27 results found
Mulakkal M, Castillo Castillo A, Taylor A, et al., 2021, Advancing mechanical recycling of multilayer plastics through finite element modelling and environmental policy, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol: 166, ISSN: 0921-3449
Plastics are attracting negative publicity due to the scale of current pollution levels, yet they are irreplaceable in several applications such as food packaging, where different types of plastics are combined in laminate form to produce multilayered packaging (MLP) materials which extend the life of food items packaged within them. Increased plastic recycling is urgently needed, however for MLP it is particularly difficult. For the first time, this study combines engineering tools with environmental policy towards developing solutions for current single use plastic packaging. This study investigates recycling challenges for MLP and emerging melt-blending based mechanical recycling solutions as this is the main current method for material recovery of conventional plastics. Melt-blending of MLP with compatibilisers is explored, and the current lack of models addressing the influence of compatibilisers is identified. This gap in knowledge is addressed using novel engineering models based on the finite element (FE) micromechanical modelling technique to estimate the mechanical properties of recycled blends. Our model output is compared with experimental data available in literature and the good agreement highlights its predictive ability, providing a fast and cost-effective novel method for optimising recycled plastics. The policy aspect proposes the introduction of twenty policies based on mission-oriented innovation strategy to enable deployment of the recycling technologies studied whilst improving the viability of recycling of material currently not recycled. Implementation of these measures by the stakeholders will enable adoption of new MLP recycling techniques, create demand for recycled materials from MLP and incentivise MLP collection to mitigate pollution.
Lau WWY, Shiran Y, Bailey RM, et al., 2020, Evaluating scenarios toward zero plastic pollution, Science, Vol: 369, Pages: 1455-1461, ISSN: 1095-9203
Plastic pollution is a pervasive and growing problem. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce plastic pollution, we modeled stocks and flows of municipal solid waste and four sources of microplastics through the global plastic system for five scenarios between 2016 and 2040. Implementing all feasible interventions reduced plastic pollution by 40% from 2016 rates and 78% relative to 'business as usual' in 2040. Even with immediate and concerted action, 710 million metric tons of plastic waste cumulatively entered aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. To avoid a massive build-up of plastic in the environment, coordinated global action is urgently needed to reduce plastic consumption, increase rates of reuse, waste collection and recycling, expand safe disposal systems and accelerate innovation in the plastic value chain.
Bernardini G, McConville AJ, Castillo Castillo A, 2020, Macro-plastic pollution in the tidal Thames: an analysis of composition and trends for the optimization of data collection, Marine Policy, Vol: 119, ISSN: 0308-597X
Plastic pollution is a major issue affecting the oceans. Despite rivers being the principal source of plastic debris, few of the studies on plastic pollution are focused on freshwater environments. To contribute to filling this knowledge gap, we analyzed three years of data on plastic pollution in the Thames in London. Using a community ecology approach, we analyzed abundance and composition of plastic items, testing for changes across time and space. We found two different types of sites with different compositions of items and a stable abundance of macro-plastic debris in the years 2016–2018. We identified a list of statistically significant plastic items as potential representative indicators in future surveys to estimate what is present in the water column as well as conduct effective cleaning and protection efforts. This study aims to optimize future data collection efforts, creating a reference for forthcoming similar work around the globe especially in high-income, high-density urban areas, with implications for policymakers, non-governmental organizations and researchers.
Castillo Castillo A, Mulakkal M, Bexis P, et al., 2020, Enabling a greener plastic future through molecular science, Briefing Paper
Muncke J, Andersson A-M, Backhaus T, et al., 2020, Impacts of food contact chemicals on human health: a consensus statement, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 19
Castillo AC, Angelis-Dimakis A, 2019, Analysis and recommendations for European carbon dioxide utilization policies, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Vol: 247, Pages: 439-448, ISSN: 0301-4797
Hurtig O, Castillo Castillo A, Barascu A, 2019, Carbon4PUR mapping tool
This map shows all emissions of CO and CO2 in Europe in selected industrial categories that contain processes with Carbon4PUR compatible emissions according to the E-PRTR.
Castillo Castillo A, Angelis-Dimakis A, 2019, Analysis and recommendations for European carbon dioxide utilizationpolicies, Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN: 0301-4797
Pieri T, Nikitas A, Angelis-Dimakis A, 2018, Holistic assessment of carbon capture and utilization value chains, Environments, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2076-3298
Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) is recognized by the European Union, along with carbon, capture and storage (CCS), as one of the main tools towards global warming mitigation. It has, thus, been extensively studied by various researchers around the world. The majority of the papers published so far focus on the individual stages of a CCU value chain (carbon capture, separation, purification, transportation, and transformation/utilization). However, a holistic approach, taking into account the matching and the interaction between these stages, is also necessary in order to optimize and develop technically and economically feasible CCU value chains. The objective of this contribution is to present the most important studies that are related to the individual stages of CCU and to perform a critical review of the major existing methods, algorithms and tools that focus on the simulation or optimization of CCU value chains. The key research gaps will be identified and examined in order to lay the foundation for the development of a methodology towards the holistic assessment of CCU value chains.
Zhang R, Li-Mayer J, Charalambides M, 2018, Development of an image-based numerical model for predicting the microstructure-property relationship in alumina trihydrate (ATH) filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), International Journal of Fracture, Vol: 211, Pages: 125-148, ISSN: 0376-9429
Particulate composites are found in a wide range of applications. Their heterogeneous microstructure affects their bulk behavior and structural performance, however tools for predicting this important structure-property relationship are still lacking. In this study, a numerical method that can provide predictions of the mechanical response of a particulate polymeric matrix composite as a function of volume fraction and particle mean diameter is presented. The work is derived for an alumina trihydrate filled poly(methyl methacrylate) but the methodology is generic and can be used for any particulate composite. Representative Volume elements are determined through images obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The model takes into account the possibility of failure through interface debonding as well as cracks through the matrix. The model predictions for the modulus and fracture strength of the composites are validated through independent experiments on the composite. The numerical results are also used to qualitatively explain the trends measured regarding the fracture toughness of the composites. Compared to other literature on particulate composites, our study is the first to report accurate stress–strain distributions as well as fracture predictions whilst all the necessary model parameters defining the failure criteria are all derived through independent experiments. This paves the way for a relatively simple methodology for determining structure-property relationships in composites design, enabling smarter material utilization and optimal mechanical properties.
Patricio J, Angelis-Dimakis A, Castillo Castillo A, et al., 2017, Method to Identify Opportunities for CCU at Regional Level - Matching Sources and Receivers, Journal of Co2 Utilization, Vol: 22, Pages: 330-345, ISSN: 2212-9820
Carbon Capture and Utilization is an attractive strategy not only due to its potential for CO2 emissions reduction but also because it enables the creation of valuable products. The development of CO2-based industrial symbiosis partnerships can contribute significantly towards achieving the goals of GHG emissions reduction on a European level by 2030, while at the same time it leads to an increased added value through the development of new production lines and carbon neutral products. The presented article focuses on identifying potential partnerships between companies that produce CO2 and companies that may reuse CO2 as input for their industrial process. A novel methodological framework is presented based on developing generic matrices for CO2 sources and receivers and matching the industrial units based on geographical and technical criteria. Moreover, the paper provides the technical requirements of 17 CO2 utilization technologies with relatively high technology readiness level, including the CO2-to-product ratio, the required purity, pressure, temperature and the presence of a catalyst, as well as potential synergies and additional requirements. The methodology has been applied to the Västra Götaland region in West Sweden and the most promising CCU symbioses have been identified. These include mineral carbonation (annual uptake: 59,600 tCO2), greenhouses (26,000 tCO2), algae production, methanol production (85,500 tCO2), power to gas (66,500 tCO2), pH control, lignin production, polymers synthesis and concrete curing (96,000 tCO2). If all of them could be applied, the total annual CO2 reduction would exceed 250,000 tCO2 per year.
Castillo Castillo A, Angelis-Dimakis A, 2017, Policy analysis and recommendations for EU CO 2 utilisation policies, CEST2017 - 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology
To safeguard the competitiveness of energy-intensiveindustries, in light of lower-cost energy supplies elsewhere,Europe requires combined resource and energy efficiencytechnology. Most technical components of CO2 utilizationcan in principle be mobilized in Europe in the short term.Nevertheless, infrastructural, logistical, regulatory andbusiness strategic issues must be addressed imminently byall relevant stakeholders. Given the already dense EUpolicy landscape, industry stakeholders need to assess firstthe applicability of the current framework and then theimpact that policy changes could bring. Notably,connectivity infrastructure requires more analysis andcoordination. This paper presents relevant policies tosupport CO2 utilisation along the value chain. It outlinesthe applicability of current policy and benefits of policyenhancements to address barriers to deployment of CO2-derived products. It also lays out the role of keystakeholders to effect appropriate changes in policy.Finally, it explores the justification for a CO2 UtilisationDirective, comparable to the Carbon Capture and StorageDirective.
Patricio J, Angelis-Dimakis A, Castillo-Castillo A, et al., 2017, Region prioritization for the development of carbon capture and utilization technologies, Journal of CO2 Utilization, Vol: 17, Pages: 50-59, ISSN: 2212-9820
In recent years several strategies have been developed and adopted to reduce the levels of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions released to the atmosphere. The adoption of Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) technologies may contribute towards carbon sequestration as well as to the creation of high value products. This study presents a methodology to assess the potential of CO2 utilization across Europe, and to identify the European regions with the greater potential to deploy nine selected carbon dioxide utilization technologies. The results show that Germany, UK and France at the first level followed by Spain, Italy and Poland are the countries where the larger quantities of available CO2 could be found but also where the majority of the potential receiving processes are located, and therefore with the greatest potential for CO2 utilization. The study has also revealed several specific regions where reuse schemes based on CO2 could be developed both in Central Europe (Dusseldorf and Cologne – Germany, Antwerp Province and East Flanders – Belgium and Śląskie – Poland) and in Scandinavia (Etelä-Suomi and Helsinki-Uusimaa – Finland). Finally, among all the selected technologies, concrete curing and horticulture production are the technologies with the higher potential for CO2 utilization in Europe.
Castillo Castillo A, Angelis-Dimakis A, 2016, Enabling CO2 reuse value chains: the importance of geographical conditions, 8th Annual Meeting of the International Research Network for Low Carbon Societies (LCS-RNet)
Torija S, Castillo-Castillo A, Brandon NP, 2015, The prospects for biogas integration with fuel cells in the United Kingdom, Fuel Cells, Vol: 16, Pages: 55-79, ISSN: 1615-6854
Anaerobic digestion (AD) presence is emerging in the UK because it has numerous environmental benefits as a waste management strategy and produces valuable biogas. This work shows that up to 5.5% of UK primary energy could be met by biogas, representing 14.4% of gas consumption. Fuel cells (FCs) are the most efficient and environmentally benign energy convertor of any device of equivalent scale and in addition are well suited for biogas utilization, which has worldwide led to the emergence of numerous integrated commercial applications. Thus, biogas coupling with fuel cells is proposed as a unique and virtuous AD scheme. A techno-economic model has been developed for the two types of AD plants with the highest development prospects in the UK, namely livestock and food waste plants, whose performance and feasibility at different scales are scrutinized under several policy scenarios, some of which incorporate supportive mechanisms for the introduction of FCs. Results confirm that conventional AD projects can already be profitable in the current market environment, while projects involving FCs proved environmentally superior, virtually suppressing harmful pollutant emissions and decreasing the CO2 emissions from using grid electricity and natural gas, at a reasonable avoided carbon cost in the best suited cases.
Angelis-Dimakis A, Castillo Castillo A, 2015, Enabling new values chains for CO2 reuse, 13th International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment
Candelise C, Gross R, Heptonstall P, et al., 2013, Presenting the future: An assessment of future cost estimation methodologies in the electricity sector, London, Publisher: UKERC
Castillo-Castillo A, 2012, Solid Waste Management and Regulation, Environmental and Energy Law, Editors: Makuch, Pereira, Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 9781118257340
The Cahpter provides a brief ecxamination of selected examples of EU law in relation to waste management. It highlights the potential for synergies beteween several legal instruments addressing diverse environmental issues related to waste management and resource efficiency. The material seeks to establish links across the root challenges in waste handling and resource recovery. Unlike an account of the historical evolution of the legal framework, the chapter examines the intended effect of several European regulations and contrasts them with two international examples.
Oxley T, Elshkaki A, Kwiatkowski L, et al., 2012, Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLICY, Vol: 19-20, Pages: 16-32, ISSN: 1462-9011
Zglobisz N, Castillo-Castillo A, Grimes S, et al., 2010, Influence of UK energy policy on the deployment of anaerobic digestion, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 38, Pages: 5988-5999, ISSN: 0301-4215
Castillo-Castillo A, Leach M, Ryu C, et al., 2009, Thermal technology scales in future waste strategies, Waste and Resource Management
Yassin L, Castillo-Castillo A, Ryu C, et al., 2009, From Incineration to Advanced Fluid-bed Gasification of Waste, Waste and Resource Management
Castillo-Castillo A, 2009, Solid waste management and regulation, Environmental Law for Engineers, Editors: MacDonald, Publisher: Blackwell
Castillo-Castillo A, 2008, UK and Continental Europe energy-from-waste policy in comparison, London, SMi Conference: Energy from Waste, Publisher: SMi
Castillo-Castillo A, Leach M, 2008, Thermal treatments: Integrated scenario modelling, London, Symposium: Strategies & Technologies for Sustainable Urban Waste Management, Publisher: Sustainable Urban Environments Waste Consortium
Castillo-Castillo A, Leach M, 2006, Technology types and scales in future urban waste strategies, Waste 2006, Pages: 287-295
Castillo-Castillo A, Leach M, 2006, Technology types and scales in future urban waste strategies, Coventry, UK, Waste 2006 - Sustainable Waste and Resource Management, Publisher: The Waste Conference Limited, Pages: 287-295
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