Imperial College London

Professor the Lord Darzi of Denham PC KBE FRS FMedSci HonFREng

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Co-Director of the IGHI, Professor of Surgery
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 1310a.darzi

 
 
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Location

 

Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

2252 results found

Monfort Sanchez E, Avery J, Wei J, Qian J, Mandal N, Agarwal A, Mwiinga M, Banda R, Darzi A, Kelly P, Thompson Aet al., 2024, Transcutaneous fluorescence spectroscopy: development and characterization of a compact, portable, fiber-optic sensor, Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN: 1083-3668

Journal article

Acharya A, Black RC, Smithies A, Darzi Aet al., 2024, Evaluating the Impact of the National Health Service Digital Academy on Participants' Perceptions of Their Identity as Leaders of Digital Health Change: Mixed Methods Study., JMIR Med Educ, Vol: 10

BACKGROUND: The key to the digital leveling-up strategy of the National Health Service is the development of a digitally proficient leadership. The National Health Service Digital Academy (NHSDA) Digital Health Leadership program was designed to support emerging digital leaders to acquire the necessary skills to facilitate transformation. This study examined the influence of the program on professional identity formation as a means of creating a more proficient digital health leadership. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the impact of the NHSDA program on participants' perceptions of themselves as digital health leaders. METHODS: We recruited 41 participants from 2 cohorts of the 2-year NHSDA program in this mixed methods study, all of whom had completed it >6 months before the study. The participants were initially invited to complete a web-based scoping questionnaire. This involved both quantitative and qualitative responses to prompts. Frequencies of responses were aggregated, while free-text comments from the questionnaire were analyzed inductively. The content of the 30 highest-scoring dissertations was also reviewed by 2 independent authors. A total of 14 semistructured interviews were then conducted with a subset of the cohort. These focused on individuals' perceptions of digital leadership and the influence of the course on the attainment of skills. In total, 3 in-depth focus groups were then conducted with participants to examine shared perceptions of professional identity as digital health leaders. The transcripts from the interviews and focus groups were aligned with a previously published examination of leadership as a framework. RESULTS: Of the 41 participants, 42% (17/41) were in clinical roles, 34% (14/41) were in program delivery or management roles, 20% (8/41) were in data science roles, and 5% (2/41) were in "other" roles. Interviews and focus groups highlighted that the course influenced 8 domains of professional identity: commitm

Journal article

Neves AL, van Dael J, O'Brien N, Flott K, Ghafur S, Darzi A, Mayer Eet al., 2024, Use and impact of virtual primary care on quality and safety: The public's perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Vol: 30, Pages: 393-401, ISSN: 1357-633X

IntroductionWith the onset of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), primary care has swiftly transitioned from face-to-face to virtual care, yet it remains largely unknown how this has impacted the quality and safety of care. We aim to evaluate patient use of virtual primary care models during COVID-19, including change in uptake, perceived impact on the quality and safety of care and willingness of future use.MethodologyAn online cross-sectional survey was administered to the public across the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy and Germany. McNemar tests were conducted to test pre- and post-pandemic differences in uptake for each technology. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to examine patient experience ratings and perceived impacts on healthcare quality and safety across demographic characteristics.ResultsRespondents (n = 6326) reported an increased use of telephone consultations ( + 6.3%, p < .001), patient-initiated services ( + 1.5%, n = 98, p < 0.001), video consultations ( + 1.4%, p < .001), remote triage ( + 1.3, p < 0.001) and secure messaging systems ( + 0.9%, p = .019). Experience rates using virtual care technologies were higher for men (2.4  ±  1.0 vs. 2.3  ±  0.9, p < .001), those with higher literacy (2.8  ±  1.0 vs. 2.3  ±  0.9, p < .001), and participants from Germany (2.5  ±  0.9, p < .001). Healthcare timeliness and efficiency were the dimensions most often reported as being positively impacted by virtual technologies (60.2%, n = 2793 and 55.7%, n = 2,401, respectively), followed by effectiveness (46.5%, n = 

Journal article

Ravindran S, Matharoo M, Rutter MD, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Healey C, Thomas-Gibson Set al., 2024, Patient safety incidents in endoscopy: a human factors analysis of nonprocedural significant harm incidents from the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS)., Endoscopy, Vol: 56, Pages: 89-99

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in understanding and reducing the risk of endoscopic procedures, there is little consideration of the safety of the wider endoscopy service. Patient safety incidents (PSIs) still occur. We sought to identify nonprocedural PSIs (nPSIs) and their causative factors from a human factors perspective and generate ideas for safety improvement. METHODS: Endoscopy-specific PSI reports were extracted from the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS). A retrospective, cross-sectional human factors analysis of data was performed. Two independent researchers coded data using a hybrid thematic analysis approach. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was used to code contributory factors. Analysis informed creation of driver diagrams and key recommendations for safety improvement in endoscopy. RESULTS: From 2017 to 2019, 1181 endoscopy-specific PSIs of significant harm were reported across England and Wales, with 539 (45.6%) being nPSIs. Five categories accounted for over 80% of all incidents, with "follow-up and surveillance" being the largest (23.4% of all nPSIs). From the free-text incident reports, 487 human factors codes were identified. Decision-based errors were the most common act prior to PSI occurrence. Other frequent preconditions to incidents were focused on environmental factors, particularly overwhelmed resources, patient factors, and ineffective team communication. Lack of staffing, standard operating procedures, effective systems, and clinical pathways were also contributory. Seven key recommendations for improving safety have been made in response to our findings. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first national-level human factors analysis of endoscopy-specific PSIs. This work will inform safety improvement strategies and should empower individual services to review their approach to safety.

Journal article

Markosian C, Hekimian K, Garber K, Darzi A, Shekherdimian Set al., 2024, Can Armenia's refugee crisis catalyse health-system reforms?, Lancet, Vol: 403

Journal article

Nazarian S, Gkouzionis I, Murphy J, Darzi A, Patel N, Peters CJ, Elson DSet al., 2024, Real-time classification of tumour and non-tumour tissue in colorectal cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and neural networks to aid margin assessment, International Journal of Surgery, ISSN: 1743-9159

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. A positive resection margin following surgery for colorectal cancer is linked with higher rates of local recurrence and poorer survival. We investigated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to distinguish tumour and non-tumour tissue in ex vivo colorectal specimens, to aid margin assessment and provide augmented visual maps to the surgeon in real-time.Methods: Patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer resection surgery at a London-based hospital were prospectively recruited. A hand-held DRS probe was used on the surface of freshly resected ex vivo colorectal tissue. Spectral data was acquired for tumour and non-tumour tissue. Binary classification was achieved using conventional machine learning classifiers and a convolutional neural network (CNN), which were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and the area under the curve.Results: A total of 7692 mean spectra were obtained for tumour and non-tumour colorectal tissue. The CNN-based classifier was the best performing machine learning algorithm, when compared to contrastive approaches, for differentiating tumour and non-tumour colorectal tissue, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.8% and area under the curve of 96.8%. Live on-screen classification of tissue type was achieved using a graduated colourmap.Conclusion: A high diagnostic accuracy for a DRS probe and tracking system to differentiate ex vivo tumour and non-tumour colorectal tissue in real-time with on-screen visual feedback was highlighted by this study. Further in vivo studies are needed to ensure integration into a surgical workflow.

Journal article

Manoli E, Higginson J, Tolley N, Darzi A, Kinross J, Temelkuran B, Takats Zet al., 2024, Human robotic surgery with intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporation ionisation mass spectrometry, Scientific Reports, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2045-2322

Instantaneous, continuous, and reliable information on the molecular biology of surgical target tissue could significantly contribute to the precision, safety, and speed of the intervention. In this work, we introduced a methodology for chemical tissue identification in robotic surgery using rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry. We developed a surgical aerosol evacuation system that is compatible with a robotic platform enabling consistent intraoperative sample collection and assessed the feasibility of this platform during head and neck surgical cases, using two different surgical energy devices. Our data showed specific, characteristic lipid profiles associated with the tissue type including various ceramides, glycerophospholipids, and glycerolipids, as well as different ion formation mechanisms based on the energy device used. This platform allows continuous and accurate intraoperative mass spectrometry-based identification of ablated/resected tissue and in combination with robotic registration of images, time, and anatomical positions can improve the current robot-assisted surgical platforms and guide surgical strategy.

Journal article

Chidambaram S, Jain B, Jain U, Mwavu R, Baru R, Thomas B, Greaves F, Jayakumar S, Jain P, Rojo M, Battaglino MR, Meara JG, Sounderajah V, Celi LA, Darzi Aet al., 2024, An introduction to digital determinants of health., PLOS Digit Health, Vol: 3

In recent years, technology has been increasingly incorporated within healthcare for the provision of safe and efficient delivery of services. Although this can be attributed to the benefits that can be harnessed, digital technology has the potential to exacerbate and reinforce preexisting health disparities. Previous work has highlighted how sociodemographic, economic, and political factors affect individuals' interactions with digital health systems and are termed social determinants of health [SDOH]. But, there is a paucity of literature addressing how the intrinsic design, implementation, and use of technology interact with SDOH to influence health outcomes. Such interactions are termed digital determinants of health [DDOH]. This paper will, for the first time, propose a definition of DDOH and provide a conceptual model characterizing its influence on healthcare outcomes. Specifically, DDOH is implicit in the design of artificial intelligence systems, mobile phone applications, telemedicine, digital health literacy [DHL], and other forms of digital technology. A better appreciation of DDOH by the various stakeholders at the individual and societal levels can be channeled towards policies that are more digitally inclusive. In tandem with ongoing work to minimize the digital divide caused by existing SDOH, further work is necessary to recognize digital determinants as an important and distinct entity.

Journal article

Al-Zubaidy N, Fernandez Crespo R, Jones S, Drikvandi R, Gould L, Leis M, Maheswaran H, Neves ALet al., 2023, Exploring the relationship between government stringency and preventative social behaviour’ during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, Health Informatics Journal, Vol: 29, ISSN: 0965-8335

We constructed a preventive social behaviours (PSB) Index using survey questions that were aligned with WHO recommendations, and used linear regression to assess the impact of reported COVID-19 deaths (RCD), people’s confidence of government handling of the pandemic (CGH) and government stringency (GS) in the United Kingdom (UK) over time on the PSB index. We used repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys in the UK over the course of 41 weeks from 1st April 2020 to January 28th, 2021, including a total of 38,092 participants. The PSB index was positively correlated with the logarithm of RCD (R: 0.881, p < .001), CGH (R: 0.592, p < .001) and GS (R: 0.785, p < .001), but was not correlated with time (R: −0.118, p = .485). A multivariate linear regression analysis suggests that the log of RCD (coefficient: 0.125, p < .001), GS (coefficient: 0.010, p = .019), and CGH (coefficient: 0.0.009, p < .001) had a positive and significant impact on the PSB Index, while time did not affect it significantly. These findings suggest that people’s behaviours could have been affected by multiple factors during the pandemic, with the number of COVID-19 deaths being the largest contributor towards an increase in protective behaviours in our model.

Journal article

Kovacevic L, Naik R, Lugo-Palacios DG, Ashrafian H, Mossialos E, Darzi Aet al., 2023, The impact of collaborative organisational models and general practice size on patient safety and quality of care in the English National Health Service: A systematic review., Health Policy, Vol: 138

Collaborative primary care has become an increasingly popular strategy to manage existing pressures on general practice. In England, the recent changes taking place in the primary care sector have included the formation of collaborative organisational models and a steady increase in practice size. The aim of this review was to summarise the available evidence on the impact of collaborative models and general practice size on patient safety and quality of care in England. We searched for quantitative and qualitative studies on the topic published between January 2010 and July 2023. The quality of articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. We screened 6533 abstracts, with full-text screening performed on 76 records. A total of 29 articles were included in the review. 19 met the inclusion criteria following full-text screening, with seven identified through reverse citation searching and three through expert consultation. All studies were found to be of moderate or high quality. A predominantly positive impact on service delivery measures and patient-level outcomes was identified. Meanwhile, the evidence on the effect on pay-for-performance outcomes and hospital admissions is mixed, with continuity of care and access identified as a concern. While this review is limited to evidence from England, the findings provide insights for all health systems undergoing a transition towards collaborative primary care.

Journal article

Rawf F, 2023, Identifying Healthcare Errors in Adult Patients Undergoing Interventional Radiology Procedures - A Systematic Approach

This PhD thesis systematically assesses and addresses the gap in the understanding of the healthcare errors within the Interventional Radiology (IR) pathway. The thesis encompasses several studies including a systematic review, observation studies by field notes and by using error capture tool, questionnaire studies, and the development and validation of innovative tools such as the FERERI ( Failure estimation Record in Radiology Intervention) error-capture tool and the FARADION ( FAst RADiology InterventiON) mobile application (app).A lack of studies on healthcare errors and patient safety in IR is highlighted requiring systematic assessment via validated tools.Different approaches were taken to assess healthcare errors, such as field-note-based observation to map out and identify errors within the IR pathway. Further evaluation of these errors and pathways was needed via questionnaire studies and validated error-capturing tools.Mixed models were used in a questionnaire to evaluate the perception of various healthcare professionals regarding the failure modes within the IR pathways.This work resulted in the triangulation of the FERERI tool which was then validated and used to assess the whole IR pathway in elective, urgent and ITU patients. This showed that healthcare errors, especially non-technical errors are prevalent within the IR pathway. The most common errors are safety awareness, communication, and equipment-related errors.Evaluating the WHO checklist, themes emerged related to compliance and correct use. A simple pragmatic intervention through a structured task allocation to the IR consultant showed a significant improvement in the rate of the compliance which impacted positively the overall rate of errors.The need to address the communication inefficiencies within the IR led to the FARADION app development which was recommended by the teams to enhance patient safety.Overall, this thesis presents valuable awareness of healthcare errors in IR procedures. Mu

Thesis dissertation

Che Bakri NA, Kwasnicki RM, Giannas E, Tenang L, Khan N, Moenig C, Imam Z, Dhillon K, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Leff DRet al., 2023, ASO author reflections: objective outcome measure of upper limb function following axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 30, Pages: 7133-7134, ISSN: 1068-9265

Journal article

Acharya A, Darzi A, Judah G, 2023, An SMS and animated video intervention to increase uptake of breast cancer screening: a randomised controlled trial., Lancet, Vol: 402 Suppl 1

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening attendance in the UK has fallen, and London has the lowest uptake nationally. This study tested the impact of a behavioural science-informed reminder SMS, and animated video intervention on screening uptake. METHODS: This three-armed randomised controlled trial took place in two screening services in London (each service operated across a range of static sites such as hospitals, and mobile sites). We included participants who were registered with GP as female, aged 50-70 years, and not screened in the past 3 years. We excluded those who had opted out of screening messages or were in care. Participants were assigned into three groups via the final two digits of their NHS number (ratio 34:33:33): control group (received usual care reminder), behavSMS group (behavioural science-informed SMS reminder addressing reducing negative emotions and information on health consequences), or behavSMS+video group (behavioural SMS plus link to animation). Researchers were masked to allocation. The SMS and video were co-designed with stakeholders using the Behaviour Change Wheel. Invitation processes changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore, we did separate analyses for those receiving a timed appointment (n=9027), and an open invitation to book an appointment (n=25 020). Messages were sent 7 days and 1 day before the appointment, plus 7 days after the open invitation letter. Group differences in the primary outcome of attendance within 3 months of invitation (and secondary outcome of booking for open invites) were assessed using χ2, and logistic regression controlling for age, ethnicity, deprivation, and first invitation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05395871. FINDINGS: Recruitment took place between July 18, and Oct 21, 2022. For timed invitations, 3094 participants were assigned to the control group, 2952 to the behavSMS group, and 2981 to the behavSMS+video group. For open invitations groups sizes were 865

Journal article

Markiewicz O, Lorencatto F, D'Lima D, Sanford N, Lavelle M, Acharya A, Anderson J, Darzi A, Judah Get al., 2023, Improving the quality of written communication at patient discharge: triangulation of qualitative analyses and intervention co-design., Lancet, Vol: 402 Suppl 1

BACKGROUND: Poor handovers between hospital and primary care threaten safe discharges, with elderly and frail patients most at risk of harm. Using Behavioural Science we explored influences and identified relevant behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to improve written handovers and safety during discharge. METHODS: We conducted two qualitative studies: (1) ethnographic observations (>80 h) collected by five researchers in five purposively sampled clinical areas of a London teaching hospital, investigating routine work and interactions of hospital staff involved in discharges; and (2) 12 semi-structured interviews with hospital staff involved in discharge exploring influences on preparations of written handovers. Written consent was sought from clinical leads for ethnographic observations and from interview participants. Ethnographic fieldnotes and interview transcripts were thematically analysed using inductive and deductive approaches, respectively. Study findings were triangulated to identify key influences, mapped onto the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). We identified appropriate BCTs to address observed influences within each TDF domain using the Theory and Techniques Tool. Health-care workers (n=15), patients (n=2) and carers (n=2) selected and designed an intervention to improve written handovers in two workshops. Hospital workshop participants were involved with preparing written discharge handovers. Public participants had either recently been discharged from hospital or cared for someone recently discharged, including patients from groups especially vulnerable during discharge. FINDINGS: Triangulation of study findings generated 11 key influences on preparations of written handovers within five TDF domains: knowledge (eg, lack of awareness of guidelines), skills (staff experience), social or professional role and identity (effective communication), environmental context and resources (working patterns), and social influences (lack of feedback). 14 BC

Journal article

Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance NationalInternational Network Group WARNING Collaborators, 2023, Ten golden rules for optimal antibiotic use in hospital settings: the WARNING call to action., World J Emerg Surg, Vol: 18

Antibiotics are recognized widely for their benefits when used appropriately. However, they are often used inappropriately despite the importance of responsible use within good clinical practice. Effective antibiotic treatment is an essential component of universal healthcare, and it is a global responsibility to ensure appropriate use. Currently, pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to develop new antibiotics due to scientific, regulatory, and financial barriers, further emphasizing the importance of appropriate antibiotic use. To address this issue, the Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery established an international multidisciplinary task force of 295 experts from 115 countries with different backgrounds. The task force developed a position statement called WARNING (Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance National/International Network Group) aimed at raising awareness of antimicrobial resistance and improving antibiotic prescribing practices worldwide. The statement outlined is 10 axioms, or "golden rules," for the appropriate use of antibiotics that all healthcare workers should consistently adhere in clinical practice.

Journal article

Jahani M-A, Ghanavatizadeh A, Delavari S, Abbasi M, Nikbakht H-A, Farhadi Z, Darzi A, Mahmoudi Get al., 2023, Strengthening E-learning strategies for active learning in crisis situations: a mixed-method study in the COVID-19 pandemic., BMC Med Educ, Vol: 23

BACKGROUND: Medical universities are responsible for educating and training healthcare workers. One of the fields significantly impacted by the pandemic is medical education. The aim of this study is to identify strategies for enhancing e-learning for active learning and finding solutions for improving its quality. METHODS: This mixed-method (quantitative-qualitative) research was conducted in 2023 at three selected universities in Mazandaran Province. In the quantitative phase, 507 students participated via stratified random sampling using a standard questionnaire. In the qualitative phase, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 16 experts until data saturation was achieved. SPSS 21 and MAXQDA 10 software were used for data analysis. RESULTS: In the multivariate regression analysis, an increase of one point in the dimensions of student-teacher interaction, active time, immediate feedback, and active learning corresponded to an average increase in learning scores of 0.11, 0.17, 0.16, and 1.42 respectively (p≤0.001). After the final analysis in the qualitative phase, four main domains (infrastructure, resources, quantity of education, and quality of education) and 16 sub-domains with 84 items were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest challenge in e-learning is the interaction and cooperation between students and teachers. The implementation of the identified strategies in this research could provide useful evidence for policymakers and educational administrators to implement interventions aimed at addressing deficiencies and enhancing e-learning.

Journal article

Zhang J, Morley J, Gallifant J, Oddy C, Teo J, Ashrafian H, Delaney B, Darzi Aet al., 2023, Mapping and evaluating whole nation data flows: transparency, privacy, and guiding infrastructural transformation, The Lancet: Digital Health, Vol: 5, Pages: e737-e748, ISSN: 2589-7500

The importance of big health data is recognised worldwide. Most UK National Health Service (NHS) care interactions are recorded in electronic health records, resulting in an unmatched potential for population-level datasets. However, policy reviews have highlighted challenges from a complex data-sharing landscape relating to transparency, privacy, and analysis capabilities. In response, we used public information sources to map all electronic patient data flows across England, from providers to more than 460 subsequent academic, commercial, and public data consumers. Although NHS data support a global research ecosystem, we found that multistage data flow chains limit transparency and risk public trust, most data interactions do not fulfil recommended best practices for safe data access, and existing infrastructure produces aggregation of duplicate data assets, thus limiting diversity of data and added value to end users. We provide recommendations to support data infrastructure transformation and have produced a website (https://DataInsights.uk) to promote transparency and showcase NHS data assets.

Journal article

Painter A, van Dael J, Neves A, Bachtiger P, O'Brien N, Gardner C, Quint J, Adamson A, Peters N, Darzi A, Ghafur Set al., 2023, Identifying benefits and concerns with using digital health services during COVID-19: evidence from a hospital-based patient survey, Health Informatics Journal, Vol: 29, ISSN: 0965-8335

Despite large-scale adoption during COVID-19, patient perceptions on the benefits and potential risks with receiving care through digital technologies have remained largely unexplored. A quantitative content analysis of responses to a questionnaire (N = 6766) conducted at a multi-site acute trust in London (UK), was adopted to identify commonly reported benefits and concerns. Patients reported a range of promising benefits beyond immediate usage during COVID-19, including ease of access; support for disease and care management; improved timeliness of access and treatment; and better prioritisation of healthcare resources. However, in addition to known risks such as data security and inequity in access, our findings also illuminate some less studied concerns, including perceptions of compromised safety; negative impacts on patient-clinician relationships; and difficulties in interpreting health information provided through electronic health records and mHealth apps. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Journal article

Ward H, Atchison C, Whitaker M, Davies B, Ashby D, Darzi A, Chadeau-Hyam M, Riley S, Donnelly CA, Barclay W, Cooke GS, Elliott Pet al., 2023, Design and implementation of a national program to monitor the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in England using self-testing: the REACT-2 study, American Journal of Public Health, Pages: e1-e9, ISSN: 0090-0036

Data System. The UK Department of Health and Social Care funded the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-2 (REACT-2) study to estimate community prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies in England. Data Collection/Processing. We obtained random cross-sectional samples of adults from the National Health Service (NHS) patient list (near-universal coverage). We sent participants a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) self-test, and they reported the result online. Overall, 905 991 tests were performed (28.9% response) over 6 rounds of data collection (June 2020-May 2021). Data Analysis/Dissemination. We produced weighted estimates of LFIA test positivity (validated against neutralizing antibodies), adjusted for test performance, at local, regional, and national levels and by age, sex, and ethnic group and area-level deprivation score. In each round, fieldwork occurred over 2 weeks, with results reported to policymakers the following week. We disseminated results as preprints and peer-reviewed journal publications. Public Health Implications. REACT-2 estimated the scale and variation in antibody prevalence over time. Community self-testing and -reporting produced rapid insights into the changing course of the pandemic and the impact of vaccine rollout, with implications for future surveillance. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 21, 2023:e1-e9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307381).

Journal article

Delaney B, Dominguez J, Prociuk D, Toni F, Curcin V, Darzi A, Marovic B, Cyras K, Cocarascu O, Ruiz F, Mi E, Mi E, Ramtale C, Rago Aet al., 2023, ROAD2H: development and evaluation of an open-sourceexplainable artificial intelligence approach for managingco-morbidity and clinical guidelines, Learning Health Systems, ISSN: 2379-6146

IntroductionClinical decision support (CDS) systems (CDSSs) that integrate clinical guidelines need to reflect real-world co-morbidity. In patient-specific clinical contexts, transparent recommendations that allow for contraindications and other conflicts arising from co-morbidity are a requirement. In this work, we develop and evaluate a non-proprietary, standards-based approach to the deployment of computable guidelines with explainable argumentation, integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system in Serbia, a middle-income country in West Balkans.MethodsWe used an ontological framework, the Transition-based Medical Recommendation (TMR) model, to represent, and reason about, guideline concepts, and chose the 2017 International global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) guideline and a Serbian hospital as the deployment and evaluation site, respectively. To mitigate potential guideline conflicts, we used a TMR-based implementation of the Assumptions-Based Argumentation framework extended with preferences and Goals (ABA+G). Remote EHR integration of computable guidelines was via a microservice architecture based on HL7 FHIR and CDS Hooks. A prototype integration was developed to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with comorbid cardiovascular or chronic kidney diseases, and a mixed-methods evaluation was conducted with 20 simulated cases and five pulmonologists.ResultsPulmonologists agreed 97% of the time with the GOLD-based COPD symptom severity assessment assigned to each patient by the CDSS, and 98% of the time with one of the proposed COPD care plans. Comments were favourable on the principles of explainable argumentation; inclusion of additional co-morbidities was suggested in the future along with customisation of the level of explanation with expertise.ConclusionAn ontological model provided a flexible means of providing argumentation and explainable artificial intelligence for a long-term condition. Exte

Journal article

Che Bakri NA, Kwasnicki RMM, Giannas E, Tenang L, Khan N, Moenig C, Imam Z, Dhillon K, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Leff DRRet al., 2023, ASO Visual Abstract: The Use of Wearable Activity Monitors to Measure the Upper Limb Physical Activity After Axillary Lymph Node Dissection and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY, ISSN: 1068-9265

Journal article

Whitaker M, Davies B, Atchison C, Barclay W, Ashby D, Darzi A, Riley S, Cooke G, Donnelly C, Chadeau M, Elliott P, Ward Het al., 2023, SARS-CoV-2 rapid antibody test results and subsequent risk of hospitalisation and death in 361,801 people, Nature Communications, Vol: 14, ISSN: 2041-1723

The value of SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) tests for estimating individual disease risk is unclear. The REACT-2 study in England, UK, obtained self-administered SARS-CoV-2 LFIA test results from 361,801 adults in January-May 2021. Here, we link to routine data on subsequent hospitalisation (to September 2021), and death (to December 2021). Among those who had received one or more vaccines, a negative LFIA is associated with increased risk of hospitalisation with COVID-19 (HR: 2.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.15,6.48]), death (all-cause) (HR: 1.59, 95% CI:1.07, 2.37), and death with COVID-19 as underlying cause (20.6 [1.83,232]). For people designated at high risk from COVID-19, who had received one or more vaccines, there is an additional risk of all-cause mortality of 1.9 per 1000 for those testing antibody negative compared to positive. However, the LFIA does not provide substantial predictive information over and above that which is available from detailed sociodemographic and health-related variables. Nonetheless, this simple test provides a marker which could be a valuable addition to understanding population and individual-level risk.

Journal article

Zhang J, Ashrafian H, Delaney B, Darzi Aet al., 2023, Impact of primary to secondary care data sharing on care quality in NHS England hospitals, npj Digital Medicine, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2398-6352

Health information exchange (HIE) is seen as a key component of effective care but remains poorly evidenced at a health system level. In the UK National Health Service (NHS), the ability to share primary care data with secondary care clinicians is a focus of continued digital investment. In this study, we report the evolution of interoperable technology across a period of rapid digital transformation in NHS England from 2015 to 2019, and test association of primary to secondary care data-sharing capabilities with clinical care quality indicators across all acute secondary care providers (n=135 NHS Trusts). In multivariable analyses, data-sharing capabilities are associated with reduction in patients breaching an Accident & Emergency (A&E) 4-hour decision time threshold, and better patient-reported experience of acute hospital care quality. Using synthetic control analyses, we estimate mean 2.271% (STD+/-3.371) absolute reduction in A&E 4-hour decision time breach, 12 months following introduction of data-sharing capabilities. Our findings support current digital transformation programs for developing regional HIE networks but highlight the need to focus on implementation factors in addition to technological procurement.

Journal article

Li E, Lounsbury O, Clarke J, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Neves ALet al., 2023, Perceptions of chief clinical information officers on the state of electronic health records systems interoperability in NHS England: a qualitative interview study, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1472-6947

BackgroundIn the era of electronic health records (EHR), the ability to share clinical data is a key facilitator of healthcare delivery. Since the introduction of EHRs, this aspect has been extensively studied from the perspective of healthcare providers. Less often explored are the day-to-day challenges surrounding the procurement, deployment, maintenance, and use of interoperable EHR systems, from the perspective of healthcare administrators, such as chief clinical information officers (CCIOs).ObjectiveOur study aims to capture the perceptions of CCIOs on the current state of EHR interoperability in the NHS, its impact on patient safety, the perceived facilitators and barriers to improving EHR interoperability, and what the future of EHR development in the NHS may entail.MethodsSemi-structured interviews were conducted between November 2020 – October 2021. Convenience sampling was employed to recruit NHS England CCIOs. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed by two independent researchers to identify emerging themes.ResultsFifteen CCIOs participated in the study. Participants reported that limited EHR interoperability contributed to the inability to easily access and transfer data into a unified source, thus resulting in data fragmentation. The resulting lack of clarity on patients' health status negatively impacts patient safety through suboptimal care coordination, duplication of efforts, and more defensive practice. Facilitators to improving interoperability included the recognition of the need by clinicians, patient expectations, and the inherent centralised nature of the NHS. Barriers included systems usability difficulties, and institutional, data management, and financial-related challenges. Looking ahead, participants acknowledged that realising that vision across the NHS would require a renewed focus on mandating data standards, user-centred design, greater patient involvement, and encouraging i

Journal article

O'Brien N, Fernandez Crespo R, O'Driscoll F, Prendergast M, Chana D, Darzi A, Ghafur Set al., 2023, Usability and feasibility evaluation of an online and offline cybersecurity resource for healthcare organizations (the ECHO framework resource): A mixed methods study (Preprint), JMIR Formative Research

Journal article

O'Brien N, Ghafur S, Howitt P, O'Shaughnessy J, Darzi Aet al., 2023, How NHS data could benefit us all and how to build the trust needed to make it happen, BRITISH JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE, Vol: 84, ISSN: 1750-8460

Journal article

Che Bakri NA, Kwasnicki R, Giannas E, Tenang L, Khan N, Moenig C, Imam Z, Dhillon K, Ashrafian H, Darzi A, Leff Det al., 2023, The Use of Wearable Activity Monitors to Measure the Upper Limb Physical Activity after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Annals of Surgical Oncology, ISSN: 1068-9265

Journal article

Eales O, de Oliveira Martins L, Page A, Wang H, Bodinier B, Tang D, Haw D, Jonnerby LJA, Atchison C, Ashby D, Barclay W, Taylor G, Cooke G, Ward H, Darzi A, Riley S, Elliott P, Donnelly C, Chadeau Met al., 2023, Dynamics and scale of the SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron epidemic in England, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2041-1723

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been characterised by the regular emergence of genomic variants. With natural and vaccine-induced population immunity at high levels, evolutionary pressure favours variants better able to evade SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies. The Omicron variant (first detected in November 2021) exhibited a high degree of immune evasion, leading to increased infection rates worldwide. However, estimates of the magnitude of this Omicron wave have often relied on routine testing data, which are prone to several biases. Using data from the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study, a series of cross-sectional surveys assessing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England, we estimated the dynamics of England’s Omicron wave (from 9 September 2021 to 1 March 2022). We estimate an initial peak in national Omicron prevalence of 6.89% (5.34%, 10.61%) during January 2022, followed by a resurgence in SARS-CoV-2 infections as the more transmissible Omicron sub-lineage, BA.2 replaced BA.1 and BA.1.1. Assuming the emergence of further distinct variants, intermittent epidemics of similar magnitudes may become the ‘new normal’.

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