Imperial College London

Professor the Lord Darzi of Denham PC KBE FRS FMedSci HonFREng

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Surgery
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 1310a.darzi

 
 
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Location

 

Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

1584 results found

Warren LR, Clarke JM, Arora S, Barahona M, Arebi N, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Transitions of care across hospital settings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 2122-2132, ISSN: 1007-9327

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Aufegger L, Shariq O, Bicknell C, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Can shared leadership enhance clinical team management? A systematic review, LEADERSHIP IN HEALTH SERVICES, Vol: 32, Pages: 309-335, ISSN: 1751-1879

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gooderham N, Alkandari A, Ashrafian H, Sathyapalan T, Darzi A, Holmes E, Athanasiou T, Atkin Set al., Bariatric surgery modulates urinary levels of microRNAs involved in the regulation of renal function, Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN: 1664-2392

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Shah N, Martin G, Archer S, Arora S, King D, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Exploring mobile working in healthcare: Clinical perspectives on transitioning to a mobile first culture of work, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS, Vol: 125, Pages: 96-101, ISSN: 1386-5056

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Camara M, Dawda S, Mayer E, Darzi A, Pratt Pet al., 2019, Subject-specific modelling of pneumoperitoneum: model implementation, validation and human feasibility assessment., Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, Vol: 14, Pages: 841-850

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to propose a model that simulates patient-specific anatomical changes resulting from pneumoperitoneum, using preoperative data as input. The framework can assist the surgeon through a real-time visualisation and interaction with the model. Such could further facilitate surgical planning preoperatively, by defining a surgical strategy, and intraoperatively to estimate port positions. METHODS: The biomechanical model that simulates pneumoperitoneum was implemented within the GPU-accelerated NVIDIA FleX position-based dynamics framework. Datasets of multiple porcine subjects before and after abdominal insufflation were used to generate, calibrate and validate the model. The feasibility of modelling pneumoperitoneum in human subjects was assessed by comparing distances between specific landmarks from a patient abdominal wall, to the same landmark measurements on the simulated model. RESULTS: The calibration of simulation parameters resulted in a successful estimation of an optimal set parameters. A correspondence between the simulation pressure parameter and the experimental insufflation pressure was determined. The simulation of pneumoperitoneum in a porcine subject resulted in a mean Hausdorff distance error of 5-6 mm. Feasibility of modelling pneumoperitoneum in humans was successfully demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Simulation of pneumoperitoneum provides an accurate subject-specific 3D model of the inflated abdomen, which is a more realistic representation of the intraoperative scenario when compared to preoperative imaging alone. The simulation results in a stable and interactive framework that performs in real time, and supports patient-specific data, which can assist in surgical planning.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ghafur S, Grass E, Jennings NA, Darzi Aet al., 2019, The challenges of cybersecurity in health care: the UK National Health Service as a case study, The Lancet Digital Health, Vol: 1, Pages: e10-e12, ISSN: 2589-7500

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Markar SR, Chin S-T, Romano A, Wiggins T, Antonowicz S, Paraskeva P, Ziprin P, Darzi A, Hanna GBet al., 2019, Breath Volatile Organic Compound Profiling of Colorectal Cancer Using Selected Ion Flow-tube Mass Spectrometry., Ann Surg, Vol: 269, Pages: 903-910

OBJECTIVE: BACKGROUND:: Breath VOCs have the potential to noninvasively diagnose cancer. METHODS: Exhaled breath samples were collected using 2-L double-layered Nalophan bags, and were analyzed using selected-ion-flow-tube mass-spectrometry. Gold-standard test for comparison was endoscopy for luminal inspection and computed tomography (CT) to confirm cancer recurrence. Three studies were conducted: RESULTS:: CONCLUSION:: This study suggests the association of a single breath biomarker with the primary presence and recurrence of CRCa. Further multicenter validation studies are required to validate these findings.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Martin G, Clarke J, Liew F, Arora S, King D, Paul A, Darzi Aet al., Evaluating the impact of organisational digital maturity on clinical outcomes in secondary care in England., npj Digital Medicine, ISSN: 2398-6352

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Rao A, Kim D, Darzi A, Majeed A, Aylin P, Bottle Aet al., 2019, Regional variations in trajectories of long-term readmission rates among patients in England with heart failure, BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1471-2261

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Miraldo M, Silva F, Gregorio M, Cruz-e-Silva D, Severo M, Nogueira P, Nunes A, Graça P, Lopes C, Breda J, Allen L, Wickramasinghe K, Darzi A, Mikkelsen B, Araújo Fet al., Modelling the impact of a food industry co-regulation agreement on Portugal’s non-communicable disease mortality, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN: 0042-9686

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Moylan A, Appelbaum N, Clarke J, Feather C, Tairraz AF, Maconochie I, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Assessing the Agreement of 5 Ideal Body Weight Calculations for Selecting Medication Dosages for Children With Obesity., JAMA Pediatr

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Goiana-da-Silva F, Cruz-e-Silva D, Carrico M, Teixeira NR, Darzi A, Araujo Fet al., 2019, Changing the channel: television health campaigns in Portugal, LANCET PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 4, Pages: E179-E179, ISSN: 2468-2667

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Martin G, Khajuria A, Arora S, King D, Ashrafian H, Darzi Aet al., 2019, The impact of mobile technology on teamwork and communication in hospitals: a systematic review, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION, Vol: 26, Pages: 339-355, ISSN: 1067-5027

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Smalley KR, Aufegger L, Flott K, Holt G, Mayer EK, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Which behaviour change techniques are most effective in improving healthcare utilisation in COPD self-management programmes? A protocol for a systematic review, BMJ Open Respiratory Research, Vol: 6

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ. Introduction Self-management interventions are often presented as a way to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic illness. However, self-management is quite broadly defined and it remains unclear which types of interventions are most successful. This review will use the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) as a lens through which to categorise self-management interventions regarding which programmes are most likely to be effective and under which circumstances. The aim of this study is to (1) describe the types of self-management programmes that have been developed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and identify the common elements between these to better classify self-management, and (2) evaluate the effect that self-management programmes have on the healthcare behaviour of patients with COPD by classifying those programmes by the behaviour change techniques used. Methods and analysis A systematic search of the literature will be performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, HMIC and PsycINFO. This review will be limited to randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies. The review will follow PRISMA-P guidelines, and will provide a PRISMA checklist and flowchart. Risk of bias in individual studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria, and the quality of included studies will be evaluated using the GRADE criteria, and will be reported in a Summary of Findings table. The primary analysis will be a catalogue of the interventions based on the components of the TDF that were used in the intervention. A matrix comparing included behaviour change techniques to improvements in utilisation will summarise the primary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Not applicable, as this is a secondary review of the literature. Prospero registration number CRD42018104753.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Camara M, Mayer E, Darzi A, Pratt Pet al., 2019, Intraoperative ultrasound for improved 3D tumour reconstruction in robot-assisted surgery: An evaluation of feedback modalities, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ROBOTICS AND COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1478-5951

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Runciman M, Darzi A, Mylonas GP, 2019, Soft Robotics in Minimally Invasive Surgery, SOFT ROBOTICS, ISSN: 2169-5172

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Yeung KTD, Penney N, Ashrafian L, Darzi A, Ashrafian Het al., 2019, Does Sleeve Gastrectomy Expose the Distal Esophagus to Severe Reflux?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis., Ann Surg

MINI: The reported prevalence of new-onset or worsening gastroesophageal reflux disease after sleeve gastrectomy is controversial. Subsequent esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus can be serious unintended sequalae. The aim of this study was to systematically appraise all existing published data to assess the effect of sleeve gastrectomy on gastroesophageal reflux, esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to appraise the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus (BE) after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. BACKGROUND: The precise prevalence of new-onset or worsening GERD after SG is controversial. Subsequent esophagitis and BE can be a serious unintended sequalae. Their postoperative prevalence remains unclear. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies evaluating postoperative outcomes in primary SG for morbid obesity. The primary outcome was prevalence of GERD, esophagitis, and BE after SG. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate combined prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 46 studies totaling 10,718 patients were included. Meta-analysis found that the increase of postoperative GERD after sleeve (POGAS) was 19% and de novo reflux was 23%. The long-term prevalence of esophagitis was 28% and BE was 8%. Four percent of all patients required conversion to RYGB for severe reflux. CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative prevalence of GERD, esophagitis, and BE following SG is significant. Symptoms do not always correlate with the presence of pathology. As the surgical uptake of SG continues to increase, there is a need to ensure that surgical decision-making and the consent process for this procedure consider these long-term complications while also ensuring their postoperative surveillance through endoscopic and physiological approaches. The long-term outcomes of this commonly performed bariatric procedure should be considered alongsid

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Moussa OM, Ardissino M, Kulatilake P, Faraj A, Muttoni E, Darzi A, Ziprin P, Scholtz S, Purkayastha Set al., 2019, Effect of body mass index on depression in a UK cohort of 363 037 obese patients: A longitudinal analysis of transition., Clin Obes

With obesity levels increasing, it is important to consider the mental health risks associated with this condition to optimize patient care. Links between depression and obesity have been explored, but few studies focus on the risk profiles of patients across stratified body mass index (BMI) classes above 30 kg/m2 . This study aims to determine the impact of BMI on depression risk in patients with obesity and to investigate trends of depression in a large cohort of British patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 . A nationwide primary care database, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), was analysed for diagnoses of obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2 ). Obese patients were then sub-classified into seven BMI categories. Primary health care-based records of patients entered in the CPRD were analysed. A total of 363 037 patients had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ; of these patients 97 392 (26.8%) also had a diagnosis of depression. Absolute event rates over time and hazard risk of depression were analysed by BMI category. On Cox regression analysis of time to development of depression, the cumulative hazard increased significantly and linearly across BMI groups (P < 0.001). Compared to those with BMI 30 to 35 kg/m2 , patients with BMI 35 to 40 kg/m2 had a 20% higher risk of depression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.206, confidence interval [CI] 1.170-1.424), and those with BMI > 60 kg/m2 had a 98% higher risk (HR 1.988, CI 1.513-2.612). This study identified the prevalence and time course of depression in a cohort of obese patients in the United Kingdom. Findings suggest the risk of depression is directly proportional to BMI above 30 kg/m2 . Therefore, clinicians should note higher BMI levels confer increased risk of depression.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiao LR, Fajardo Puerta AB, Gall TMH, Sodergren MH, Frampton AE, Pencavel T, Nagendran M, Habib NA, Darzi A, Pai M, Thomas R, Tait Pet al., 2019, Rapid Induction of Liver Regeneration for Major Hepatectomy (REBIRTH): A Randomized Controlled Trial of Portal Vein Embolisation versus ALPPS Assisted with Radiofrequency., Cancers (Basel), Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6694

To avoid liver insufficiency following major hepatic resection, portal vein embolisation (PVE) is used to induce liver hypertrophy pre-operatively. Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy assisted with radiofrequency (RALPPS) was introduced as an alternative method. A randomized controlled trial comparing PVE with RALPPS for the pre-operative manipulation of liver volume in patients with a future liver remnant volume (FLRV) ≤25% (or ≤35% if receiving preoperative chemotherapy) was conducted. The primary endpoint was increase in size of the FLRV. The secondary endpoints were length of time taken for the volume gain, morbidity, operation length and post-operative liver function. Between July 2015 and October 2017, 57 patients were randomised to RALPPS (n = 29) and PVE (n = 28). The mean percentage of increase in the FLRV was 80.7 ± 13.7% after a median 20 days following RALPPS compared to 18.4 ± 9.8% after 35 days (p < 0.001) following PVE. Twenty-four patients after RALPPS and 21 after PVE underwent stage-2 operation. Final resection was achieved in 92.3% and 66.6% patients in RALPPS and PVE, respectively (p = 0.007). There was no difference in morbidity, and one 30-day mortality after RALPPS (p = 0.991) was reported. RALPPS is more effective than PVE in increasing FLRV and the number of patients for surgical resection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Arhi CS, Burns EM, Bouras G, Aylin P, Ziprin P, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Complications after discharge and delays in adjuvant chemotherapy following colonic resection: a cohort study of linked primary and secondary care data, COLORECTAL DISEASE, Vol: 21, Pages: 307-314, ISSN: 1462-8910

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Pucher PH, Johnston MJ, Archer S, Whitby J, Dawson PM, Arora S, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Informing the Consent Process for Surgeons: A Survey Study of Patient Preferences, Perceptions, and Risk Tolerance, JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH, Vol: 235, Pages: 298-302, ISSN: 0022-4804

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Grant Y, Al-Khudairi R, St John E, Barschkett M, Cunningham D, Al-Mufti R, Hogben K, Thiruchelvam P, Hadjiminas DJ, Darzi A, Carter AW, Leff DRet al., 2019, Patient-level costs in margin re-excision for breast-conserving surgery, 19th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Breast-Surgeons, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 384-394, ISSN: 0007-1323

CONFERENCE PAPER

Arhi CS, Markar S, Burns EM, Bouras G, Bottle A, Hanna G, Aylin P, Ziprin P, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Delays in referral from primary care are associated with a worse survival in patients with esophagogastric cancer., Dis Esophagus

NICE referral guidelines for suspected cancer were introduced to improve prognosis by reducing referral delays. However, over 20% of patients with esophagogastric cancer experience three or more consultations before referral. In this retrospective cohort study, we hypothesize that such a delay is associated with a worse survival compared with patients referred earlier. By utilizing Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a national primary care linked database, the first presentation, referral date, a number of consultations before referral and stage for esophagogastric cancer patients were determined. The risk of a referral after one or two consultations compared with three or more consultations was calculated for age and the presence of symptom fulfilling the NICE criteria. The risk of death according to the number of consultations before referral was determined, while accounting for stage and surgical management. 1307 patients were included. Patients referred after one (HR 0.80 95% CI 0.68-0.93 p = 0.005) or two consultations (HR 0.81 95% CI 0.67-0.98 p = 0.034) demonstrated significantly improved prognosis compared with those referred later. The risk of death was also lower for patients who underwent a resection, were younger or had an earlier stage at diagnosis. Those presenting with a symptom fulfilling the NICE criteria (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.21-0.35 p < 0.0001) were more likely to be referred earlier. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between a delay in referral and worse prognosis in esophagogastric patients. These findings should prompt further research to reduce primary care delays.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Goiana-da-Silva F, Cruz-e-Silva D, Gregorio MJ, Nunes AM, Calhau C, Hercberg S, Rito A, Bento A, Cruz D, Almeida F, Darzi A, Araujo Fet al., 2019, Nutri-Score: A Public Health Tool to Improve Eating Habits in Portugal, ACTA MEDICA PORTUGUESA, Vol: 32, Pages: 175-178, ISSN: 1646-0758

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mason SE, Poynter L, Takats Z, Darzi A, Kinross JMet al., 2019, Optical Technologies for Endoscopic Real-Time Histologic Assessment of Colorectal Polyps: A Meta-Analysis., Am J Gastroenterol

OBJECTIVES: Accurate, real-time, endoscopic risk stratification of colorectal polyps would improve decision-making and optimize clinical efficiency. Technologies to manipulate endoscopic optical outputs can be used to predict polyp histology in vivo; however, it remains unclear how accuracy has progressed and whether it is sufficient for routine clinical implementation. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were included if they prospectively deployed an endoscopic optical technology for real-time in vivo prediction of adenomatous colorectal polyps. Polyposis and inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded. Bayesian bivariate meta-analysis was performed, presenting 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: One hundred two studies using optical technologies on 33,123 colorectal polyps were included. Digital chromoendoscopy differentiated neoplasia (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) from benign polyps with sensitivity of 92.2% (90.6%-93.9% CI) and specificity of 84.0% (81.5%-86.3% CI), with no difference between constituent technologies (narrow-band imaging, Fuji intelligent Chromo Endoscopy, iSCAN) or with only diminutive polyps. Dye chromoendoscopy had sensitivity of 92.7% (90.1%-94.9% CI) and specificity of 86.6% (82.9%-89.9% CI), similarly unchanged for diminutive polyps. Spectral analysis of autofluorescence had sensitivity of 94.4% (84.0%-99.1% CI) and specificity of 50.9% (13.2%-88.8% CI). Endomicroscopy had sensitivity of 93.6% (85.3%-98.3% CI) and specificity of 92.5% (81.8%-98.1% CI). Computer-aided diagnosis had sensitivity of 88.9% (74.2%-96.7% CI) and specificity of 80.4% (52.6%-95.7% CI). Prediction confidence and endoscopist experience alone did not significantly improve any technology. The only subgroup to demonstrate a negative predictive value for adenoma above 90% was digital chromoendoscopy, making high confidence predictions of diminutive recto-sigmoid polyps. Chronologic meta-analyses show a

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiao LR, Fajardo Puerta AB, Gall T, Sodergren M, Frampton A, Pencavel T, Nagendran M, Habib NA, Darzi A, Pai M, Thomas R, Tait Pet al., Rapid induction of liver hypertrophy for major hepatecomy:PVE vs RAPPS - a randominsed clinical trial, Cancers, ISSN: 2072-6694

To avoid liver insufficiency following major hepatic resection, portal vein embolisation (PVE) is used to induce liver hypertrophy pre-operatively. Associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy assisted with radiofrequency(RALPPS) was introduced as an alternative method. A randomized controlled trial comparing PVE with RALPPSfor pre-operative manipulation of liver volume in patients with a FLRV ≤25% (≤35% if preoperative chemotherapy) was conducted. The primary endpoint was increase in size of the FLRV. The secondary endpoints were length of time taken for the volume gain, morbidity, operation length andpost-operative liver function. Between July 2015 and October 2017, 57 patients were randomised to RALPPS(n=29) and PVE (n=28). The mean percentage of increase in the FLRV was 80·713·7% after a median 20 days followingRALPPScompared to 18·49·8% after 35 days (p<0.001) following PVE. Twenty-four patients after RALPPSand 21 after PVE underwent stage 2 operation. Final resection was achieved in 92·3% and 66·6% patients in RALPPSand PVE, respectively (p=0.007). There was no difference in morbidity and one 30-day mortality after RALPPS(p=0·991). RALPPSis more effective than PVE in increasing FLRV and the number of patients for surgicalresection.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Garas G, Cingolani I, Panzarasa P, Darzi A, Athanasiou Tet al., 2019, Beyond IDEAL: the importance of surgical innovation metrics (vol 393, pg 315, 2019), LANCET, Vol: 393, Pages: 746-746, ISSN: 0140-6736

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Poynter L, Galea D, Veselkov K, Mirnezami A, Kinross J, Nicholson J, Takáts Z, Darzi A, Mirnezami Ret al., 2019, Network Mapping of Molecular Biomarkers Influencing Radiation Response in Rectal Cancer., Clin Colorectal Cancer

Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer (RC). Tumor regression after RT shows marked variability, and robust molecular methods are needed to help predict likely response. The aim of this study was to review the current published literature and use Gene Ontology (GO) analysis to define key molecular biomarkers governing radiation response in RC. A systematic review of electronic bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase) was performed for original articles published between 2000 and 2015. Biomarkers were then classified according to biological function and incorporated into a hierarchical GO tree. Both significant and nonsignificant results were included in the analysis. Significance was binarized on the basis of univariate and multivariate statistics. Significance scores were calculated for each biological domain (or node), and a direct acyclic graph was generated for intuitive mapping of biological pathways and markers involved in RC radiation response. Seventy-two individual biomarkers across 74 studies were identified. On highest-order classification, molecular biomarkers falling within the domains of response to stress, cellular metabolism, and pathways inhibiting apoptosis were found to be the most influential in predicting radiosensitivity. Homogenizing biomarker data from original articles using controlled GO terminology demonstrated that cellular mechanisms of response to RT in RC-in particular the metabolic response to RT-may hold promise in developing radiotherapeutic biomarkers to help predict, and in the future modulate, radiation response.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Joshi M, Ashrafian H, Aufegger L, Khan S, Arora S, Cooke G, Darzi Aet al., 2019, Wearable sensors to improve detection of patient deterioration, EXPERT REVIEW OF MEDICAL DEVICES, Vol: 16, Pages: 145-154, ISSN: 1743-4440

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Dilley JWR, Hughes-Hallett A, Pratt PJ, Pucher PH, Camara M, Darzi AW, Mayer EKet al., 2019, Perfect Registration Leads to Imperfect Performance: A Randomized Trial of Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance., Ann Surg, Vol: 269, Pages: 236-242

OBJECTIVE: To compare surgical safety and efficiency of 2 image guidance modalities, perfect augmented reality (AR) and side-by-side unregistered image guidance (IG), against a no guidance control (NG), when performing a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). BACKGROUND: Image guidance using AR offers the potential to improve understanding of subsurface anatomy, with positive ramifications for surgical safety and efficiency. No intra-abdominal study has demonstrated any advantage for the technology. Perfect AR cannot be provided in the operative setting in a patient; however, it can be generated in the simulated setting. METHODS: Thirty-six experienced surgeons performed a baseline LC using the LapMentor simulator before randomization to 1 of 3 study arms: AR, IG, or NG. Each performed 3 further LC. Safety and efficiency-related simulator metrics, and task workload (SURG-TLX) were collected. RESULTS: The IG group had a shorter total instrument path length and fewer movements than NG and AR groups. Both IG and NG took a significantly shorter time than AR to complete dissection of Calot triangle. Use of IG and AR resulted in significantly fewer perforations and serious complications than the NG group. IG had significantly fewer perforations and serious complications than the AR group. Compared with IG, AR guidance was found to be significantly more distracting. CONCLUSION: Side-by-side unregistered image guidance (IG) improved safety and surgical efficiency in a simulated setting when compared with AR or NG. IG provides a more tangible opportunity for integrating image guidance into existing surgical workflow as well as delivering the safety and efficiency benefits desired.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

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