Imperial College London

ProfessorAndreasEisingerich

Business School

Head of Department Analytics, Marketing and Operations
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 9763a.eisingerich

 
 
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Location

 

386DBusiness School BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

139 results found

Sun X, Foscht T, Eisingerich AB, 2021, Does educating customers create positive word of mouth?, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol: 62, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0969-6989

This research theorizes and empirically examines whether and how educating customers—a brand's efforts to enhance customers' product-related knowledge—affects customer word of mouth (WOM). In two lab experiments across service and retailing contexts, we find that educating customers enhances customers' positive WOM for a brand. Customer satisfaction and perceived expertise mediate this effect. Critically, the positive impact on WOM is stronger for customers who have less prior knowledge regarding the educational topic and are more amenable to knowledge sharing. The current findings add to the literature on customer education and WOM and offer managerial insights for improving brands' WOM campaigns.

Journal article

Lin Y-T, Doong H-S, Eisingerich A, 2021, Avatar design of virtual salespeople: mitigation of recommendation conflicts, Journal of Service Research, Vol: 24, Pages: 141-159, ISSN: 1094-6705

The role of virtual salesperson (VS) and the importance of customer reviews in facilitating online purchase decisions and sales have recently received much attention from technology companies, marketing practice professionals, and academics. However, customers’willingness to follow the purchase advice of the VS when there is a conflict between these recommendations and those of other online customer is less understood. Thisresearchtheorizes and investigates the extent to which customers’ relationship satisfaction with, and trust in,the VS helps explain customer willingness to follow VS advice in the context of recommendation conflict. Using four studies, our research explores how and when the VS’s avatar design mitigates the negative influence of conflict. An important theoretical and managerial implication of this research is that VS avatar designs that are high in automated social presence (ASP)help reduce the negative impact of conflict. However, we find that ASP mitigates the negative effects of conflict only for avatars that score low (versus high) on cuteness.

Journal article

Lin Y-T, MacInnis D, Eisingerich A, 2020, Strong anxiety boosts new product adoption when hope is also strong, Journal of Marketing, Vol: 84, Pages: 60-78, ISSN: 0022-2429

New products can evoke anticipatory emotions such as hope and anxiety. On the one hand, consumers might hope that innovative offerings will produce goal-congruent outcomes; on the other hand, they might also be anxious about possible outcomes that are goal-incongruent. The authors demonstrate the provocative and counterintuitive finding that strong anxiety about potentially goal-incongruent outcomes from a new product actually enhances (vs. weakens) consequential adoption intentions (Study 1) and actual adoption (Studies 2 and 3) when hope is also strong. The authors test action planning (a form of elaboration) and perceived control over outcomes as serial mediators to explain this effect. They find that the proposed mechanism holds even after they consider alternative explanations, including pain/gain inferences, confidence in achieving goal-congruent outcomes, global elaboration, affective forecasts, and motivated reasoning. Managerially, the findings suggest that when bringing a new product to market, new product adoption may be greatest when hope and anxiety are both strong. The findings also point to ways in which marketers might enhance hope and/or anxiety, and they suggest that the use of potentially anxiety-inducing tactics such as disclaimers in ads and on packages might not deter adoption when hope is also strong.

Journal article

Fritze M, Marchand A, Eisingerich A, Benkenstein Met al., 2020, Access-based services as substitutes for material possessions: the role of psychological ownership, Journal of Service Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 368-385, ISSN: 1094-6705

Access-based services—in which consumers do not physically own material goods but gainaccess to services by registering with the provider—have risenin popularityas an alternative to individual ownership and conventional consumption.Yet,companies still face key challenges in promoting theseservices. Prior research indicates that consumersassign significant importance to their material possessions; the current study investigates how psychological ownership, or the mental state of perceiving something as one’s own, attainedthrough access-based services might lead customers toincrease their service useand forgomaterial ownershipand consumption. With four studies,using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental data, as well as combined self-reportswith usage data,we theorize and demonstrate this effect. Firms that offer access-based services can increase customers’ service psychologicalownership, which acts as a psychological substitute for physical ownership and increases access-based service use. The results suggest ways managers can leverage the psychological power of ownershipfeelings,rather than try to fight the lackof actual ownership,in access-based consumptioncontexts.

Journal article

Liu Y, Hultman M, Eisingerich AB, Wei Xet al., 2020, How does brand loyalty interact with tourism destination? Exploring the effect of brand loyalty on place attachment, ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH, Vol: 81, ISSN: 0160-7383

Journal article

Borah A, Banerjee S, Lin Y-T, Jain A, Eisingerich Aet al., 2020, Improvised marketing interventions in social media, Journal of Marketing, Vol: 84, Pages: 69-91, ISSN: 0022-2429

Online virality has attracted the attention of academics and marketers who seek to identify the characteristics of online content that promote sharing. This article adds to this body of research by examining the phenomenon of improvised marketing interventions (IMIs)—social media actions that are composed and executed in real-time proximal to an external event. Using the concept of quick wit and theorizing that the effect of IMIs is furthered by humor and timeliness or unanticipation, the authors find evidence of this effect on both virality and firm value across five multi-method studies, including quasi-experiments, experiments, and archival data analysis. These findings point to the potential of improvised marketing actions in social media and to the features that firms should proactively focus on managing in order to reap the observed online sharing and firm value benefits.

Journal article

Ren J, Tsai H, Eisingerich A, 2020, The effect of Inter- and Intra- regional geographic diversification strategies on firm performance in China, Management Decision, Vol: 58, Pages: 16-38, ISSN: 0025-1747

PurposeThis study theorizes and empirically examines the effects of intra- and inter-regional geographic diversification on firm performance in China. Furthermore, it investigates the key firm capabilities, which moderate the relationships between intra- and inter-regional geographic diversification and firm performance.Design/methodology/approach In this research, we studied 366 listed companies that invest in mainland China. We used the Taiwan Economy Journal database to construct a panel dataset from 2005 to 2014 and employed panel regression estimations as part of our empirical analyses.Findings We find that the effect of regional diversification on firm performance is significantly influenced by the contexts of the expansion. More specifically, the results show that the effect of intra-regional geographic diversification on firm performance takes the form of a U-shape relationship. In contrast, we find that inter-regional geographic diversification has a negative effect on firm performance. Firm marketing, R&D, and managerial capabilities moderate these relationships.Research limitations/implications First, the companies studied in this research are mainly Taiwanese manufacturers with investments in mainland China. Second, the current model can be expanded by exploring additional process explanations and moderators in future research. Practical implicationsAn important practical implication of this research is that when firms choose an intra-regional expansion strategy in China, they should adopt a moderate provincial diversification strategy in the invested region and reinforce its marketing capability to enhance firm performance. A careful consideration of a firm’s marketing, R&D and managerial capabilities is needed for successful regional diversification strategies in the China market.Originality/valueThe findings of this study contribute significantly to the existing literature on firms’ regional diversification. First, we explore and e

Journal article

Ang D, Liu Y, Eisingerich AB, 2019, Difference in new product adoption among at-risk members of society: A critical analysis of males, females, and transgender individuals, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol: 151, ISSN: 0191-8869

The study examines how fear and embarrassment associated with the usage of a new product influence product adoption. The extant body of work on individual differences is largely based on educated, relatively wealthy individuals in industrialized countries. This study extended prior work by exploring the uptake of a new product among 1823 at-risk individuals including sex workers and drug users from countries with high HIV prevalence. The findings show that fear of contracting HIV encouraged new product adoption while embarrassment associated with taking the new product hindered it. It is noteworthy that embarrassment is a better predictor than fear. Critically, the effect of embarrassment differed across genders. Specifically, embarrassment plays a more important role for transgender and female individuals compared to males. The effects are driven by public and private embarrassment in sub-Saharan and non-sub-Saharan countries, respectively. This study thus contributes to the important work on sexuality, gender differences, fear, embarrassment, and the uptake of new products for high-risk or stigmatized members of marginalized communities. The findings also offer practical implications for communication strategies to facilitate the uptake of new products such as a new medicine among members of stigmatized communities, less wealthy, and less educated members of society.

Journal article

Merlo O, Eisingerich AB, Shin H-K, Britton RAet al., 2019, Avoiding the Pitfalls of Customer Participation, MIT SLOAN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, Vol: 61, Pages: 10-12, ISSN: 1532-9194

Journal article

Eisingerich A, Marchand A, Fritze M, Dong Let al., 2019, Hook vs. hope: how to enhance customer engagement through gamification, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol: 36, Pages: 200-215, ISSN: 0167-8116

Many digital service providers have adopted gamification to promote customer engagement. Critical questions, however, remain about the most effective way to enhance customer engagement and increase sales by applying gamification. With a research design that combines qualitative and quantitative methods, including the use of objective sales data from a large field study and replication of the findings across different contexts, this study explores how gamification fosters customer engagement. Both field study results and a simulation study reveal gamification principles (i.e., social interaction, sense of control, goals, progress tracking, rewards, and prompts) that promote hope and consequently increase customer engagement and digital sales. Furthermore, we find that hope is more strongly associated with customer engagement than the psychological condition of compulsion, which even exerts a negative impact. This research thus explores how gamification creates value for customers and provides actionable insights for managers to foster hope through gamification as opposed to get customers hooked.

Journal article

Fritze M, Eisingerich AB, Benkenstein M, 2019, Digital transformation and possession attachment: examining the endowment effect for consumers' relationships with hedonic and utilitarian digital service technologies, Electronic Commerce Research, Vol: 19, Pages: 311-337, ISSN: 1389-5753

A significant body of research has examined the importance of material possession attachment and its influence on consumer behavior. Critical questions, however, remain with regard to the extent to which, and if at all, consumers form instantaneous possession attachment in electronic commerce. In this research, we conducted one quasi-experimental field study and one scenario-based online experiment to examine the endowment effect (EE) for digital services. The current findings demonstrate that consumers become instantaneously attached to and are reluctant to give up digital services once they have obtained them. Two main explanations of the EE in electronic commerce are investigated. Critically, the results show that the psychological processes underlying the effect differ between utilitarian and hedonic digital services. Proprietary feelings towards utilitarian digital services occur due to loss aversion, whereas proprietary feelings towards hedonic digital services reflect the consumer’s conscious self-relatedness to the digital service.

Journal article

Merlo O, Eisingerich A, Shin HK, Britton RAet al., 2019, Overcoming the dark side of customer participation, Mit Sloan Management Review, ISSN: 1532-9194

Encouraged by the potential benefits of customer participation, many organizations increasingly rely on customers to provide feedback, suggestions, ratings, comments and complaints directly to the business to improve product or service quality. However, our research shows that the implementation of customer participation initiatives often comes at a hefty price: the potential loss of trust and commitment from frontline service employees (FLEs). Contrary to the popular belief that listening to the customers is always best, we find that in firms where customers are increasingly encouraged to have a say—and where that input is strongly linked to employee rewards, punishments, and incentives—the relational bond between FLEs and the organization may be compromised. The upshot is that FLEs can feel alienated, neglected and disheartened when they perceive that their organization is more concerned with customer input than with FLEs’ interest and well-being. This is the dark side of customer participation. This study explores this tension and sets out to reconcile it. We show how customer participation impacts the contract relationship that is formed between service managers and FLEs, and how it can affect customer interactions and well-being of FLEs. We found that FLEs’ cooperation with customer participation varies according to their anticipated personal consequences. We discuss implications of our findings and provide a set of practical management guidelines.

Journal article

Hartnup B, Dong L, Eisingerich AB, 2018, How an environment of stress and social risk shapes student engagement with social media as potential digital learning platforms: qualitative study, JMIR Medical Education, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2369-3762

BACKGROUND: Social media has been increasingly used as a learning tool in medical education. Specifically, when joining university, students often go through a phase of adjustment, and they need to cope with various challenges such as leaving their families and friends and trying to fit into a new environment. Research has shown that social media helps students to connect with old friends and to establish new relationships. However, managing friendships on social media might intertwine with the new learning environment that shapes students' online behaviors. Especially, when students perceive high levels of social risks when using social media, they may struggle to take advantage of the benefits that social media can provide for learning. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a model that explores the drivers and inhibitors of student engagement with social media during their university adjustment phase. METHODS: We used a qualitative method by interviewing 78 undergraduate students studying medical courses at UK research-focused universities. In addition, we interviewed 6 digital technology experts to provide additional insights into students' learning behaviors on social media. RESULTS: Students' changing relationships and new academic environment in the university adjustment phase led to various factors that affected their social media engagement. The main drivers of social media engagement were maintaining existing relationships, building new relationships, and seeking academic support. Simultaneously, critical factors that inhibited the use of social media for learning emerged, namely, collapsed online identity, uncertain group norms, the desire to present an ideal self, and academic competition. These inhibitors led to student stress when managing their social media accounts, discouraged them from actively engaging on social media, and prevented the full exploitation of social media as an effective learning tool. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified important d

Journal article

Parmar N, Dong L, Eisingerich A, 2018, Connecting with your dentist on Facebook? Patients’ and dentists’ attitudes towards Social Media usage in dentistry, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: Social media has begun to proliferate across medical areas and transformed how medical professionals serve and interact with their patients. It offers a new communication avenue that has the potential to engage patients and, hence, may be used to create value for both medical professionals and patients. In dentistry, even though patients and dentists frequently use social media in their personal lives, little is known about their attitudes and expectations toward using social media for professional interactions.Objective: In this paper, we focus on the role of social media in dentistry. Specifically, we explore patients’ and dentists’ attitudes toward social media usage and their current online behaviors in this context. Furthermore, we examine potential challenges and opportunities regarding dentists’ adoption of social media practices.Methods: This research employed a large-scale online survey of 588 patients and 532 dental professionals. We assessed the attitudes, expectations, and social media behaviors from both patients’ and dentists’ perspectives.Results: We found that more than 55% (290/532) of dentists in our sample have accounts for their dental practice on various social media platforms. Interestingly, while 73% (374/511) of patients did not expect their dental practice to have a social media presence, and 44% (207/468) thought that establishing a friendship with their dentists is not appropriate, the findings show that 36% (164/460) of patients had searched for their dentists, and 44% (207/470) of them were happy to establish contacts with dentists on social media. Furthermore, the findings highlight that patients were interested in exploring additional information such as online reviews and the qualifications of their dentists on Facebook pages. For dentists, more than half (375/432, 83%) of them in our sample thought that social media marketing is more efficient compared to traditional marketing.Conclusions: Ou

Journal article

Lin Y, Tudor-Sfetea C, Siddiqui S, Sherwani Y, Ahmed M, Eisingerich ABet al., 2018, Effective Behavioral Changes through a Digital mHealth App: Exploring the Impact of Hedonic Well-Being, Psychological Empowerment and Inspiration, JMIR MHEALTH AND UHEALTH, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2291-5222

Background: New mobile health (mHealth) software apps are emerging and are providing the foundation to radically transform the practice and reach of medical research and care. For this study we collaborated with Quit Genius, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based mHealth app that helps users quit smoking, to explore the effective design of a digital mHealth app; one that delivers important benefits to its users and helps them change their behaviors for a healthier lifestyle.Objective: The specific aims of this study were to (1) explore the key role of CBT program progress, (2) examine the gamification design app elements that deliver significant benefits (ie, empowerment, well-being, inspiration) to users, (3) explore the effectiveness of these app elements to help users quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked, and (4) identify and describe any potential drivers and hindrances arising from the app design elements.Methods: We developed an online survey and sent an email invitation to 4144 individuals, who had previously or were at the time using the Quit Genius mHealth app, to encourage participation in the study. We matched the online survey data with objective app usage data of the study participants.Results: A dataset of 190 completed responses was used. At the time of the survey, respondents had completed an average of 60% of the CBT program in the Quit Genius mHealth app. Of the respondents, 36.3% (69/190) noted to have quit smoking successfully after using the Quit Genius app. As for those who remained smokers after using the app (N=121), the number of cigarettes smoked per day was significantly reduced by 59.6%. The ability of the app to enhance users’ hedonic well-being and psychologically empower them in their daily lives was identified as being key in helping users quit smoking. Specifically, the results show that users whose well-being was enhanced through the app were 1.72 times more likely to quit smoking successfully. Moreover

Journal article

Liu Y, Foscht T, Eisingerich AB, Tsai Het al., 2018, Strategic management of product and brand extensions: Extending corporate brands in B2B vs. B2C markets, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol: 71, Pages: 147-159, ISSN: 0019-8501

Decisions about expanding an existing product portfolio and capturing new markets are of critical importance to a firm's financial performance and growth. Yet, important questions remain in regard to the extent to which product and brand extensions contribute to a firm's profit in B2B and B2C markets, respectively, and how firms with corporate brands in these markets should pursue an extension strategy that provides maximum impact on firm profit. The authors theorize and empirically address these questions based on a study of firms listed in the U.S. Fortune 500 published ranking. Findings of this research have important prescriptive implications for the management of B2B and B2C firms' growth-based extension strategy and contribute to B2B theory.

Journal article

Dong L, Eisingerich AB, Foscht T, 2018, Online Customer Engagement Behaviors: A Social Exchange Perspective, AMA Summer Conference

Conference paper

Tudor-Sfetea C, Rabee R, Najim M, Amin N, Chadha M, Jain M, Karia K, Kothari V, Patel T, Suseeharan M, Ahmed M, Sherwani Y, Siddiqui S, Lin Y, Eisingerich ABet al., 2018, Evaluation of two mobile health apps in the context of smoking cessation: qualitative study of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus non-CBT-based digital solutions., JMIR mHealth and uHealth, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2291-5222

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) apps can offer users numerous benefits, representing a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT is commonly used in the treatment of mental health conditions, where it has a strong evidence base, suggesting that it represents an effective method to elicit health behavior change. More importantly, CBT has proved to be effective in smoking cessation, in the context of smoking-related costs to the National Health Service (NHS) having been estimated to be as high as £2.6bn in 2015. Although the evidence base for computerized CBT in mental health is strong, there is limited literature on its use in smoking cessation. This, combined with the cost-effectiveness of mHealth interventions, advocates a need for research into the effectiveness of CBT-based smoking cessation apps. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was, first, to explore participants' perceptions of 2 mHealth apps, a CBT-based app, Quit Genius, and a non-CBT-based app, NHS Smokefree, over a variety of themes. Second, the study aimed to investigate the perceptions and health behavior of users of each app with respect to smoking cessation. METHODS: A qualitative short-term longitudinal study was conducted, using a sample of 29 smokers allocated to one of the 2 apps, Quit Genius or Smokefree. Each user underwent 2 one-to-one semistructured interviews, 1 week apart. Thematic analysis was carried out, and important themes were identified. Descriptive statistics regarding participants' perceptions and health behavior in relation to smoking cessation are also provided. RESULTS: The thematic analysis resulted in five higher themes and several subthemes. Participants were generally more positive about Quit Genius's features, as well as about its design and information engagement and quality. Quit Genius users reported increased motivation to quit smoking, as well as greater willingness to continue usin

Journal article

Gill-Simmen L, MacInnis D, Eisingerich AB, Park CWet al., 2018, Brand-self connections and brand prominence as drivers of employee brand attachment, Academy of Marketing Science Review, ISSN: 1869-814X

Past research reveals that customers can attach meanings to brands that create strong connections between the brand and the self. When they do, and when the brand is prominent in their minds, they become psychologically attached to the brand, and display strong brand loyalty and advocacy behaviors. We use a grounded theory framework to ask if employees develop similar brand-self connections and regard the brand as prominent in their lives based on the meaning they attach to the brand they work for. This question is important because employee’s attachment to the brand can have critical equity-driving implications for the brand’s marketplace success and the employee’s commitment to the organization. We also ask what drives such outcomes. Beyond identifying novel drivers of employees’ brand attachment, we find that employees’ attachment to a brand is conceptually and empirically different from attachment or commitment to the organization. Specifically, we observe employees who are not attached to the organization but who are still attached to the brand, and who engage in difficult-to-enact pro-brand and pro-organization behaviors. Finally, our findings contribute to a broader knowledge base on organizational commitment and attachment by identifying brand meaning-related drivers of employees’ organizational commitment/attachment. Prior research has studied non-brand related drivers of these organizational outcomes.

Journal article

Foscht Thomas, Lin Y, Eisingerich, 2018, Blinds up or down? The influence of transparency, future orientation, and CSR on sustainable and responsible behavior, European Journal of Marketing, Vol: 52, Pages: 476-498, ISSN: 0309-0566

One of the critical goals of this research is to explore how and when a business’ transparency leads to greater willingness to engage in sustainable and responsible consumption by consumers. Data were collected in two studies. Study 1 collected data from 219 consumers in a large shopping mall. Study 2 followed an experimental approach and employed data from 327 participants. The current research contributes to theory by hypothesizing and demonstrating when transparency is associated with higher willingness for sustainable and responsible consumption. Critically, the positive benefits of transparency vary according to a business’ future orientation, corporate social responsibility, and levels of customer involvement. An important societal and practical implication of the current research is that business should not be expected to focus on transparency in isolation but rather also needs to consider levels of perceived future orientation, corporate social responsibility, and levels of customer involvement to strengthen sustainable and responsible behavior effectively. This research builds on and extends current knowledge by exploring the key role of business’ transparency in influencing sustainable and responsible customer behavior and examines critical boundary conditions for the observed effects.

Journal article

Merlo OGL, Eisingerich A, Auh S, Levstek Jet al., 2018, The benefits and implementation of performance transparency: the why and how of letting your customers 'see through' your business, Business Horizons, Vol: 61, Pages: 73-84, ISSN: 0007-6813

While some organizations swear by the benefits of transparency and are eager to know how to implement it, many managers are still reluctant or even afraid to use it. Our research reveals that only a few innovative companies have taken steps to leverage a potentially useful form of transparency: the provision of accessible and objective information to customers (e.g., by sharing unbiased benchmark data, publishing unfiltered customer comments, or providing candid product reviews that may praise but also criticize the company’s products). Our study also shows that that many companies remain wary and view greater calls for transparency as a challenge to be managed rather than an opportunity to be traded upon. This is partly due to limited research into the performance benefits of giving customers access to objective information, and lack of practical guidelines on how to actually implement it. The current study addresses these shortcomings: first, by investigating whether performance transparency leads to customer outcomes that can be profitable for an organization; and second, by analyzing the characteristics of successful transparency initiatives in a wide range of industries. The research shows that customers exhibit more trust and are willing to pay a premium to deal with transparent businesses. Also, it uncovers seven effective approaches to implementing transparency. The key contributions of the study are therefore the provision of convincing empirical evidence about the benefits of performance transparency and ways in which management may implement it successfully.

Journal article

Bell SJ, Auh S, Eisingerich AB, 2017, Unraveling the customer education paradox: when, and how, should firms educate their customers?, Journal of Service Research, Vol: 20, Pages: 306-321, ISSN: 1094-6705

Customer education or the extent to which firms are seen as providing customers with the skills and abilities to utilize critical information is often considered a valuable augmentation to a firm’s service offerings. Yet, many firms are hesitant to invest in customer education efforts for fear that it will equip customers with the skills to shop around and possibly switch providers. The purpose of this research is to understand the circumstances under which customer education ties customers more closely to a firm or encourages customers to leave. Specifically, our studies show that an understanding of this paradox of customer education lies in the specificity of customer expertise that is built as a result of customer education initiatives. The results demonstrate that educating customers for firm-specific expertise leads to increased loyalty, while building market-related expertise may decrease customer loyalty. A critical practical implication of our findings therefore is the need for managers to understand the varying effects of enhancing customers’ firm-specific versus market-related expertise and to consider customer education initiatives proactively.

Journal article

Lin Y, Eisingerich A, Doong H, 2017, Tyrant leaders as e-Government service promoters: the role of transparency and tyranny in the implementation of e-Government service, Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective. EGOVIS 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 10441, Editors: K Ho, Francesconi, Publisher: Springer, Cham, Pages: 9-18, ISBN: 978-3-319-64248-2

While prior studies offer significant insights into the extent of EGS (Electronic Government Service) implementation from productivity-transparency trade-off perspectives, critical questions remain about how transparency of government department/agency facilitates the implementation timing of EGS. Such questions are important because transparency is an explicit indicator to outsiders, such as IT (Information Technology) vendors, to help them plan their marketing strategies in advance. Drawing insights from signaling and upper echelon theories, this research contributes to the electronic government literature by proposing that the government department/agency performance transparency is closely aligned to its timing of EGS implementation. Moreover, this relationship varies as it depends both on the size of the government department/agency and the level of tyranny of its leader or head. Empirical findings indicate that, in order to gain a competitive advantage, a tyrannical manager in a smaller organization accelerates the speed of IT implementation to use it as a strategic weapon to elicit favorable public response. This research, thus, complements and extends extant knowledge by exploring the key roles of both a government department/agency performance transparency and its tyrannical leadership on the timing of EGS implementation.

Book chapter

Eisingerich AB, So YWG, Dong L, 2017, The Art of Marketing

Working paper

Eisingerich AB, Lin Y, Berry G, 2017, Snap!

Working paper

Eisingerich AB, Bettanin S, Dong L, 2017, A case of comic reflection with a cause: Ellen DeGeneres

Working paper

Eisingerich AB, Vatter Z, 2017, Building an empire with relationships

Working paper

So YWG, Dong L, Eisingerich AB, 2017, Case Study: Banksy

Report

Bettanin S, Dong L, Eisingerich A, 2017, Case Study: Ellen DeGeneres

Report

Dong L, Eisingerich A, Merlo O, 2017, Identity Work and Its Influence on Institutions: From Criminal to Success, Academy of Management Annual Meeting, ISSN: 2151-6561

Conference paper

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