Imperial College London

Emeritus ProfessorAndrewGeorge

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Emeritus Professor
 
 
 
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Contact

 

a.george

 
 
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Location

 

Hammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

231 results found

George AJT, 2024, Ethics, virtues and xenotransplantation, Perfusion (United Kingdom), Vol: 39, Pages: 334-343, ISSN: 1477-111X

Early in 2022 the first pig to human cardiac xenotransplant was performed. The graft initially performed well, and rejection was well controlled. However, the graft failed, and the patient died 60 days after the procedure. The ethical issues relating to xenotransplantation include the risk/benefit to the individual, the risk of porcine-derived infectious agents crossing into humans, animal welfare and rights, issues of human and animal identity and concerns relating to fair allocation of organs and appropriate use of resources.These ethical issues are often addressed using emotional arguments, or through consequentialist or deontological lens. An alternative is to use approaches based on virtue ethics to understand the moral purpose (telos) of the research and the virtues (character traits) needed to be a good research clinician. In this review we will consider the virtues of justice, courage, temperance and practical wisdom, as well as the role of clinical curiosity, and their application to xenotransplantation. This provides an alternative approach for the clinical academic and others involved in the research to reflect on their practice.

Journal article

George AJ, Urch CE, Cribb A, 2023, A virtuous framework for professional reflection, Future Healthcare Journal, Vol: 10, Pages: 78-81, ISSN: 2514-6645

Reflection on professional practice (either individually or in dialogue with peers or seniors) will often focus on doctors' skills. This approach emphasises compliance and competence. This paper suggests that an alternative and useful lens for professional reflection and development can be drawn from the framework of virtue ethics to encourage consideration of the ultimate purpose of medicine, and the character or virtues needed to be a good doctor. This alternative approach supports doctors to reflect on and develop their virtues, including practical wisdom, which orchestrates the doctor's skills and virtues. This emphasis on purpose and character within professional reflection promotes excellence, rather than just competency, and engages with what motivated most doctors to enter medicine.

Journal article

George AJT, Rose S, 2023, Ethical decision-making: Virtues for senior leadership in higher education, Management in Education, ISSN: 0892-0206

Journal article

Andrikakou P, Reebye V, Vasconcelos D, Yoon S, Voutila J, George AJT, Swiderski P, Habib R, Catley M, Blakey D, Habib NA, Rossi JJ, Huang K-Wet al., 2022, Enhancing SIRT1 Gene Expression Using Small Activating RNAs: A Novel Approach for Reversing Metabolic Syndrome, NUCLEIC ACID THERAPEUTICS, Vol: 32, Pages: 486-496, ISSN: 2159-3337

Journal article

George AJT, 2022, The use of non-linear dynamics to help facilitate understanding of learning and development within groups, International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, Vol: 20, Pages: 37-52, ISSN: 1741-8305

Complexity theory, including non-linear dynamics, provides a powerful approach tounderstanding and analysing complex interactions as seen when group members learn anddevelop. However, complexity theory does not feature heavily in the coaching literature,depriving coaches of this tool. This paper discusses the implications of non-linear dynamics onour understanding of group development and illustrate this with a toy model of anger in agroup of three. While formal mathematical modelling of group behaviour is probably notachievable, the insights can help coaches understand how best to intervene to maximise theirimpact and bring benefit to their clients

Journal article

Doulami C, George AJT, Kishore U, 2022, Cytokine Therapy, Encyclopedia of Infection and Immunity, Pages: 755-762, ISBN: 9780128187319

This chapter discusses cytokine-based therapies for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Cytokines are secreted primarily by immune cells and are one of the major pathways by which they interact and communicate. They control many biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses, and play an important role in the innate and adaptive host defense against pathogens. Dysregulation of cytokine production is associated with immune and inflammatory diseases; however, their pro-inflammatory action can be used to treat many infectious diseases. These observations led to the development of cytokine-based therapeutic agents that are categorized into two groups, cytokine agents that induce the immune response to facilitate clearance of pathogens, and cytokine inhibitors that block inflammatory activity of cytokines either by preventing their binding to receptors or by blocking their signaling pathways. While cytokines have also been extensively developed for immunotherapy of cancer, we will not be discussing these further.

Book chapter

George AJT, 2021, Foreword, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol: 1313, Pages: vii-viii, ISSN: 0065-2598

Journal article

Yasmin H, Saha S, Butt MT, Modi RK, George AJT, Kishore Uet al., 2021, SARS-CoV-2: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Host Immune Response, MICROBIAL PATHOGENESIS: INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 2ND EDITION, Vol: 1313, Pages: 99-134, ISSN: 0065-2598

Journal article

Urch CE, George AJT, 2020, COVID-19: LESS HASTE, MORE SAFETY Let's stop talking about covid-safe and covid-secure-it's covid-mitigated, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 370, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Zhao H, Alam A, Pac Soo A, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2018, Ischemia-reperfusion injury reduces long term renal graft survival: mechanism and beyond, EBioMedicine, Vol: 28, Pages: 31-42, ISSN: 2352-3964

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) during renal transplantation often initiates non-specific inflammatory responses that can result in the loss of kidney graft viability. However, the long-term consequence of IRI on renal grafts survival is uncertain. Here we review clinical evidence and laboratory studies, and elucidate the association between early IRI and later graft loss. Our critical analysis of previous publications indicates that early IRI does contribute to later graft loss through reduction of renal functional mass, graft vascular injury, and chronic hypoxia, as well as subsequent fibrosis. IRI is also known to induce kidney allograft dysfunction and acute rejection, reducing graft survival. Therefore, attempts have been made to substitute traditional preserving solutions with novel agents, yielding promising results.

Journal article

Stevenson FK, Dyke RJ, King CA, George AJT, Hamblin TJet al., 2017, Idiotypic vaccination against B-cell lymphoma leads to dormant tumor, Cellular Immune Mechanisms and Tumor Dormancy, Pages: 71-84, ISBN: 9781138104990

Idiotypic immunoglobulin, expressed at the surface of B lymphoma cells, bears unique clonal sequences which can act as tumor-associated antigens. For two B-cell tumors, BCL1 and A31, arising in different mouse strains, purified idiotypic IgM has been used to immunize animals prior to tumor challenge. In both cases, strong specific protection against tumor was obtained, and anti-idiotypic antibody was identified as a mediator of attack on tumor. Protected mice were investigated for dormant tumor cells 4-8 months following exposure to tumor; for both lymphomas, the spleens were of normal weight and appearance. However, in the case of the BCL1 tumor, varying numbers of lymphoma cells were identifiable in the spleens by probing with anti-idiotypic antibody. For the A31 tumor, few or no cells could be found by this procedure, but passage of dispersed spleen cells into unimmunized recipients led to development of tumor in 60% of cases. Emergent tumor was indistinguishable from original lymphoma, indicating that cells had been unable to grow in the immune mice, but that this dormant state was disrupted by transfer. Involvement of T lymphocytes, either in helping the anti-idiotypic antibody response, or in attacking tumor directly, has been investigated by isolating and culturing anti-idiotypic T cells from immune spleens. Specific cells have been obtained as T-T hybridomas and appear to recognize idiotypic IgM processed by the target B lymphoma cell.

Book chapter

Chatterjee J, Dai W, Abd Aziz NH, Teo PY, Wahba J, Phelps DL, Maine CJ, Whilding L, Dina R, Trevisan G, Flower K, George A, Ghaem-Maghami Set al., 2016, Clinical use of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) expression as discriminatory and predictive markers in ovarian cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 3453-3460, ISSN: 1557-3265

Purpose We aimed to establish whether PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, in ovarian cancer (OC) tumour tissue and blood, could be used as biomarkers for discrimination of tumour histology and prognosis of OC. Experimental Design Immune cells were separated from blood, ascites and tumour tissue obtained from women with suspected OC and studied for the differential expression of possible immune biomarkers using flow cytometry. PD-L1 expression on tumour associated inflammatory cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was measured using sandwich ELISA. The relationships among immune markers were explored using hierarchical cluster analyses. Results Biomarkers from the discovery cohort that associated with PD-L1+ cells were found. PD-L1+ CD14+ cells and PD-L1+ CD11c+ cells in the monocyte gate showed a distinct expression pattern when comparing benign tumours and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) - confirmed in the validation cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed PD-L1+ and PD-L1+ CD14+ cells in the monocyte gate performed better than the well-established tumour marker CA-125 alone. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was elevated in EOC patients compared to healthy women and patients with benign ovarian tumours. Low total PD-1+ expression on lymphocytes was associated with improved survival. Conclusions Differential expression of immunological markers relating to the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in blood can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in EOC. These data have implications for the development and trial of anti PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in ovarian cancer.

Journal article

George AJT, 2016, Research ethics, Medicine (United Kingdom), Vol: 44, Pages: 615-618, ISSN: 1357-3039

Medical professionals have a responsibility to act in an ethical manner in everything they do as part of their professional life. However, in most cases, it is only when they are carrying out research that they have to obtain explicit ethical permission to do their work. This runs the risk that people see research ethics as an exercise in getting regulatory clearance, rather than as performing research to the highest ethical standards. In this paper I outline some of the ethical issues that should be considered when doing research, and also how research proposals are evaluated by a research ethics committee.

Journal article

Teo PY, Yang C, Whilding LM, Parente-Pereira AC, Maher J, George AJT, Hedrick JL, Yang YY, Ghaem-Maghami Set al., 2015, Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy Using PD-L1 siRNA Targeted Delivery from Folic Acid-Functionalized Polyethylenimine: Strategies to Enhance T Cell Killing, ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS, Vol: 4, Pages: 1180-1189, ISSN: 2192-2640

Journal article

Zhao H, Huang H, Ologunde R, Lloyd DG, Watts H, Vizcaychipi MP, Lian Q, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2015, Xenon Treatment Protects against Remote Lung Injury after Kidney Transplantation in Rats, ANESTHESIOLOGY, Vol: 122, Pages: 1312-1326, ISSN: 0003-3022

Journal article

Mouratidis PXE, George AJT, 2015, Regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in primary human saphenous vein endothelial cells, JOURNAL OF INFLAMMATION RESEARCH, Vol: 8, Pages: 97-106, ISSN: 1178-7031

Journal article

Zhao H, Perez JS, Lu K, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2014, Role of Toll-like receptor-4 in renal graft ischemia-reperfusion injury, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 306, Pages: F801-F811, ISSN: 1931-857X

Journal article

Maine CJ, Aziz NHA, Chatterjee J, Hayford C, Brewig N, Whilding L, George AJT, Ghaem-Maghami Set al., 2014, Programmed death ligand-1 over-expression correlates with malignancy and contributes to immune regulation in ovarian cancer, CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY, Vol: 63, Pages: 215-224, ISSN: 0340-7004

Journal article

Zhao H, Luo X, Zhou Z, Liu J, Tralau-Stewart C, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2014, Early treatment with xenon protects against the cold ischemia associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in rats, KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 85, Pages: 112-123, ISSN: 0085-2538

Journal article

Zhao H, Ning J, Savage S, Kang H, Lu K, Zheng X, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2013, A novel strategy for preserving renal grafts in an <i>ex vivo</i> setting: potential for enhancing the marginal donor pool, FASEB JOURNAL, Vol: 27, Pages: 4822-4833, ISSN: 0892-6638

Journal article

Teo PY, Yang C, Hedrick JL, Engler AC, Coady DJ, Ghaem-Maghami S, George AJT, Yang YYet al., 2013, Hydrophobic modification of low molecular weight polyethylenimine for improved gene transfection, BIOMATERIALS, Vol: 34, Pages: 7971-7979, ISSN: 0142-9612

Journal article

Zhao H, Yoshida A, Xiao W, Ologunde R, O'Dea KP, Takata M, Tralau-Stewart C, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2013, Xenon treatment attenuates early renal allograft injury associated with prolonged hypothermic storage in rats, FASEB JOURNAL, Vol: 27, Pages: 4076-4088, ISSN: 0892-6638

Journal article

Zhao H, Watts HR, Chong M, Huang H, Tralau-Stewart C, Maxwell PH, Maze M, George AJT, Ma Det al., 2013, Xenon Treatment Protects Against Cold Ischemia Associated Delayed Graft Function and Prolongs Graft Survival in Rats, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Vol: 13, Pages: 2006-2018, ISSN: 1600-6135

Journal article

Khan A, Fu H, Tan LA, Harper JE, Beutelspacher SC, Larkin DFP, Lombardi G, McClure MO, George AJTet al., 2013, Dendritic cell modification as a route to inhibiting corneal graft rejection by the indirect pathway of allorecognition, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 734-746, ISSN: 0014-2980

Journal article

Zaher SS, Coe D, Chai J-G, Larkin DFP, George AJTet al., 2013, Suppression of the allogeneic response by the anti-allergy drug N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl) anthranilic acid results from T-cell cycle arrest, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 138, Pages: 157-164, ISSN: 0019-2805

Journal article

Chatterjee J, Haslinda Abdul Aziz N, Maine C, Hayford C, Whilding L, George AJT, Ghaem-Maghami Set al., 2012, Role of PD-L1 in In-vitro Interaction Between T-cells and Ovarian Tumour Cells, 22nd.Biennial Conference of European Association for Cancer Research, ISSN: 0959-8049

Conference paper

Lin W, Oh SKW, Choo ABH, George AJTet al., 2012, Activated T cells modulate immunosuppression by embryonic- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells through a feedback mechanism, CYTOTHERAPY, Vol: 14, Pages: 274-284, ISSN: 1465-3249

Journal article

Kamperidis P, Kamalati T, Ferrari M, Jones M, Garrood T, Smith MD, Diez-Posada S, Hughes C, Finucane C, Mather S, Nissim A, George AJT, Pitzalis Cet al., 2011, Development of a novel recombinant biotherapeutic with applications in targeted therapy of human arthritis, ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, Vol: 63, Pages: 3758-3767, ISSN: 0004-3591

Journal article

Fu H, Khan A, Coe D, Zaher S, Chai J-G, Kropf P, Mueller I, Larkin DFP, George AJTet al., 2011, Arginine depletion as a mechanism for the immune privilege of corneal allografts, European Journal of Immunology, Vol: 41, Pages: 2997-3005, ISSN: 1521-4141

The cornea is an immune privileged tissue. Since arginase has been found to modulate T-cell function by depleting arginine, we investigated the expression of arginase in the cornea and its possible role in immune privilege using a murine transplant model. We found that both the endothelium and epithelium of murine corneas express functional arginase I, capable of down-regulating T-cell proliferation in an in vitro culture system. The administration of the specific arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-l-Arg to recipient mice resulted in an accelerated rejection of allogeneic C57BL/6 (B6) corneal grafts. In contrast, in vivo blockade of arginase activity had no effect in altering the course of rejection of primary skin grafts that express little, if any, arginase. In addition, the inhibition of arginase did not alter systemic T-cell proliferation. These data show that arginase is functional in the cornea and contributes to the immune privilege of the eye, and that modulation of arginase contributes to graft survival.

Journal article

Leyton J, Iddon L, Perumal M, Indrevoll B, Glaser M, Robins E, George AJT, Cuthbertson A, Luthra SK, Aboagye EOet al., 2011, Targeting Somatostatin Receptors: Preclinical Evaluation of Novel <SUP>18</SUP>F-Fluoroethyltriazole-Tyr<SUP>3</SUP>-Octreotate Analogs for PET, JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, Vol: 52, Pages: 1441-1448, ISSN: 0161-5505

Journal article

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