Imperial College London

MissAimeeDi Marco

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 3938a.di-marco

 
 
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Location

 

171Hammersmith HouseHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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44 results found

Chander NR, Chidambaram S, Van Den Heede K, DiMarco AN, Tolley NS, Palazzo FFet al., 2022, Response to Letter to the Editor From Cuny et al: "Correlation of Preoperative Imaging Findings and Parathyroidectomy Outcomes Support NICE 2019 Guidance", JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, Vol: 107, Pages: E2650-E2650, ISSN: 0021-972X

Journal article

Van Den Heede K, Paspala A, Chander N, Chidambaram S, Wernig F, Todd JF, DiMarco AN, Palazzo FFet al., 2022, To block, or not to block … is it still the question? Effectiveness of alpha- and beta-blockade in phaeochromocytoma surgery: an institutional analysis., Ann R Coll Surg Engl, Vol: 104, Pages: 138-143

INTRODUCTION: Phaeochromocytomas/paraganglioma (PPGL) surgery was historically associated with significant risks of perioperative complications. The decreased mortality (<3.0%) had been attributed in part to optimal preoperative alpha-blockade. The value of alpha-blockade in decreasing morbidity is being challenged. The aim of our study is to present an institutional experience of preoperative alpha-blocking of PPGL and its effect on cardiovascular stability and postoperative morbidity. METHODS: A retrospective study using data from our institutional database was conducted. All patients undergoing adrenalectomy for PPGL from October 2011 to September 2020 were included. All patients were routinely alpha-blocked. Intraoperative cardiovascular instability (ICI) was assessed through number of systolic blood pressure (SBP) episodes >160mmHg, SBP <90mmHg, the need for vasoactive drugs and volume of intraoperative crystalloids administered. Morbidity was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing surgery were identified of whom 53 patients had complete anaesthetic records available for analysis. Thirty-two patients (60%) had at least one episode with an SBP >160mmHg. Nine (17%) cases had no intraoperative hypotensive episodes, while 3 (6%) patients had >10 intraoperative episodes of an SBP <90mmHg. Twenty-one (40%) patients received vasoactive drugs during surgery. The median volume of intraoperative crystalloids was 2 litres (1-4). Postoperatively, no patient experienced cardiovascular complications, including arrhythmia or myocardial ischaemia. Only two were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and one 30-day readmission occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac instability remained significant in PPGL surgery despite optimal alpha- and beta-blockade. While omitting blockade would appear empirically questionable, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of surgery with and without alpha-blockade will provide an answer.

Journal article

Di Marco A, Mechera R, Glover A, Papachristos A, Clifton-Bligh R, Delbridge L, Sywak M, Sidhu Set al., 2021, Focused parathyroidectomy without intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement in primary hyperparathyroidism: Still a valid approach?, Surgery, Vol: 170, Pages: 1383-1388

BACKGROUND: Concern regarding suboptimal cure rates has led to some endocrine surgery units abandoning focused parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in favor of open bilateral neck exploration or making intraoperative parathyroid hormone estimation mandatory in focused parathyroidectomy. This study explores whether focused parathyroidectomy for radiologically localized primary hyperparathyroidism without intraoperative parathyroid hormone is still a valid approach. METHODS: Retrospective review of a tertiary referral endocrine surgery unit database. All parathyroidectomies for primary hyperparathyroidism over 6 years (2013-2019) were included. Lithium-induced hyperparathyroidism, reoperations, familial disease, and concurrent thyroid surgery were excluded. Characteristics and outcomes for focused parathyroidectomy and open bilateral neck exploration were compared by intention-to-treat and treatment delivered. Persistence and recurrence, conversions and complications were analyzed as endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 2,828 parathyroidectomies were performed and 2,421 analyzed. By intention to treat there were 1,409 focused parathyroidectomies and 1,012 open bilateral neck explorations. Focused parathyroidectomy patients were younger: 63 vs 66 years (P < .01); however, gender (77%, 79% female), preoperative peak serum calcium (2.72, 2.70 mmol/L [P = .23]), and serum parathyroid hormone (11.5, 11.0 pmol/L [P = .52]) did not differ. In total, 229 (16.3%) focused parathyroidectomies were converted to open bilateral neck exploration. Multiple gland disease was confirmed in 54.5% of converted patients. Median follow-up was 41 months (3-60 months). Persistence or recurrence requiring reoperation totaled 2.2% and did not differ between focused parathyroidectomy and open bilateral neck exploration in either intention to treat or final treatment analyses. Complications occurred in 1.2% of focused parathyroidectomy and 3.2% open bilateral neck exploration

Journal article

Chander NR, Chidambaram S, Van den Heede K, DiMarco AN, Tolley NS, Palazzo FFet al., 2021, Correlation of Preoperative Imaging Findings and Parathyroidectomy Outcomes Support NICE 2019 Guidance, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, Vol: 107, Pages: E1242-E1248, ISSN: 0021-972X

Journal article

Van Den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Winter Beatty J, Chander N, Markar S, Tolley NS, Palazzo FF, Kinross JK, Di Marco AN, PanSurg Collaborative and the PREDICT-Endocrine Collaborativeet al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT Study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, World Journal of Surgery, Vol: 45, Pages: 2315-2324, ISSN: 0364-2313

BACKGROUND: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients have continued to present with endocrine (surgical) pathology in an environment depleted of resources. This study investigated how the pandemic affected endocrine surgery practice. METHODS: PanSurg-PREDICT is an international, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of emergency and elective surgical patients in secondary/tertiary care during the pandemic. PREDICT-Endocrine collected endocrine-specific data alongside demographics, COVID-19 and outcome data from 11-3-2020 to 13-9-2020. RESULTS: A total of 380 endocrine surgery patients (19 centres, 12 countries) were analysed (224 thyroidectomies, 116 parathyroidectomies, 40 adrenalectomies). Ninety-seven percent were elective, and 63% needed surgery within 4 weeks. Eight percent were initially deferred but had surgery during the pandemic; less than 1% percent was deferred for more than 6 months. Decision-making was affected by capacity, COVID-19 status or the pandemic in 17%, 5% and 7% of cases. Indication was cancer/worrying lesion in 61% of thyroidectomies and 73% of adrenalectomies and calcium 2.80 mmol/l or greater in 50% of parathyroidectomies. COVID-19 status was unknown at presentation in 92% and remained unknown before surgery in 30%. Two-thirds were asked to self-isolate before surgery. There was one COVID-19-related ICU admission and no mortalities. Consultant-delivered care occurred in a majority (anaesthetist 96%, primary surgeon 76%). Post-operative vocal cord check was reported in only 14% of neck endocrine operations. Both of these observations are likely to reflect modification of practice due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected endocrine surgical decision-making, case mix and personnel delivering care. Significant variation was seen in COVID-19 risk mitigation measures. COVID-19-related complications were uncommon. This analysis demonstrates the safety of endocrine surgery during this

Journal article

Di Marco A, Palazzo F, 2021, Goitre and thyroid cancer, Medicine (United Kingdom), Vol: 49, Pages: 522-526, ISSN: 1357-3039

Goitre is the generic term for thyroid enlargement and encompasses relatively common benign disease as well as thyroid malignancy, which is less common. Unfortunately, the clinical presentations of benign and malignant thyroid disease are similar. The aim of clinical assessment and investigations is therefore to identify the small number of cancers among the frequent non-malignant goitres. Key investigations include thyroid function tests, ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology. Benign thyroid disease requires treatment only in the presence of dysfunction or local compressive symptoms. The treatment of thyroid cancer is multidisciplinary and includes surgery, radioiodine therapy and life-long suppression of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Novel targeted therapies are being introduced for cancers refractory to standard optimal therapy. The diagnosis and management of thyroid cancer are being centralized around a multidisciplinary team structure in order to improve outcomes in the UK. Recent developments in the management of thyroid cancer include the use of molecular biomarkers to identify malignancy in thyroid nodules, assist with prognostication and facilitate targeted therapy for advanced disease.

Journal article

Van den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Beatty JW, Chander N, Markar S, Tolley NS, Palazzo FF, Kinross JK, Di Marco ANet al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic (Apr, 10.1007/s00268-021-06099-z, 2021), World Journal of Surgery, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0364-2313

Journal article

Zaman S, Almazrouei R, Sam AH, DiMarco AN, Todd JF, Palazzo FF, Tan T, Dhillo WS, Meeran K, Wernig Fet al., 2021, Synacthen stimulation test following unilateral adrenalectomy needs to be interpreted with caution, Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1664-2392

Background: Cortisol levels in response to stress are highly variable. Baseline and stimulated cortisol levels are commonly used to determine adrenal function following unilateral adrenalectomy. We report the results of synacthen stimulation testing following unilateral adrenalectomy in a tertiary referral center.Methods: Data were collected retrospectively for 36 patients who underwent synacthen stimulation testing one day post unilateral adrenalectomy. None of the patients had clinical signs of hypercortisolism preoperatively. No patient received pre- or intraoperative steroids. Patients with overt Cushing’s syndrome were excluded.Results: The median age was 58 (31-79) years. Preoperatively, 16 (44%) patients had a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, 12 (33%) patients had primary aldosteronism and 8 (22%) patients had non-functioning adenomas with indeterminate/atypical imaging characteristics necessitating surgery. Preoperative overnight dexamethasone suppression test results revealed that 6 of 29 patients failed to suppress cortisol to <50 nmol/L. Twenty (56%) patients achieved a stimulated cortisol ≥450 nmol/L at 30 minutes and 28 (78%) at 60 minutes. None of the patients developed clinical adrenal insufficiency necessitating steroid replacement.Conclusions: Synacthen stimulation testing following unilateral adrenalectomy using standard stimulated cortisol cut-off values would wrongly label many patients adrenally insufficient and may lead to inappropriate prescriptions of steroids to patients who do not need them.

Journal article

Van Den Heede K, Tolley NS, Di Marco AN, Palazzo FFet al., 2021, Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Health Economic Review, CANCERS, Vol: 13

Journal article

Camenzuli C, DiMarco AN, Isaacs KE, Grant Y, Jackson J, Alsafi A, Harvey C, Barwick TD, Tolley N, Palazzo FFet al., 2021, The changing face of reoperative parathyroidectom a single-centre comparison of 147 parathyroid reoperations, ANNALS OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, Vol: 103, Pages: 29-34, ISSN: 0035-8843

Journal article

Gavriilidis P, Camenzuli C, Paspala A, Di Marco AN, Palazzo FFet al., 2020, Posterior Retroperitoneoscopic Versus Laparoscopic Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy: A Systematic Review by an Updated Meta-Analysis, WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 45, Pages: 168-179, ISSN: 0364-2313

Journal article

Krawitz R, Glover A, Koneru S, Jiang J, Di Marco A, Gill AJ, Aniss A, Sywak M, Delbridge L, Sidhu Set al., 2020, The Significance of Histologically "Large Normal" Parathyroid Glands in Primary Hyperparathyroidism., World J Surg, Vol: 44, Pages: 1149-1155

INTRODUCTION: We investigated outcomes in a cohort of patients with a biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) undergoing surgery for asymptomatic disease or target organ damage, where a focussed or four-gland operation was undertaken and the histopathology only reported a "large normal" parathyroid gland (LNP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients subjected to a parathyroidectomy for pHPT between 2012 and 2018 with a pathology of LNP were included. Patients with fat depletion or additional histological features of adenoma or hyperplasia in any of the resected glands were excluded. A control group was formed from 50 consecutive patients with the histological finding of adenoma or hyperplasia during the same study period. The primary outcome was biochemical normalisation of pHPT at 1-2 weeks and after 6 months post-operatively. RESULTS: Forty-eight LNP patients (2% of all parathyroidectomies) were included in the study group with 50 matched controls. LNP patients had a lower biochemical cure rate (81% vs. 98% P < 0.05) and a higher risk of recurrence (10% vs. 0%, P = 0.06). LNP patients had a milder form of pHPT (Ca2+ 2.63 vs. 2.68 P < 0.05) with a smaller PTH and Ca2+ drop post-operatively. For LNP patients with failure, a definite additional cause of pHPT was found in only two patients. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a controversial area in pHPT and reports LNP as a cause of pHPT. The biochemical analysis of this LNP group supports a benefit in resection in the setting of pHPT, although the risk of failure (persistence/recurrence) is higher than those with adenoma or hyperplasia. Stricter post-operative follow-up of LNP patients should be considered.

Journal article

Di Marco AN, Glover A, Sywak MS, Sidhu SBet al., 2020, Letter to the Editor: Reoperation for Bleeding After Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery: Incidence, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Management, WORLD JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 44, Pages: 2441-2442, ISSN: 0364-2313

Journal article

Di Marco AN, Palazzo FF, 2020, Near-infrared autofluorescence in thyroid and parathyroid surgery, GLAND SURGERY, Vol: 9, Pages: S136-S146, ISSN: 2227-684X

Journal article

Isaacs K, Belete S, Miller B, Di Marco A, Kirby S, Barwick T, Tolley N, Anderson J, Palazzo Fet al., 2019, Video‐assisted thoracoscopic surgery for ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, BJS Open, Vol: 3, Pages: 743-749, ISSN: 2474-9842

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) caused by an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma is uncommon. In the past, when the adenoma was not accessible from the neck, median sternotomy was advocated for safe and successful parathyroidectomy. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) parathyroidectomy represents a modern alternative approach for this problem.Methods: Information was obtained related to patients undergoing VATS from a specific database, including clinical presentation, biochemistry, pre-operative imaging, surgical approach and patient outcomes. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to draw comparisons with other publications.Results: Over a 2-year period, 9 patients underwent VATS parathyroidectomy for sporadic pHPT, of whom five had persistent pHPT following previous unsuccessful parathyroidectomy via cervicotomy, while four had had no previous parathyroid surgery. The mean operating time was 101 minutes (range 60 – 160). 8 patients were biochemically cured, with no major complications. 1 patient required conversion to a median sternotomy for removal of a thymoma that had resulted in false positive preoperative imaging.Conclusion: With appropriate pre-operative imaging, multidisciplinary input and expertise, VATS parathyroidectomy is an effective, safe and well-tolerated approach to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma.

Journal article

Hadjidemetriou I, Mariniello K, Ruiz-Babot G, Pittaway J, Mancini A, Mariannis D, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Parvanta L, Drake WM, Chung T-T, Abdel-Aziz TE, DiMarco A, Palazzo FF, Wierman ME, Kiseljak-Vassiliades K, King PJ, Guasti Let al., 2019, DLK1/PREF1 marks a novel cell population in the human adrenal cortex, JOURNAL OF STEROID BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Vol: 193, ISSN: 0960-0760

Journal article

DiMarco A, Chotalia R, Bloxham R, McIntyre C, Tolley N, Palazzo FFet al., 2019, Does fluoroscopy prevent inadvertent parathyroidectomy in thyroid surgery?, ANNALS OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, Vol: 101, Pages: 508-513, ISSN: 0035-8843

Journal article

Gartland RM, Di Marco A, Sywak M, 2019, Posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach is feasible in selected patients requiring revision adrenal surgery., ANZ J Surg, Vol: 89, Pages: 1175-1176

Journal article

DiMarco AN, Wong MS, Jayasekara J, ColeClark D, Aniss A, Glover AR, Delbridge LW, Sywak MS, Sidhu SBet al., 2019, Risk of needing completion thyroidectomy for low‐risk papillary thyroid cancers treated by lobectomy, BJS Open, Vol: 3, Pages: 299-304, ISSN: 2474-9842

BackgroundLow‐risk differentiated thyroid cancers may, according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) 2015 guidelines, be managed initially with lobectomy. However, definitive risk categorization requires pathological assessment of the specimen, resulting in completion thyroidectomy being recommended when discordance between preoperative and postoperative staging occurs. This study sought to establish the expected rate of completion thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) treated by lobectomy.MethodsPatients with PTC treated over 5 years (2013–2017 inclusive) and meeting the ATA criteria for lobectomy were identified from the prospectively developed database of a high‐volume, university department of endocrine surgery. Concordance between the ATA initial and final recommendation, and the putative rate of completion thyroidectomy were calculated. Multivariable analysis was used to assess preoperative factors as predictors of the need for total thyroidectomy.ResultsOf 275 patients with PTC who met ATA preoperative criteria for lobectomy there was concordance between this and the final recommendation in 158 (57·5 per cent) and discordance in 117 (43·5 per cent). Most common reasons for discordance were: angioinvasion (30·8 per cent), local invasion (23·9 per cent) or both (20·5 per cent). Four patients (1·5 per cent) had permanent hypoparathyroidism. On multivariable analysis, age, sex, tumour size and family history did not independently predict the final treatment required.ConclusionAlthough many patients may be treated adequately with lobectomy, just under half would require completion thyroidectomy. Further work is needed on preoperative risk stratification but, before this, total thyroidectomy remains the treatment of choice for low‐risk 1–4‐cm PTC in the hands of high‐volume thyroid surgeons who can demonstrate low complication rates.

Journal article

Di Marco A, Chotalia R, Bloxham R, McIntyre C, Tolley N, Palazzo FFet al., 2019, Autofluorescence in parathyroidectomy: signal intensity correlates with serum calcium and parathyroid hormone but routine clinical use is not justified, World Journal of Surgery, Vol: 43, Pages: 1532-1537, ISSN: 1432-2323

BACKGROUND: The inability to identify the pathological gland at surgery results in failure to cure hyperparathyroidism in 2-5%. The poorly understood characteristic of parathyroid tissue to manifest autofluorescence (AF) under near-infrared (NIR) light has been promoted as an intraoperative adjunct in parathyroid surgery. This study sought to explore potential clinical correlates for AF and assess the clinical utility of AF in parathyroid surgery. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing parathyroid surgery for primary and renal disease were included. NIR imaging was used intraoperatively and the degree of AF of parathyroid glands graded by the operating surgeon. Variables assessed for correlation with AF were: pre-operative serum calcium and PTH, SestaMIBI positivity, gland weight and histological composition. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients underwent parathyroidectomy over an 8-month period: 49 bilateral explorations, 41 unilateral and 6 focussed lateral approaches: 284 potentially 'visualisable' glands in total. Two hundred and fifty-seven glands (90.5%) were visualised with NIR. Correlation was found between the degree of fluorescence and pre-operative serum calcium and PTH, but not between gland weight and SestaMIBI positivity. In those with renal hyperparathyroidism, a predominance of oxyphil cells correlated with increased AF. CONCLUSION: Autofluorescence intensity correlates with serum calcium, PTH and gland composition. Further refinements would be required for this information to be of value in a clinical setting. Improvements allowing NIR to visualise the additional 9.5% of parathyroids and overcome the variation in signal intensity due to depth of access are required for the routine adoption of this technology. At present, its routine use in a clinical setting cannot be justified.

Journal article

Di Marco A, Meeran K, Christakis I, Sodhi V, Nelson-Piercy C, Tolley N, Palazzo Fet al., 2019, Seventeen cases of primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: a call for management guidelines, Journal of the Endocrine Society, Vol: 3, Pages: 1009-1021, ISSN: 2472-1972

IntroductionThe risks of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) to pregnant women and their fetuses are well-reported and appear to increase commensurate with serum calcium. The management strategy of pHPT must be adapted in pregnancy and should reflect the severity of hypercalcaemia. However, no guidelines exist to assist clinicians facing this dilemma.MethodsThe experience of a high-volume multidisciplinary endocrine surgical service in managing a consecutive series of pregnant women with pHPT referred for parathyroidectomy is presented and compared to a non-pregnant cohort with pHPT. Evidence in the published literature is explored via a review on pHPT and pregnancy outcomes.ResultsSeventeen pregnant women and 247 age range-matched non-pregnant women with pHPT were referred for surgery over 11 years. Serum calcium was higher in the pregnant cohort 2.89mmol/l vs 2.78mmol/l (p=0.03). Pre-operative localisation with ultrasound succeeded in 8(47%) pregnant women and SestaMIBI in 2/6(33% imaged pre-conception) compared to 84(34%) and 102(42%) controls (NS at 0.36 and 0.59). Parathyroidectomy was performed under general anaesthesia between 12 and 28 weeks gestation, with no adverse pregnancy outcomes resulting. Cure rate was 100% vs 96% in controls.ConclusionspHPT in pregnancy is a threat to mother and child. Medical management may be appropriate in mild disease (serum calcium <0.25mmol/l above the normal range) but in moderate-severe disease, parathyroidectomy under general anaesthesia in the second trimester is safe. Localisation using ionising radiation/MRI is unnecessary as surgical intervention in a high-volume multi-disciplinary setting has excellent outcomes. Guidelines on the topic would assist clinicians in this complex decision-making process.

Journal article

diMarco AN, Sywak MS, Sidhu SB, 2018, Primary Hyperparathyroidism., N Engl J Med, Vol: 379

Journal article

Di Marco AN, Chotalia R, Bloxham R, McIntyre C, Tolley N, Palazzo Fet al., 2018, Autofluorescence in Parathyroidectomy: Clinically Valuable Correlations?, European Society of Endocrine Surgeons

Conference paper

DiMarco A, Christakis I, Constantinides V, Regan L, Palazzo FFet al., 2018, Undiagnosed Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Recurrent Miscarriage: The First Prospective Pilot Study., World Journal of Surgery, Vol: 42, Pages: 639-645, ISSN: 1432-2323

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in pregnancy is reported to be associated with significant maternal and foetal complications and an up to threefold increase in the risk of miscarriage. However, the true incidence of pHPT in pregnancy, complete and miscarried, is unknown and there are no data on the prevalence of undiagnosed pHPT in recurrent miscarriage (RM) (≥3 consecutive miscarriages under 24-week gestation). This is the first prospective study aiming to establish the prevalence of undiagnosed pHPT in RM. METHODS: Following UK National ethics committee approval, women who had experienced 3 or more consecutive miscarriages were recruited from a nationwide RM clinic. Serum corrected calcium, phosphate, PTH and vitamin D were evaluated. Patients with raised serum calcium and/or PTH were recalled for confirmatory tests. Power calculations suggested that a minimum of 272 patients were required to demonstrate a clinically significant incidence of pHPT. RESULTS: Three hundred women were recruited, median age 35 years (range 19-42). Eleven patients had incomplete data, leaving 289 patients suitable for analysis; 50/289 patients (17%) with abnormal tests were recalled. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/l) and insufficiency (25-75 nmol/l) was 8.7 and 67.8%, respectively. One patient was diagnosed with pHPT (0.34%) and underwent successful parathyroidectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of undiagnosed pHPT (0.34%) in RM in this study appears to be many times greater than the 0.05% expected in this age group. The findings of this pilot study merit follow-up with a larger-scale study. Routine serum calcium estimation is not currently undertaken in RM and should be considered.

Journal article

Plonczak AM, DiMarco AN, Dina R, Gujral DM, Palazzo FFet al., 2017, Correction to: Breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland - An uncommon sentinel for diffuse metastatic disease: A case report and literature review., Journal of Medical Case Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1752-1947

Journal article

Plonczak A, DiMarco A, Gujral D, Dina R, Palazzo Fet al., 2017, Breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland - An uncommon sentinel for diffuse metastatic disease: A case report and literature review., Journal of Medical Case Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1752-1947

BackgroundMetastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway. Here, we present a case of a patient with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland and discuss the role of thyroidectomy in the context of the current literature.Case presentationA 62-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman was diagnosed as having bilateral breast carcinoma in 2004, for which she underwent bilateral mastectomy. The pathology revealed multifocal disease on the right, T2N0(0/20)M0 grade 1 and 2 invasive ductal carcinoma, and on the left side, T3N1(2/18)M0 grade 1 invasive ductal carcinoma. Surgery was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and regional radiotherapy. The disease was under control on hormonal therapy until 2016, when she developed cervical lymphadenopathy. The fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid was reported as papillary thyroid cancer; and the fine-needle biopsy of the left lateral nodal disease was more suggestive of breast malignancy. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and a clearance of the central compartment lymph nodes and a biopsy of the lateral nodal disease. The histopathological analysis was consistent with metastatic breast cancer in the thyroid and lymph nodes with no evidence of a primary thyroid malignancy.ConclusionsA past history of a malignancy elsewhere should raise the index of suspicion of metastatic disease in patients presenting with thyroid lumps with or without cervical lymphadenopathy. Detection of metasta

Journal article

Di Marco AN, Chotalia R, Bloxham R, McIntyre C, Tolley N, Palazzo Fet al., 2017, Can near infrared autofluorescent imaging prevent inadvertent parathyroidectomy? A pilot study, British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons

Conference paper

Di Marco AN, Halle Y, Sam A, Palazzo Fet al., 2017, Subclinical hypercortisolaemia in patients undergoing adrenal surgery: What is the clinical relevance?, British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons

Conference paper

Di Marco AN, Palazzo F, 2017, Goitre and Thyroid Cancer, Medicine, ISSN: 1357-3039

Journal article

Di Marco AN, Jeyakumar J, Pratt PJ, Yang G-Z, Darzi AWet al., 2016, Evaluating a novel 3D stereoscopic visual display for transanal endoscopic surgery: a randomized controlled crossover study, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 263, Pages: 36-42, ISSN: 1528-1140

Journal article

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