211 results found
George AJT, 2022, Ethics, virtues and xenotransplantation, Perfusion (United Kingdom), Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1477-111X
Early in 2022 the first pig to human cardiac xenotransplant was performed. The graft initially performed well, and rejection was well controlled. However, the graft failed, and the patient died 60 days after the procedure. The ethical issues relating to xenotransplantation include the risk/benefit to the individual, the risk of porcine-derived infectious agents crossing into humans, animal welfare and rights, issues of human and animal identity and concerns relating to fair allocation of organs and appropriate use of resources.These ethical issues are often addressed using emotional arguments, or through consequentialist or deontological lens. An alternative is to use approaches based on virtue ethics to understand the moral purpose (telos) of the research and the virtues (character traits) needed to be a good research clinician. In this review we will consider the virtues of justice, courage, temperance and practical wisdom, as well as the role of clinical curiosity, and their application to xenotransplantation. This provides an alternative approach for the clinical academic and others involved in the research to reflect on their practice.
George AJT, 2022, The use of non-linear dynamics to help facilitate understanding of learning and development within groups, International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, Vol: 20, Pages: 37-52, ISSN: 1741-8305
Complexity theory, including non-linear dynamics, provides a powerful approach tounderstanding and analysing complex interactions as seen when group members learn anddevelop. However, complexity theory does not feature heavily in the coaching literature,depriving coaches of this tool. This paper discusses the implications of non-linear dynamics onour understanding of group development and illustrate this with a toy model of anger in agroup of three. While formal mathematical modelling of group behaviour is probably notachievable, the insights can help coaches understand how best to intervene to maximise theirimpact and bring benefit to their clients
Andrikakou P, Reebye V, Vasconcelos D, et al., 2022, Enhancing SIRT1 Gene Expression Using Small Activating RNAs: A Novel Approach for Reversing Metabolic Syndrome, NUCLEIC ACID THERAPEUTICS, Vol: 32, Pages: 486-496, ISSN: 2159-3337
Yasmin H, Saha S, Butt MT, et al., 2021, SARS-CoV-2: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Host Immune Response, MICROBIAL PATHOGENESIS: INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 2ND EDITION, Vol: 1313, Pages: 99-134, ISSN: 0065-2598
Urch CE, George AJT, 2020, COVID-19: LESS HASTE, MORE SAFETY Let's stop talking about covid-safe and covid-secure-it's covid-mitigated, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 370, ISSN: 0959-535X
Zhao H, Alam A, Pac Soo A, et al., 2018, Ischemia-reperfusion injury reduces long term renal graft survival: mechanism and beyond, EBioMedicine, Vol: 28, Pages: 31-42, ISSN: 2352-3964
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) during renal transplantation often initiates non-specific inflammatory responses that can result in the loss of kidney graft viability. However, the long-term consequence of IRI on renal grafts survival is uncertain. Here we review clinical evidence and laboratory studies, and elucidate the association between early IRI and later graft loss. Our critical analysis of previous publications indicates that early IRI does contribute to later graft loss through reduction of renal functional mass, graft vascular injury, and chronic hypoxia, as well as subsequent fibrosis. IRI is also known to induce kidney allograft dysfunction and acute rejection, reducing graft survival. Therefore, attempts have been made to substitute traditional preserving solutions with novel agents, yielding promising results.
Chatterjee J, Dai W, Abd Aziz NH, et al., 2016, Clinical use of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) expression as discriminatory and predictive markers in ovarian cancer, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 3453-3460, ISSN: 1557-3265
Purpose We aimed to establish whether PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, in ovarian cancer (OC) tumour tissue and blood, could be used as biomarkers for discrimination of tumour histology and prognosis of OC. Experimental Design Immune cells were separated from blood, ascites and tumour tissue obtained from women with suspected OC and studied for the differential expression of possible immune biomarkers using flow cytometry. PD-L1 expression on tumour associated inflammatory cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was measured using sandwich ELISA. The relationships among immune markers were explored using hierarchical cluster analyses. Results Biomarkers from the discovery cohort that associated with PD-L1+ cells were found. PD-L1+ CD14+ cells and PD-L1+ CD11c+ cells in the monocyte gate showed a distinct expression pattern when comparing benign tumours and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) - confirmed in the validation cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed PD-L1+ and PD-L1+ CD14+ cells in the monocyte gate performed better than the well-established tumour marker CA-125 alone. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was elevated in EOC patients compared to healthy women and patients with benign ovarian tumours. Low total PD-1+ expression on lymphocytes was associated with improved survival. Conclusions Differential expression of immunological markers relating to the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in blood can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in EOC. These data have implications for the development and trial of anti PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in ovarian cancer.
Teo PY, Yang C, Whilding LM, et al., 2015, Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy Using PD-L1 siRNA Targeted Delivery from Folic Acid-Functionalized Polyethylenimine: Strategies to Enhance T Cell Killing, ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS, Vol: 4, Pages: 1180-1189, ISSN: 2192-2640
Zhao H, Huang H, Ologunde R, et al., 2015, Xenon Treatment Protects against Remote Lung Injury after Kidney Transplantation in Rats, ANESTHESIOLOGY, Vol: 122, Pages: 1312-1326, ISSN: 0003-3022
Mouratidis PXE, George AJT, 2015, Regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in primary human saphenous vein endothelial cells, JOURNAL OF INFLAMMATION RESEARCH, Vol: 8, Pages: 97-106, ISSN: 1178-7031
Zhao H, Perez JS, Lu K, et al., 2014, Role of Toll-like receptor-4 in renal graft ischemia-reperfusion injury, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-RENAL PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 306, Pages: F801-F811, ISSN: 1931-857X
Maine CJ, Aziz NHA, Chatterjee J, et al., 2014, Programmed death ligand-1 over-expression correlates with malignancy and contributes to immune regulation in ovarian cancer, CANCER IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOTHERAPY, Vol: 63, Pages: 215-224, ISSN: 0340-7004
Zhao H, Luo X, Zhou Z, et al., 2014, Early treatment with xenon protects against the cold ischemia associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in rats, KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 85, Pages: 112-123, ISSN: 0085-2538
Zhao H, Ning J, Savage S, et al., 2013, A novel strategy for preserving renal grafts in an ex vivo setting: potential for enhancing the marginal donor pool, FASEB JOURNAL, Vol: 27, Pages: 4822-4833, ISSN: 0892-6638
Teo PY, Yang C, Hedrick JL, et al., 2013, Hydrophobic modification of low molecular weight polyethylenimine for improved gene transfection, BIOMATERIALS, Vol: 34, Pages: 7971-7979, ISSN: 0142-9612
Zhao H, Yoshida A, Xiao W, et al., 2013, Xenon treatment attenuates early renal allograft injury associated with prolonged hypothermic storage in rats, FASEB JOURNAL, Vol: 27, Pages: 4076-4088, ISSN: 0892-6638
Zhao H, Watts HR, Chong M, et al., 2013, Xenon Treatment Protects Against Cold Ischemia Associated Delayed Graft Function and Prolongs Graft Survival in Rats, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Vol: 13, Pages: 2006-2018, ISSN: 1600-6135
Khan A, Fu H, Tan LA, et al., 2013, Dendritic cell modification as a route to inhibiting corneal graft rejection by the indirect pathway of allorecognition, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 734-746, ISSN: 0014-2980
Zaher SS, Coe D, Chai J-G, et al., 2013, Suppression of the allogeneic response by the anti-allergy drug N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamonyl) anthranilic acid results from T-cell cycle arrest, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 138, Pages: 157-164, ISSN: 0019-2805
Chatterjee J, Haslinda Abdul Aziz N, Maine C, et al., 2012, Role of PD-L1 in In-vitro Interaction Between T-cells and Ovarian Tumour Cells, 22nd.Biennial Conference of European Association for Cancer Research, ISSN: 0959-8049
Lin W, Oh SKW, Choo ABH, et al., 2012, Activated T cells modulate immunosuppression by embryonic- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells through a feedback mechanism, CYTOTHERAPY, Vol: 14, Pages: 274-284, ISSN: 1465-3249
Kamperidis P, Kamalati T, Ferrari M, et al., 2011, Development of a novel recombinant biotherapeutic with applications in targeted therapy of human arthritis, ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, Vol: 63, Pages: 3758-3767, ISSN: 0004-3591
Fu H, Khan A, Coe D, et al., 2011, Arginine depletion as a mechanism for the immune privilege of corneal allografts, European Journal of Immunology, Vol: 41, Pages: 2997-3005, ISSN: 1521-4141
The cornea is an immune privileged tissue. Since arginase has been found to modulate T-cell function by depleting arginine, we investigated the expression of arginase in the cornea and its possible role in immune privilege using a murine transplant model. We found that both the endothelium and epithelium of murine corneas express functional arginase I, capable of down-regulating T-cell proliferation in an in vitro culture system. The administration of the specific arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-l-Arg to recipient mice resulted in an accelerated rejection of allogeneic C57BL/6 (B6) corneal grafts. In contrast, in vivo blockade of arginase activity had no effect in altering the course of rejection of primary skin grafts that express little, if any, arginase. In addition, the inhibition of arginase did not alter systemic T-cell proliferation. These data show that arginase is functional in the cornea and contributes to the immune privilege of the eye, and that modulation of arginase contributes to graft survival.
Leyton J, Iddon L, Perumal M, et al., 2011, Targeting Somatostatin Receptors: Preclinical Evaluation of Novel F-18-Fluoroethyltriazole-Tyr(3)-Octreotate Analogs for PET, JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, Vol: 52, Pages: 1441-1448, ISSN: 0161-5505
Iddon L, Leyton J, Indrevoll B, et al., 2011, Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of [F-18]fluoroethyl triazole labelled [Tyr(3)]octreotate analogues using click chemistry, BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, Vol: 21, Pages: 3122-3127, ISSN: 0960-894X
Zaher SS, Germain C, Fu H, et al., 2011, 3-Hydroxykynurenine Suppresses CD4(+) T-Cell Proliferation, Induces T-Regulatory-Cell Development, and Prolongs Corneal Allograft Survival, INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, Vol: 52, Pages: 2640-2648, ISSN: 0146-0404
Seow WY, George AJT, 2011, Peptides as Promising Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy, NON-VIRAL GENE THERAPY, Editors: Yuan, Publisher: INTECH EUROPE, Pages: 615-644
Yang Y-Y, George AT, Kataoka K, et al., 2010, Macromolecular Synthetic Biomaterials for Delivery of Therapeutics, MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1121-1121, ISSN: 1022-1336
Seow WY, Yang Y-Y, George AJT, 2010, Novel Triblock Oligopeptides as Efficient Nonviral Vectors: Characterisation and Further Insights, MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1170-1174, ISSN: 1022-1336
Hansel TT, Kropshofer H, Singer T, et al., 2010, The safety and side effects of monoclonal antibodies, NATURE REVIEWS DRUG DISCOVERY, Vol: 9, Pages: 325-338, ISSN: 1474-1776
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