Imperial College London

ProfessorAdamHampshire

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Professor in Restorative Neurosciences
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7993a.hampshire

 
 
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Location

 

Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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125 results found

Parkin B, Daws R, Das Neves I, Violante I, Soreq E, Faisal A, Sandrone S, Lao-Kaim N, Martin-Bastida A, Roussakis A-A, Piccini P, Hampshire Aet al., 2021, Dissociable effects of age and Parkinson's disease on instruction based learning, Brain Communications, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2632-1297

The cognitive deficits associated with Parkinson’s disease vary across individuals and change across time, with implications for prognosis and treatment. Key outstanding challenges are to define the distinct behavioural characteristics of this disorder and develop diagnostic paradigms that can assess these sensitively in individuals. In a previous study, we measured different aspects of attentional control in Parkinson’s disease using an established fMRI switching paradigm. We observed no deficits for the aspects of attention the task was designed to examine; instead those with Parkinson’s disease learnt the operational requirements of the task more slowly. We hypothesized that a subset of people with early-to-mid stage Parkinson’s might be impaired when encoding rules for performing new tasks. Here, we directly test this hypothesis and investigate whether deficits in instruction-based learning represent a characteristic of Parkinson’s Disease. Seventeen participants with Parkinson’s disease (8 male; mean age: 61.2 years), 18 older adults (8 male; mean age: 61.3 years) and 20 younger adults (10 males; mean age: 26.7 years) undertook a simple instruction-based learning paradigm in the MRI scanner. They sorted sequences of coloured shapes according to binary discrimination rules that were updated at two-minute intervals. Unlike common reinforcement learning tasks, the rules were unambiguous, being explicitly presented; consequently, there was no requirement to monitor feedback or estimate contingencies. Despite its simplicity, a third of the Parkinson’s group, but only one older adult, showed marked increases in errors, 4 SD greater than the worst performing young adult. The pattern of errors was consistent, reflecting a tendency to misbind discrimination rules. The misbinding behaviour was coupled with reduced frontal, parietal and anterior caudate activity when rules were being encoded, but not when attention was initially o

Journal article

Kurtin DL, Violante IR, Zimmerman K, Leech R, Hampshire A, Patel MC, Carmichael DW, Sharp DJ, Li LMet al., 2021, Investigating the interaction between white matter and brain state on tDCS-induced changes in brain network activity, Brain Stimulation, Vol: 14, Pages: 1261-1270, ISSN: 1876-4754

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation whose potential as a cognitive therapy is hindered by our limited understanding of how participant and experimental factors influence its effects. Using functional MRI to study brain networks, we have previously shown in healthy controls that the physiological effects of tDCS are strongly influenced by brain state. We have additionally shown, in both healthy and traumatic brain injury (TBI) populations, that the behavioral effects of tDCS are positively correlated with white matter (WM) structure. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigate how these two factors, WM structure and brain state, interact to shape the effect of tDCS on brain network activity. METHODS: We applied anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) of healthy (n = 22) and TBI participants (n = 34). We used the Choice Reaction Task (CRT) performance to manipulate brain state during tDCS. We acquired simultaneous fMRI to assess activity of cognitive brain networks and used Fractional Anisotropy (FA) as a measure of WM structure. RESULTS: We find that the effects of tDCS on brain network activity in TBI participants are highly dependent on brain state, replicating findings from our previous healthy control study in a separate, patient cohort. We then show that WM structure further modulates the brain-state dependent effects of tDCS on brain network activity. These effects are not unidirectional - in the absence of task with anodal and cathodal tDCS, FA is positively correlated with brain activity in several regions of the default mode network. Conversely, with cathodal tDCS during CRT performance, FA is negatively correlated with brain activity in a salience network region. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that experimental and participant factors interact to have unexpected effects on brain network activity, and that these effects are not fully predictable by studying the fa

Journal article

Lorenz R, Johal M, Dick F, Hampshire A, Leech R, Geranmayeh Fet al., 2021, A Bayesian optimization approach for rapidly mapping residual network function in stroke., Brain, Vol: 144, Pages: 2120-2134

Post-stroke cognitive and linguistic impairments are debilitating conditions, with limited therapeutic options. Domain-general brain networks play an important role in stroke recovery and characterizing their residual function with functional MRI has the potential to yield biomarkers capable of guiding patient-specific rehabilitation. However, this is challenging as such detailed characterization requires testing patients on multitudes of cognitive tasks in the scanner, rendering experimental sessions unfeasibly lengthy. Thus, the current status quo in clinical neuroimaging research involves testing patients on a very limited number of tasks, in the hope that it will reveal a useful neuroimaging biomarker for the whole cohort. Given the great heterogeneity among stroke patients and the volume of possible tasks this approach is unsustainable. Advancing task-based functional MRI biomarker discovery requires a paradigm shift in order to be able to swiftly characterize residual network activity in individual patients using a diverse range of cognitive tasks. Here, we overcome this problem by leveraging neuroadaptive Bayesian optimization, an approach combining real-time functional MRI with machine-learning, by intelligently searching across many tasks, this approach rapidly maps out patient-specific profiles of residual domain-general network function. We used this technique in a cross-sectional study with 11 left-hemispheric stroke patients with chronic aphasia (four female, age ± standard deviation: 59 ± 10.9 years) and 14 healthy, age-matched control subjects (eight female, age ± standard deviation: 55.6 ± 6.8 years). To assess intra-subject reliability of the functional profiles obtained, we conducted two independent runs per subject, for which the algorithm was entirely reinitialized. Our results demonstrate that this technique is both feasible and robust, yielding reliable patient-specific funct

Journal article

Hampshire A, Hellyer PJ, Soreq E, Mehta MA, Ioannidis K, Trender W, Grant JE, Chamberlain SRet al., 2021, Associations between dimensions of behaviour, personality traits, and mental-health during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (vol 12, 4111, 2021), NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 12

Journal article

Sabatini S, Ukoumunne OC, Ballard C, Collins R, Kim S, Corbett A, Aarsland D, Hampshire A, Brooker H, Clare Let al., 2021, What does feeling younger or older than one's chronological age mean to men and women? Qualitative and quantitative findings from the PROTECT study, PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH, ISSN: 0887-0446

Journal article

Hampshire A, Trender W, Chamberlain SR, Jolly AE, Grant JE, Patrick F, Mazibuko N, Williams SC, Barnby JM, Hellyer P, Mehta MAet al., 2021, Cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from COVID-19., EClinicalMedicine

Background: There is growing concern about possible cognitive consequences of COVID-19, with reports of 'Long COVID' symptoms persisting into the chronic phase and case studies revealing neurological problems in severely affected patients. However, there is little information regarding the nature and broader prevalence of cognitive problems post-infection or across the full spread of disease severity. Methods: We sought to confirm whether there was an association between cross-sectional cognitive performance data from 81,337 participants who between January and December 2020 undertook a clinically validated web-optimized assessment as part of the Great British Intelligence Test, and questionnaire items capturing self-report of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 infection and respiratory symptoms. Findings: People who had recovered from COVID-19, including those no longer reporting symptoms, exhibited significant cognitive deficits versus controls when controlling for age, gender, education level, income, racial-ethnic group, pre-existing medical disorders, tiredness, depression and anxiety. The deficits were of substantial effect size for people who had been hospitalised (N = 192), but also for non-hospitalised cases who had biological confirmation of COVID-19 infection (N = 326). Analysing markers of premorbid intelligence did not support these differences being present prior to infection. Finer grained analysis of performance across sub-tests supported the hypothesis that COVID-19 has a multi-domain impact on human cognition. Interpretation: Interpretation. These results accord with reports of 'Long Covid' cognitive symptoms that persist into the early-chronic phase. They should act as a clarion call for further research with longitudinal and neuroimaging cohorts to plot recovery trajectories and identify the biological basis of cognitive deficits in SARS-COV-2 survivors. Funding: Funding. AH is supported by the UK Dementia Research Institute Car

Journal article

Hampshire A, Hellyer P, Soreq E, Mehta M, Ioannidis K, Trender W, Grant J, Chamberlain Set al., 2021, Associations between dimensions of behaviour, personality traits, and mental-health during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

Sabatini S, Ukoumunne OC, Ballard C, Collins R, Anstey KJ, Diehl M, Brothers A, Wahl H-W, Corbett A, Hampshire A, Brooker H, Clare Let al., 2021, Cross-sectional association between objective cognitive performance and perceived age-related gains and losses in cognition, INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOGERIATRICS, Vol: 33, Pages: 727-741, ISSN: 1041-6102

Journal article

Jolly AE, Hampshire A, 2021, A robust brain signature region approach for episodic memory performance in older adults., Brain, Vol: 144, Pages: 1038-1040, ISSN: 1460-2156

Journal article

Soreq E, Violante IR, Daws R, Hampshire Aet al., 2021, Neuroimaging evidence for a network sampling theory of individual differences in human intelligence, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723

Despite a century of research, it remains unclear whether human intelligence should be studied as one dominant, several major, or many distinct abilities, and how such abilities relate to the functional organisation of the brain. Here, we combine psychometric and machine learning methods to examine in a data-driven manner how factor structure and individual variability in cognitive-task performance relate to dynamic-network connectomics. We report that 12 sub-tasks from an established intelligence test can be accurately multi-way classified (74%, chance 8.3%) based on the network states that they evoke. The proximities of the tasks in behavioural-psychometric space correlate with the similarities of their network states. Furthermore, the network states were more accurately classified for higher relative to lower performing individuals. These results suggest that the human brain uses a high-dimensional network-sampling mechanism to flexibly code for diverse cognitive tasks. Population variability in intelligence test performance relates to the fidelity of expression of these task-optimised network states.

Journal article

Chamberlain SR, Grant JE, Trender W, Hellyer P, Hampshire Aet al., 2021, Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in COVID-19 survivors: online population survey, BJPSYCH OPEN, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2056-4724

Journal article

Necka E, Gruszka A, Hampshire A, Sarzynska-Wawer J, Anicai A-E, Orzechowski J, Nowak M, Wojcik N, Sandrone S, Soreq Eet al., 2021, The Effects of Working Memory Training on Brain Activity, BRAIN SCIENCES, Vol: 11

Journal article

Mallas E-J, De Simoni S, Scott G, Jolly A, Hampshire A, Li L, Bourke N, Roberts S, Gorgoraptis N, Sharp Det al., 2021, Abnormal dorsal attention network activation in memory impairment after traumatic brain injury, Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 144, Pages: 114-127, ISSN: 0006-8950

Memory impairment is a common, disabling effect of traumatic brain injury. In healthy individuals, successful memory encoding is associated with activation of the dorsal attention network as well as suppression of the default mode network. Here, in traumatic brain injurypatients we examined whether: i) impairments in memory encoding are associated with abnormal brain activation in these networks; ii) whether changes in this brain activity predict subsequent memory retrieval; and iii) whether abnormal white matter integrity underpinningfunctional networks is associated with impaired subsequent memory. 35 patients with moderate-severetraumatic brain injury aged 23-65 years (74% males) in the post-acute/chronic phase after injury and 16 healthy controls underwent functional MRI during performance of an abstract image memory encoding task. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess structural abnormalities across patient groups compared to 28 age-matched healthy controls. Successful memory encoding across all participants was associated with activation of the dorsal attention network, the ventral visual stream and medial temporal lobes. Decreased activation was seen in the default mode network. Patients with preserved episodic memory demonstrated increased activation in areas of the dorsal attention network.Patients with impaired memory showed increased left anterior prefrontal activity. White matter microstructure underpinning connectivity between core nodes of the encoding networks was significantly reduced in patients with memory impairment. Our results show for the first time that patients with impaired episodic memory show abnormal activation of key nodes within the dorsal attention network and regions regulating default mode network activity during encoding. Successful encoding was associated with an opposite direction of signal

Journal article

Leng F, Hinz R, Dani M, Hampshire A, Gentleman S, Brooks D, Edison Pet al., 2020, Tau formation is associated with microglial activation in more widespread cortical areas than amyloid deposition: Multimodal neuroimaging comparison, Alzheimer's and Dementia, ISSN: 1552-5260

Journal article

Edison P, Leng F, Hinz R, Dani M, Hampshire A, Gentleman S, Brooks DJet al., 2020, Influence of microglial activation on structural and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment subjects: Development of new models and analysis methods/neuroinflammation, Alzheimer's and Dementia, ISSN: 1552-5260

Journal article

Di Bella C, Trender W, Hellyer P, Knowles S, Hill J, Sandrone S, Nicholas R, Hampshire Aet al., 2020, Evaluating cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis, compared to other neurological disorders, using an online cognitive battery, 8th Joint ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS Meeting (MSVirtual), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 502-503, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Mew BG, Custovic D, Soreq E, Lorenz R, Violante I, Sandrone S, Hampshire Aet al., 2020, Mapping the common and distinct neural correlates of visual, rule and motor conflict

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Flexible behaviour requires cognitive-control mechanisms to efficiently resolve conflict between competing information and alternative actions. Whether a global neural resource mediates all forms of conflict or this is achieved within domainspecific systems remains debated. We use a novel fMRI paradigm to orthogonally manipulate rule, response and stimulus-based conflict within a full-factorial design. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses show that activation patterns associated with these conflict types are distinct but partially overlapping within Multiple Demand Cortex (MDC), the brain regions that are most commonly active during cognitive tasks. Region of interest analysis shows that most MDC sub-regions are activated for all conflict types, but to significantly varying levels. We propose that conflict resolution is an emergent property of distributed brain networks, the functional-anatomical components of which place on a continuous, not categorical, scale from domain-specialised to domain general. MDC brain regions place towards one end of that scale but display considerable functional heterogeneity.</jats:p>

Journal article

Hampshire A, Trender W, Chamberlain SR, Jolly A, Grant JE, Patrick F, Mazibuko N, Williams S, Barnby JM, Hellyer P, Mehta MAet al., 2020, Cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from COVID-19 relative to controls: An N=84,285 online study

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Case studies have revealed neurological problems in severely affected COVID-19 patients. However, there is little information regarding the nature and broader prevalence of cognitive problems post-infection or across the full spread of severity. We analysed cognitive test data from 84,285 Great British Intelligence Test participants who completed a questionnaire regarding suspected and biologically confirmed COVID-19 infection. People who had recovered, including those no longer reporting symptoms, exhibited significant cognitive deficits when controlling for age, gender, education level, income, racial-ethnic group and pre-existing medical disorders. They were of substantial effect size for people who had been hospitalised, but also for mild but biologically confirmed cases who reported no breathing difficulty. Finer grained analyses of performance support the hypothesis that COVID-19 has a multi-system impact on human cognition.</jats:p><jats:sec><jats:title>Significance statement</jats:title><jats:p>There is evidence that COVID-19 may cause long term health changes past acute symptoms, termed ‘long COVID’. Our analyses of detailed cognitive assessment and questionnaire data from tens thousands of datasets, collected in collaboration with BBC2 Horizon, align with the view that there are chronic cognitive consequences of having COVID-19. Individuals who recovered from suspected or confirmed COVID-19 perform worse on cognitive tests in multiple domains than would be expected given their detailed age and demographic profiles. This deficit scales with symptom severity and is evident amongst those without hospital treatment. These results should act as a clarion call for more detailed research investigating the basis of cognitive deficits in people who have survived SARS-COV-2 infection.</jats:p></jats:sec>

Journal article

Sabatini S, Ukoumunne OC, Ballard C, Brothers A, Kaspar R, Collins R, Kim S, Corbett A, Aarsland D, Hampshire A, Brooker H, Clare Let al., 2020, International relevance of two measures of awareness of age-related change (AARC), BMC GERIATRICS, Vol: 20

Journal article

Stewart GR, Corbett A, Ballard C, Creese B, Aarsland D, Hampshire A, Charlton RA, Happé Fet al., 2020, Sleep problems and mental health difficulties in older adults who endorse high autistic traits, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol: 77, ISSN: 1750-9467

Background: Sleep problems and mental health difficulties are common in autistic children and young adults. However, these problems have seldom been studied in older autistic adults, or in older adults with elevated autistic traits. Method: Cross-sectional data was examined from 13,897 adults aged 50–81 years taking part in the PROTECT study, who reported whether they experienced persistent socio-communicative autistic traits. Approximately 1%, 187 individuals, were identified as endorsing high autistic traits in childhood and currently, henceforth ‘Autism Spectrum Trait’ (AST) group. An age- and gender-matched comparison group was formed of 6740 individuals who endorsed no autistic traits, henceforth ‘Control Older Adults’ (COA) group. Differences between AST and COA groups were explored in self-reported sleep behaviors, and in depression and anxiety symptoms. Results: AST and COA groups reported similar sleep duration and depth, and nighttime waking frequency. However, the AST group reported significantly more problems with falling asleep, morning drowsiness, and lower sleep quality/satisfaction than COA. More AST adults reported sleep problems past cut-off, as well as clinical levels of depression and anxiety, compared to COA. Adults in both groups who met criteria for high sleep problems experienced more mental health difficulties than those with few sleep problems. However, even amongst those without depression/anxiety, the AST group reported more sleep problems than the COA. Conclusions: These associations suggest that older adults with high autistic traits, like diagnosed autistic children/young adults, may experience poorer sleep and more mental health difficulties than those with low autistic traits. Further work is needed to see whether these results extend to older individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for autism.

Journal article

Araña-Oiarbide G, Daws RE, Lorenz R, Violante IR, Hampshire Aet al., 2020, Preferential activation of the posterior Default-Mode Network with sequentially predictable task switches

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>The default-mode network (DMN) has been primarily associated with internally-directed and self-relevant cognition. This perspective is expanding to recognise its importance in executive behaviours like switching. We investigated the effect different task-switching manipulations have on DMN activation in two studies with novel fMRI paradigms. In the first study, the paradigm manipulated visual discriminability, visuo-perceptual distance and sequential predictability during switching. Increased posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PrCC) activity was evident during switching; critically, this was strongest when the occurrence of the switch was predictable. In the second study, we sought to replicate and further investigate this switch-related effect with a fully factorial design manipulating sequential, spatial and visual-feature predictability. Whole-brain analysis again identified a PCC/PrCC-centred cluster that was more active for sequentially predictable versus unpredictable switches, but not for the other predictability dimensions. We propose PCC/PrCC DMN subregions may play a prominent executive role in mapping the sequential structure of complex tasks.</jats:p>

Journal article

Edison P, Leng F, Hinz R, Dani M, Hampshire A, Gentleman S, Brooks Det al., 2020, Tau formation is associated with microglial activation in more widespread cortical areas than amyloid deposition does, 2020 Alzheimer's Association International Conference

Journal article

Daws RE, Soreq E, Li Y, Sandrone S, Hampshire Aet al., 2020, Contrasting hierarchical and multiple-demand accounts of frontal lobe functional organisation during task-switching

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>There is an unresolved discrepancy between popular hierarchical and multiple-demand perspectives on the functional organisation of the human frontal lobes. Here, we tested alternative predictions of these perspectives with a novel fMRI switching paradigm. Each trial involved switching attention between stimuli, but at different levels of difficulty and abstraction. As expected, increasing response times were evident when comparing low-level perceptual switching to more abstract dimension, rule and task-switching. However, there was no evidence of an abstraction hierarchy within the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Nor was there recruitment of additional anterior PFC regions under increased switching demand. Instead, switching activated a widespread network of frontoparietal and cerebellar regions. Critically, the activity within PFC sub-regions uniformly increased with behavioural switch costs. We propose that both perspectives have some validity, but neither is complete. Too many studies have reported dissociations within MD for this volume to be functionally uniform, and the recruitment of more anterior regions with increased general difficulty cannot explain those results. Conversely, whilst reproducible evidence for a hierarchical functional organisation has been reported, this cannot be explained in terms of abstraction of representation or reconfiguration <jats:italic>per se</jats:italic>, because those interpretations generalise poorly to other task contexts.</jats:p>

Journal article

Beppi C, Violante IR, Hampshire A, Grossman N, Sandrone Set al., 2020, Patterns of Focal- and Large-Scale Synchronization in Cognitive Control and Inhibition: A Review, FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1662-5161

Journal article

Jolly A, Scott G, Sharp D, Hampshire Aet al., 2020, Distinct patterns of structural damage underlie working memory and reasoning deficits after traumatic brain injury, Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 143, Pages: 1158-1176, ISSN: 0006-8950

It is well established that chronic cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI) relate to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and the consequent widespread disruption of brain connectivity. However, the pattern of DAI varies between patients and they have a correspondingly heterogeneous profile of cognitive deficits. This heterogeneity is poorly understood, presenting a non-trivial challenge for prognostication and treatment. Prominent amongst cognitive problems are deficits in working memory and reasoning. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in controls has associated these aspects of cognition with distinct, but partially overlapping, networks of brain regions. Based on this, a logical prediction is that differences in the integrity of the white matter tracts that connect these networks should predict variability in the type and severity of cognitive deficits after TBI.We use diffusion-weighted imaging, cognitive testing and network analyses to test this prediction. We define functionally distinct sub-networks of the structural connectome by intersecting previously published fMRI maps of the brain regions that are activated during our working memory and reasoning tasks, with a library of the white-matter tracts that connect them. We examine how graph theoretic measures within these sub-networks relate to the performance of the same tasks in a cohort of 92 moderate-severe TBI patients. Finally, we use machine learning to determine whether cognitive performance in patients can be predicted using graph theoretic measures from each sub-network.Principal component analysis of behavioural scores confirm that reasoning and working memory form distinct components of cognitive ability, both of which are vulnerable to TBI. Critically, impairments in these abilities after TBI correlate in a dissociable manner with the information-processing architecture of the sub-networks that they are associated with. This dissociation is confirmed when examining degree

Journal article

Stewart GR, Corbett A, Ballard C, Creese B, Aarsland D, Hampshire A, Charlton RA, Happé Fet al., 2020, The Mental and Physical Health of Older Adults With a Genetic Predisposition for Autism., Autism Res, Vol: 13, Pages: 641-654

Autism commonly aggregates in families, with twin studies estimating heritability to be around 80%. Subclinical autism-like characteristics have also been found at elevated rates in relatives of autistic probands. Physical and psychiatric conditions have been reported at elevated rates in autistic children and adults, and also in their relatives. However, to date, there has been no exploration of how aging may affect this pattern. This study examined cross-sectional data from the ongoing online PROTECT study. A total of 20,220 adults aged 50 years and older reported whether they have an autistic first-degree relative. In total, 739 older adults reported having an autistic first-degree relative (AFDR group) and 11,666 were identified as having no family history of any neurodevelopmental disorder (NFD group). The AFDR group demonstrated significantly higher frequencies of self-reported psychiatric diagnoses and a greater total number of co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses than the NFD group. Furthermore, the AFDR group reported elevated current self-report symptoms of depression, anxiety, traumatic experience, and post-traumatic stress than the NFD group. By contrast, few differences between AFDR and NFD groups were observed in physical health conditions, and no differences were observed in the total number of co-occurring physical health diagnoses. These findings suggest that adults who have an AFDR may be at greater risk of poor mental, but not physical, health in later life. Older adults with autistic relatives may benefit from close monitoring to mitigate this susceptibility and to provide timely intervention. Autism Res 2020, 13: 641-654. © 2020 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Children and adults with an autistic relative have been found to experience more psychiatric difficulties than those with no family links to autism. However, a few studies have e

Journal article

Hampshire A, Zadel A, Sandrone S, Soreq E, Fineberg N, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ, Chamberlain SRet al., 2020, Inhibition-Related Cortical Hypoconnectivity as a Candidate Vulnerability Marker for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY-COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND NEUROIMAGING, Vol: 5, Pages: 222-230, ISSN: 2451-9022

Journal article

Brooker H, Williams G, Hampshire A, Corbett A, Aarsland D, Cummings J, Molinuevo JL, Atri A, Ismail Z, Creese B, Fladby T, Thim-Hansen C, Wesnes K, Ballard Cet al., 2020, FLAME: A computerized neuropsychological composite for trials in early dementia, Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, Vol: 12

Introduction: Sensitive neuropsychological tests are needed to improve power for clinical trials in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: To develop a neuropsychological composite (FLAME – Factors of Longitudinal Attention, Memory and Executive Function), we assessed, 10,714 participants over the age of 50 from PROTECT with validated computerized assessments for 2 years. A factorial analysis was completed to identify the key cognitive factors in all participants, and further analyses examined sensitivity to change in people with stage 2/3 early Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) framework. Results: The FLAME composite score (speed of attention, accuracy of attention, memory, and executive function) distinguished between normal cognition and stage 2/3 early AD at baseline, and was sensitive to cognitive and global/functional decline over 2 years, with the potential to improve power for clinical trials. Discussion: FLAME is sensitive to change, providing a straightforward approach to reduce sample size for RCTs in early AD. Conclusion: FLAME is a useful computerized neuropsychology composite with utility for clinical trials focusing on cognition.

Journal article

Li W, Lao-Kaim NP, Roussakis A-A, Martin-Bastida A, Valle-Guzman N, Paul G, Soreq E, Daws RE, Foltynie T, Barker RA, Hampshire A, Piccini Pet al., 2020, Longitudinal functional connectivity changes related to dopaminergic decline in Parkinson's disease, NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, Vol: 28, ISSN: 2213-1582

Journal article

Krause-Utz A, Walther J-C, Schweizer S, Lis S, Hampshire A, Schmahl C, Bohus Met al., 2020, Effectiveness of an Emotional Working Memory Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Proof-of-Principle Study., Psychother Psychosom, Vol: 89, Pages: 122-124

Journal article

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