues for policy are outlined.
Mercuri R, Bauen A, Hart D, 2002, Options for refuelling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Italy, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 106, Pages: 353-363, ISSN: 0378-7753
Schlamadinger B, Grubb M, Azar C, et al., 2001, Carbon sinks and the CDM: could a bioenergy linkage offer a constructive compromise?, CLIMATE POLICY, Vol: 1, Pages: 411-417, ISSN: 1469-3062
Groscurth HM, de Almeida A, Bauen A, et al., 2000, Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union, ENERGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 1081-1095, ISSN: 0360-5442
Bauen A, Hart D, 2000, Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells, JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, Vol: 86, Pages: 482-494, ISSN: 0378-7753
Hart D, Bauen A, 2000, Opportunities for hydrogen energy systems in Europe, 13th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Publisher: INT ASSOC HYDROGEN ENERGY, Pages: 30-34
Hart D, Leach MA, Fouquet R, et al., 2000, ‘Methanol infrastructure - will it affect the introduction of SPFC vehicles?’, Journal of Power Sources, Vol: 86, Pages: 542-547
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