57 results found
Shore JF, Kolekar AS, Ren N, et al., 2023, An investigation into the influence of viscosity on gear churning losses by considering the effective immersion depth, Tribology Transactions, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1040-2004
We present an experimental investigation into the influence of oil viscosity on gear churning losses in splash-lubricated transmission systems. The inertia rundown method was used to perform tests on a single gear within a cylindrical housing with several oils of different viscosities at several immersion depths. A complex and nonmonotonic relationship between churning torque and viscosity was observed that was highly influenced by the rotational speed, with higher viscosity oils resulting in lower churning torque at higher speeds in some cases. This was attributed to a reduction in effective immersion depth due to oil being centrifugally distributed around the casing by the rotating gear, an effect that was observed to be more pronounced with higher viscosity oils. An effective immersion depth parameter, dependent on the rotational speed of the gear and the lubricant viscosity, was defined to account for this phenomenon. Gear churning losses could be better predicted using an existing empirical model when this parameter was used instead of the nominal immersion depth as is usually done.
Kunzelmann B, Rycerz P, Xu Y, et al., 2023, Prediction of rolling contact fatigue crack propagation in bearing steels using experimental crack growth data and linear elastic fracture mechanics, International Journal of Fatigue, Vol: 168, ISSN: 0142-1123
Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is a major life limiting factor for machine elements that employ non-conformal, rolling sliding, lubricated contacts such as rolling bearings and gears. This paper explores the application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles, as commonly used in structural fatigue, for prediction of RCF crack propagation. A triple-disc contact fatigue machine is used to generate RCF cracks of varying lengths in AISI 52100 bearing steel roller specimens. Crack propagation rates across the surface are measured using optical inspection of test specimens and the final crack geometry is established through specimen sectioning. A numerical finite element model of surface breaking RCF cracks based on LEFM methods is devised to predict the evolution of stress intensity factors (SIFs) during over-rolling of the contact over the experimentally observed crack geometries. The model employs a suitable fracture mechanics mesh to resolve stresses at the crack tip and accounts for Hertzian contact stresses, contact friction and crack face friction. Potential effects of lubricant pressurisation within the crack are not modelled. The predicted SIFs are then related to the experimentally measured crack propagation rates to establish the applicability of the LEFM principles to RCF crack propagation. Results show that LEFM can be used to predict the growth of surface braking RCF cracks. For cracks longer than about 100 μm, a Paris law relationship with the stress intensity exponent of about 4 is derived. Mode II was seen to be the dominant mode of propagation for surface braking RCF cracks. Mode I SIFs are much smaller but can exhibit significant values when the contact is located just ahead of the crack mouth. Decreasing the crack face friction significantly increases mode II stress intensity suggesting that this is one important mechanism by which lubricant entry into the surface braking crack can accelerate its propagation. The findings can help in
Januszewski R, Brizmer V, Kadiric A, 2023, Effect of Lubricant Properties and Contact Conditions on False Brinelling Damage, Tribology Transactions, Vol: 66, Pages: 350-363, ISSN: 1040-2004
False brinelling is a type of fretting wear that occurs in rolling bearings when the contacts of bearing rings and rolling elements are subjected to small-amplitude oscillatory motion. It manifests itself as deep craters with relatively polished bottoms that are evenly spaced around the bearing rings. This work investigates the influence of lubricant properties and contact conditions, including oil viscosity, applied load, and amplitude and frequency of oscillations, on the onset and progression of false brinelling damage. Experiments were conducted with AISI 52100 bearing steel specimens in a ball-on-flat configuration under small-amplitude oscillating conditions. A set of base oils and a group of custom-made greases with systematically varying properties were employed. Importantly, the same ball-on-flat setup was adapted to allow optical access to the contact by employing a sapphire disc instead of a steel one. This allowed direct observation of the damage onset and progression to better elucidate the mechanisms taking place. Additional experiments were conducted with the same lubricants on a thrust ball bearing rig and the observed trends were compared to those from the ball-on-disc setup. Results show that false brinelling damage initiates locally at discrete asperity microcontacts and then spreads relatively quickly with continued rubbing to cover the whole contact area. Oscillation amplitudes shorter than the Hertz contact width (A/D < 1) were shown to be most damaging, while the damage reduces drastically for amplitudes larger than the Hertz contact width (A/D > 1). For the more important case of A/D < 1, oils and greases with lower viscosities produced less damage. Oils in general produced somewhat less damage than the equivalent lithium- or urea-thickened greases with the same base oil. Lower oscillation frequencies and lower contact pressures also produced less damage. The corresponding friction and electrical contact resistance measurements indic
Chennaoui M, Fowell M, Liang H, et al., 2022, A novel set-up for in situ measurement and mapping of lubricant film thickness in a model rolling bearing using interferometry and ratiometric fluorescence imaging, Tribology Letters, Vol: 70, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 1023-8883
This paper describes a unique experimental set-up constructed for studies of lubricant behaviour in an operating rolling element bearing including in situ quantitative measurements of film thickness in and around the element-raceway contact. The set-up is based on a deep groove ball bearing in which the outer race is made of sapphire to allow full optical access to the zone in which the rolling elements are loaded against it. This allows direct imaging of lubricant films under both steady-state and transient conditions and at contact pressures and rotational speeds representative of those present in real rolling element bearings. Optical interferometry is used to measure thin EHL films inside the ball–raceway contacts while a specific laser induced fluorescence approach, referred to as ratiometric fluorescence, is implemented to observe the lubricant distribution and quantify its thickness ahead of the ball–raceway contact. Results are presented to validate the accuracy of the method and to investigate the influence of bulk lubricant viscosity and bearing speed on contact film thickness, inlet starvation and lubricant distribution around the ball–raceway contact. To the best of our knowledge, the work described here is the first to directly measure lubricant distribution and EHL film thickness in a ball–raceway contact in an operating radial rolling bearing.
Ueda M, Spikes H, Kadiric A, 2022, In-situ observation of the effect of the tribofilm growth on scuffing in rolling-sliding contact, Tribology Letters, Vol: 70, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 1023-8883
General reductions in lubricant viscosities in many machine components mean that the role of lubricant additives in forming tribofilms has become increasingly important to provide adequate surface protection against scuffing. However, the relationship between scuffing and the formation and removal of tribofilms has not been systematically demonstrated. In this study, a step-sliding speed scuffing test based on contra-rotation using MTM-SLIM and ETM-SLIM has been employed to observe concurrently tribofilm thickness and the onset of scuffing. The initial sliding speed used was found to significantly affect scuffing performance since it determines the extent to which a tribofilm can form before critical sliding speed conditions are reached. In general, additives that formed thicker tribofilms, especially ZDDPs and triphenyl phosphate, gave effective protection against scuffing, though their protective tribofilms were progressively removed at higher sliding speeds, eventually resulting in scuffing.
Wainwright B, Takeuchi H, Makino T, et al., 2022, The influence of A ratio and surface roughness on the initiation and progression of micropitting damage, WEAR, Vol: 508, ISSN: 0043-1648
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H, 2022, Influence of PMA on the anti-scuffing properties of AW/EP additives, Tribology International, Vol: 174, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0301-679X
Scuffing is becoming a quite common failure mode in gears and bearings. It has been shown that AW/EP additives are effective in preventing scuffing, but only if they are able to form a thick tribofilm before encountering severe scuffing-type conditions. This study has employed a contra-rotating, step-sliding speed scuffing test to explore the impact of PMAs on the ability of ZDDP and a commercial SP additive-containing package to prevent scuffing when subjected to immediately severe conditions. It is found that some PMAs can greatly enhance the anti-scuffing performance of these AW/EP additives. They do this by forming thick, adsorbed boundary films that can withstand high speed sliding conditions and protect the rubbing surfaces long enough for tribofilms to form.
Chennaoui M, Liang H, Fowell M, et al., 2022, A Novel Set-up for In-situ Measurement and Mapping of Lubricant Film Thickness in a Model Rolling Bearing Using Interferometry and Ratiometric Fluorescence Imaging
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>This paper describes a unique experimental set-up constructed for studies of lubricant behaviour in an operating rolling element bearing including in-situ quantitative measurements of film thickness in and around the element-raceway contact. The set-up is based on a deep groove ball bearing in which the outer race is made of sapphire to allow full optical access to the zone in which the rolling elements are loaded against it. This allows direct imaging of lubricant films under both steady-state and transient conditions and at contact pressures and rotational speeds representative of those present in real rolling element bearings. Optical interferometry is used to measure thin EHL films inside the ball-raceway contacts while a specific laser induced fluorescence approach, referred to as ratiometric fluorescence, is implemented to observe the lubricant distribution and quantify its thickness ahead of the ball-raceway contact. Results are presented to validate the accuracy of the method and to investigate the influence of bulk lubricant viscosity and bearing speed on contact film thickness, inlet starvation and lubricant distribution around the ball-raceway contact. To the best of our knowledge, the work described here is the first to directly measure lubricant distribution and EHL film thickness in a ball-raceway contact in an operating radial rolling bearing.</jats:p>
Kadiric A, Shore J, Christodoulias AI, et al., 2022, Prediction of electric vehicle transmission efficiency using a new thermally coupled lubrication model, SAE Technical Papers, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0148-7191
We present a new method to predict the power losses in electric vehicle (EV) transmission systems using a thermally coupled gearbox efficiency model. Friction losses in gear teeth contacts are predicted using an iterative procedure to account for the thermal coupling between the tooth temperature, oil viscosity, film thickness, friction, and oil rheology during a gear mesh cycle. Crucially, the prediction of the evolution of the coefficient of friction (COF) along the path of contact incorporates measured lubricant rheological parameters as well as measured boundary friction. This allows the model to differentiate between nominally similar lubricants in terms of their impact on EV transmission efficiency. Bearing and gear churning losses are predicted using existing empirical relationships. The effects of EV motor cooling and heat transfers in the heat exchanger on oil temperature are considered. Finally, heat transfer to the surroundings is accounted for so that the evolution of gearbox temperature over any given drive cycle can be predicted. The general approach presented here is applicable to any automotive gearbox while incorporating features specific to EVs. The model predictions are compared to real road measurements made on a popular current EV, and good agreement is shown over a range of road conditions. It should be noted that at high input speeds, the current model somewhat overpredicts the gearbox losses due to limitations in existing empirical bearing and churning loss models. Analyses of transmission losses breakdown at constant input power show that at low speeds/high torques, it is the losses in the gear meshes and high-load bearings that are most significant whereas at high speeds/low torques the losses in high-speed input shaft bearings, as well as gear churning losses, become more important. It is shown that the gearbox losses can account for 15-25% of the overall power losses in an EV depending on road conditions; a much higher proportion than in
Micropitting is a type of surface fatigue damage that occurs in rolling-sliding contacts operating under thin oil film conditions. It is caused by stress fluctuations, brought about by surface asperity interactions, which lead to initiation and propagation of numerous surface fatigue cracks and subsequent loss of material. Despite its increasing importance to gear and bearing reliability, the mechanisms of micropitting are poorly understood. This is particularly the case concerning the effects of friction on micropitting which are difficult to study under controlled conditions. This is because it is difficult to isolate the friction effects from other influential factors, in particular from the build-up of any anti-wear tribofilm and its subsequent effect on the running-in of counterface roughness that is known to strongly affect micropitting through its influence on severity of asperity stresses. This paper presents new data on the impact of friction on micropitting obtained using a new test methodology. Micropitting tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc MTM rig with the additional functionality to continuously monitor the growth of tribofilm during the test. Friction was varied by using custom-made oils containing different concentrations of MoDTC. Crucially, the effect of friction was isolated from the effect of counterface roughness running-in by introducing the MoDTC blend only after the running-in period was completed with a ZDDP solution alone. This approach eliminates the influence of MoDTC on ZDDP anti-wear tribofilm growth in early stages and hence ensures the same running-in takes place in each test. This gives similar asperity pressure history, regardless of the amount of MoDTC present.Resultsshow that friction has a very significant impact on micropitting; for example, the extent of micropitting was reduced by a factor of 10 when friction coefficient was reduced from about 0.1 to 0.04. Lower friction results in fewer surface cracks which grow at a s
Ueda M, Spikes H, Kadiric A, 2022, Influence of black oxide coating on micropitting and ZDDP tribofilm formation, Tribology Transactions, Vol: 65, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 1040-2004
Micropitting is a type of surface fatigue damage that occurs in rolling-sliding contacts operating under thin oil film conditions. Application of black oxide (BO) coating to steel rubbing surfaces has been suggested as a potential approach to alleviate micropitting. This paper confirms that BO coatings can prevent micropitting and identifies the predominant mechanism by which this occurs.Micropitting tests were carried out using ZDDP solutions in a ball on disc tribometer. Micropitting was preferentially generated on the smooth balls and this was completely prevented by applying a BO coating to the rougher discs, regardless of whether the balls were coated or not. In contrast, when the rough discs were not BO-coated, micropitting was consistently generated on both BO-coated and uncoated balls. BO coating has about one quarter the hardness of the steel used and was found to be very rapidly removed from the surface asperity peaks at the onset of rubbing, despite the presence of ZDDP. This resulted in an almost immediate and very large reduction of the surface roughness of the discs and this prevented high asperity stresses that would normally initiate and propagate the surface fatigue cracks leading to micropitting. Parallel measurement showed that BO did not suppress tribofilm growth, so the ZDDP was able to protect against adhesive wear while not promoting micropitting. The insights presented here can help with the design of components and lubricants that are effective in controlling both sliding wear and micropitting.
Kadiric A, Januszewski R, 2022, Rolling bearings, Fretting Wear and Fretting Fatigue: Fundamental Principles and Applications, Pages: 549-564, ISBN: 9780128240977
Fretting wear can affect rolling element bearings in two locations: at the interfaces between the bearing rings and the shaft or housing, and in the rolling element—ring contacts. The former occurs due to small relative displacements between the ring and the shaft/housing during bearing operation and is usually caused by inadequate interface fits. Although it can lead to failures in extreme cases, fretting damage in these “nonworking” interfaces is often not detrimental to bearing operation and generally follows the classical fretting corrosion mechanisms described earlier in this book. The latter type of damage, commonly referred to as “false brinelling,” is the primary fretting related failure mode in rolling bearings. It occurs in nominally stationary bearings due to small amplitude oscillations in the element-ring contacts caused by some external source of vibration. One of the distinguishing characteristics of this type of fretting wear is that it occurs in the presence of a lubricant, commonly a bearing grease; indeed, it is the ability of the lubricant to penetrate the oscillating element-ring contact that is the key factor that determines the extent of false brinelling. This section first describes how false brinelling damage manifests itself and lists some of the typical bearing applications affected by it. The main test methods used to study false brinelling, particularly the protection offered by different lubricants, are then briefly described. This is followed by a discussion on the mechanisms responsible for the false brinelling damage based around some recent research results obtained by the authors. In particular, the effects of lubricant viscosity and the oscillating amplitude are illustrated and explained in terms of the lubricant’s ability to penetrate the oscillating element-ring contact and thus improve the prevailing lubrication conditions. Finally, some potential mitigating measures against false brinelling
Boidi G, Grützmacher PG, Kadiric A, et al., 2021, Fast laser surface texturing of spherical samples to improve the frictional performance of elasto-hydrodynamic lubricated contacts, Friction, Vol: 9, Pages: 1227-1241, ISSN: 2223-7704
Textured surfaces offer the potential to promote friction and wear reduction by increasing the hydrodynamic pressure, fluid uptake, or acting as oil or debris reservoirs. However, texturing techniques often require additional manufacturing steps and costs, thus frequently being not economically feasible for real engineering applications. This experimental study aims at applying a fast laser texturing technique on curved surfaces for obtaining superior tribological performances. A femtosecond pulsed laser (Ti:Sapphire) and direct laser interference patterning (with a solid-state Nd:YAG laser) were used for manufacturing dimple and groove patterns on curved steel surfaces (ball samples). Tribological tests were carried out under elasto-hydrodynamic lubricated contact conditions varying slide-roll ratio using a ball-on-disk configuration. Furthermore, a specific interferometry technique for rough surfaces was used to measure the film thickness of smooth and textured surfaces. Smooth steel samples were used to obtain data for the reference surface. The results showed that dimples promoted friction reduction (up to 20%) compared to the reference smooth specimens, whereas grooves generally caused less beneficial or detrimental effects. In addition, dimples promoted the formation of full film lubrication conditions at lower speeds. This study demonstrates how fast texturing techniques could potentially be used for improving the tribological performance of bearings as well as other mechanical components utilised in several engineering applications.
Pagkalis K, Spikes H, Jelita Rydel J, et al., 2021, The influence of steel composition on the formation and effectiveness of anti-wear films in tribological contacts, Tribology Letters, Vol: 69, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1023-8883
The effectiveness of antiwear additives in laboratory tests is commonly evaluated using specimens made of AISI 52100 through-hardened bearing steel. However, many lubricated machine components are made of steels with significantly different material compositions, which raises an important practical question of whether the performance of antiwear additives with these other steel types is different from that established with AISI 52100. To help answer this question, this paper investigates the influence of steel composition on the formation and effectiveness of antiwear films. Four steels that are commonly used in tribological applications, namely AISI 52100 through-hardened bearing steel, 16MnCr5 case-carburised gear steel, M2 high speed steel and 440C stainless steel are tested in rolling-sliding, ball-on-disc contacts lubricated with three custom-made oils, one containing ZDDP and two containing different types of ashless antiwear additives. The relative effectiveness of their boundary films was assessed by measuring their thickness and associated wear and friction over 12 h of rubbing at two specimen roughness levels. For ZDDP it was found that the formation of antiwear film was not significantly influenced by steel composition or specimen surface roughness. A similar tribofilm thickness, final tribofilm roughness and friction was observed with all four steels. No measurable wear was observed. By contrast, for the ashless antiwear additives the thickness and effectiveness of their tribofilms was strongly influenced by steel composition, particularly at higher roughness levels. The exact trends in film thickness vs steel relationship depended on the specific chemistry of the ashless additive (ester-based or acid-based) but in general, relative to AISI 52100 steel, M2 steel promoted ashless tribofilm formation whilst 440C retarded ashless tribofilm formation. This behaviour is attributed to the presence of different alloying elements and the ability of the additives
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H, 2021, Wear of hydrogenated DLC in MoDTC-containing oils, Wear, Vol: 474-475, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0043-1648
This paper describes a study of the effect on MoDTC-promoted a-C:H DLC wear of adding various surface-active additives used in engine lubricants, including ZDDP, an ashless EP additive, Ca detergents, dispersants, an OFM and a PAMA, to an MoDTC solution. Tribofilms formed on wear tracks on steel were analysed using SLIM, TEM, STEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Relevant mechanisms by which these additives reduce the impact of MoDTC on DLC wear have also been suggested. DLC wear in PAO+Mo can be reduced by the presence of other surface-active additives in three ways. Firstly, asperity contact between DLC and steel can be mitigated by forming thick antiwear tribofilms. Secondly, other additives can increase the ratio of MoS2:MoO3, reducing the amount of wear-enhancing MoO3 in the tribofilm. Thirdly, the amount of MoDTC tribofilm including MoO3 can be reduced by the competitive adsorption of other surface-active additives. This study has practical implications for ways in which DLC surfaces can be protected by lubricant formulation.
Boidi G, Profito FJ, Kadiric A, et al., 2021, The use of Powder Metallurgy for promoting friction reduction under sliding-rolling lubricated conditions, Tribology International, Vol: 157, ISSN: 0301-679X
This work exploits the use of different sintering manufacturing techniques for obtaining superior performances in lubricated point contacts. Disc and ball specimens were manufactures varying porosity and pore characteristics. The effect of surface pores in sintered materials was evaluated based on the frictional behaviour under different sliding-rolling conditions and lubrication regimes. Furthermore, lubricant film thicknesses were measured using interferometric technique. Test results showed that the decrease of porosity generally improves tribological performance. Low porosity surfaces can promote friction reduction compared to non-porous reference materials in specific configurations and operating with similar specific lubricant thickness values. This work contributes to an improved understanding of how randomly distributed micro-irregularities could change lubrication conditions, potentially increasing the efficiency of lubricated mechanical systems.
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H, 2021, Influence of steel surface composition on ZDDP tribofilm growth using Ion implantation, Tribology Letters, Vol: 69, ISSN: 1023-8883
This paper examines the influence of steel surface composition on antiwear tribofilm formation by ion-implanting typical steel alloying elements, Ni, Mo, Cr, V and W, into AISI 52100 bearing steel surfaces. Such implantation changes the chemical composition of the steel surface but has relatively little effect on its mechanical properties or topography. The behaviour of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear additive was studied. The study employs a ball on disc tribometer with ability to monitor tribofilm development and a range of analytical tools including STEM-EDX, XPS and FIB-TEM to analyse the formed tribofilms. It was found that Ni implantation promotes ZDDP tribofilm formation while Mo and Cr implantation deters tribofilm growth. V and W implantation do not significantly change tribofilm formation. Results on the influence of ZDDP concentration on tribofilm formation rate with different implanted metals suggest that one important mechanism by which steel composition influences tribofilm formation may be by controlling the extent of ZDDP adsorption. This study shows the importance of steel surface composition on ZDDP response and also demonstrates a powerful way to study and potentially improve the tribological performance of machine components via a combination of lubricant formulation and surface modification.
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H, 2020, ZDDP tribofilm formation on non-ferrous surfaces, Tribology Online, Vol: 15, Pages: 318-331, ISSN: 1881-218X
The current trend for using lower viscosity lubricants with the aim of improving fuel economy of mechanical systems means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods in thin oil film, boundary and mixed lubrication conditions, where the risk of surface damage is increased. In addition, non-ferrous materials are increasingly being introduced in machine components to reduce wear and increase efficiency. Thus, understanding of the ZDDP antiwear tribofilm formation on both ferrous and non-ferrous surfaces is increasingly important in order to formulate lubricants that give desired antiwear performance with both types of materials. In this paper the effect of ferrous and non-ferrous rubbing materials, namely, steel, Si3N4, WC, SiC and a-C:H DLC coating, on ZDDP tribofilm formation was investigated. Among non-ferrous materials, it was found that ZDDP tribofilms were formed on Si3N4 and WC in the boundary lubrication regime, but almost no tribofilms were formed on SiC and a-C:H DLC. In addition, although tribofilms formed on some non-ferrous surfaces, they were easily removed under boundary lubrication by direct asperity contact because of their weak adhesion to the substrate. This tribofilm removal makes quantification of ZDDP tribofilm formation rate on non-ferrous surfaces under boundary lubrication conditions difficult. By contrast, under high shear stress EHL conditions, thick tribofilms formed without film removal with the tribofilm thickness being the greatest for steel, followed by Si3N4 and then WC, with no tribofilm formation observed on SiC and DLC. QCM results suggest that ZDDP tribofilm formation might be considerably affected by the extent to which ZDDP adsorbs on the substrate surface. The chemical properties of tribofilms are discussed and a possible mechanism by which ZDDP forms tribofilm on non-ferrous surfaces is suggested. This study has practical implications for ways in which non-ferrous surfaces can be protected from wear via l
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H, 2019, On the crystallinity and durability of ZDDP tribofilm, Tribology Letters, Vol: 67, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1023-8883
The current trend for using lower-viscosity lubricants with the aim of improving fuel economy of mechanical systems means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods in thin oil film, mixed lubrication conditions, where the risk of surface damage is increased. Consequently, the performance and durability of the tribofilms formed by antiwear additives, and in particular zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), the main antiwear oil additive used in engine oils, has become an increasingly important issue. In this paper, it is confirmed that ZDDP tribofilms are initially relatively easily removed by rubbing but that they become more durable during prolonged rubbing. FIB-TEM analyses at different stages of tribofilm formation show that during the early stages of rubbing only the tribofilm close to the steel substrate is nanocrystalline, while the outer region is amorphous and easily removed. However, after prolonged rubbing all regions of the tribofilm become nanocrystalline and able to withstand rubbing in base oil without being removed. XPS analysis shows that after extended rubbing the outermost polyphosphate structures change from longer-chain structures such as metaphosphate and polyphosphate to shorter-chain structures including orthophosphate. This depolymerization of ZDDP tribofilm from long- to short-chain phosphate and consequent nanocrystallization are driven by heat and shear stress. EDX analysis shows that this conversion is promoted by diffusion of Fe cation into the bulk of the tribofilm. The finding that ZDDP tribofilms evolve during rubbing from a weaker amorphous structure to a more durable nanocrystalline one has important implications in terms of the behaviour of ZDDPs at low concentrations, on non-metallic surfaces and at very high contact pressures, as well as for the development of ZDDP tribofilm, friction and wear models.
Kanazawa Y, De Laurentis N, Kadiric A, 2019, Studies of friction in grease lubricated rolling bearings using ball-on-disc and full bearing tests, Tribology Transactions, Vol: 63, Pages: 77-89, ISSN: 1040-2004
This article evaluates the frictional performance of different bearing grease formulations in full rolling bearings and a ball-on-disc rig and subsequently assesses whether the ball-on-disc test results can be used to predict the grease performance in actual bearings. A selection of custom-made greases with systematically varied formulations as well as their base oils were tested. Bearing torque was measured in two different cylindrical roller thrust bearings and a thrust ball bearing. The same lubricants were tested with ball-on-disc tribometers, a mini traction machine (MTM) to measure friction and an optical elastohydrodynamic (EHD) rig to measure film thickness. Both lithium complex and diurea greases were observed to produce lower friction than their base oils within the low speed, low nominal lambda ratio region, whereas the greases and oils had the same friction at high nominal lambda ratio values. These relative trends were the same in full bearing and single-contact MTM tests. The reduction in friction was seen to be related to the level of film thickness enhancement provided by greases at lower speeds, which leads to an increase in the effective lambda ratio and hence reduced friction. By extracting the sliding torque component from the overall measured bearing torque, a plot of the friction coefficient against the effective lambda ratio was produced encompassing all bearing and single-contact tests and all lubricants and test conditions. This plot was seen to follow a general shape of a master Stribeck curve, indicating that the numerical values of the friction coefficient from ball-on-disc and full bearing tests overlap and can be related to each other using this approach over the range of conditions employed here. Thus, single-contact ball-on-disc tests can provide a fast and economical way of establishing the frictional performance of bearing greases in full bearings in terms of both relative performance rankings and quantitative values of bearing fric
Gouda K, Rycerz P, Kadiric A, et al., 2019, Assessing the effectiveness of data-driven time-domain condition indicators in predicting the progression of surface distress under rolling contact, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, Vol: 233, Pages: 1523-1540, ISSN: 1350-6501
Condition monitoring of machine health via analysis of vibration, acoustic and other signals offers an important tool for reducing the machine downtime and maintenance costs. The key aspect in this process is the ability to relate features derived from the recorded sensor signals to the physical condition of the monitored asset in real time. This paper uses simple machine learning techniques to examine the ability of specific time-domain features obtained from vibration signals to predict the progression of surface distress in lubricated, rolling-sliding contacts, such as those found in rolling bearings and gears. Controlled experiments were performed on a triple-disc rolling contact fatigue rig using seeded-fault roller specimens where micropitting damage was generated and its progression directly observed over millions of contact cycles. Vibration signals were recorded throughout the experiments. Features known as condition indicators were then extracted from the recorded time-domain signals and their evolution related to the observed physical state of the associated specimens using simple machine learning techniques. Five time-domain condition indicators were examined, peak-to-peak, root-mean-square, kurtosis, crest factor and skewness, three of which were found not to be redundant. First, a classification model using KNN nearest neighbor was built with the three informative condition indicators as training data. The cross-validation results indicated that this classifier was able to predict the presence of micropitting damage with a relatively high precision and a low rate of false positives. Secondly, a k-means clustering analysis was performed to measure the significance of each condition indicator by leveraging patterns. The peak-to-peak condition indicator was found to be a good predictor for progression of micropitting damage. In addition, this indicator was able to distinguish between micropitting and pitting failure modes with a high success rate. Finally
Ueda M, Spikes H, Kadiric A, 2019, In-situ observations of the effect of the ZDDP tribofilm growth on micropitting, Tribology International, Vol: 138, Pages: 342-352, ISSN: 0301-679X
The ongoing trend for using ever lower viscosities of lubricating oils, with the aim of improving the efficiency of mechanical systems, means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods under thin film, mixed lubrication conditions where the risk of surface damage is increased. For this reason, the role of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear lubricant additive has become increasingly important in order to provide adequate surface protection. It is known that due to its exceptional effectiveness in reducing surface wear, ZDDP may promote micropitting by preventing adequate running-in of the contacting surfaces. However, the relationship between ZDDP tribofilm growth rate and the evolution of micropitting has not been directly demonstrated. To address this, we report the development of a novel technique using MTM-SLIM to obtain micropitting and observe ZDDP tribofilm growth in parallel throughout a test. This is then applied to investigate the effect of ZDDP concentration and type on micropitting.It is found that oils with higher ZDDP concentrations produce more micropitting but less surface wear and that, at a given concentration, a mixed primary-secondary ZDDP results in more severe micropitting than a primary ZDDP. Too rapid formation of a thick antiwear tribofilm early in the test serves to prevent adequate running-in of sliding parts, which subsequently leads to higher asperity stresses and more asperity stress cycles and consequently more micropitting. Therefore, any adverse effects of ZDDP on micropitting and surface fatigue in general are mechanical in nature and can be accounted for through ZDDP's influence on running-in and resulting asperity stress history. The observed correlation between antiwear film formation rate and micropitting should help in the design of oil formulations that extend component lifetime by controlling both wear and micropitting damage.
Rycerz P, Kadiric A, 2019, The influence of slide–roll ratio on the extent of micropitting damage in rolling–sliding contacts pertinent to gear applications, Tribology Letters, Vol: 67, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1023-8883
Micropitting is a type of surface damage that occurs in rolling–sliding contacts operating under thin oil film, mixed lubrication conditions, such as those formed between meshing gear teeth. Like the more widely studied pitting damage, micropitting is caused by the general mechanism of rolling contact fatigue but, in contrast to pitting, it manifests itself through the formation of micropits on the local, roughness asperity level. Despite the fact that micropitting is increasingly becoming a major mode of gear failure, the relevant mechanisms are poorly understood and there are currently no established design criteria to assess the risk of micropitting occurrence in gears or other applications. This paper provides new understanding of the tribological mechanisms that drive the occurrence of micropitting damage and serves to inform the ongoing discussions on suitable design criteria in relation to the influence of contact slide–roll ratio (SRR) on micropitting. A triple-disc rolling contact fatigue rig is used to experimentally study the influence of the magnitude and direction of SRR on the progression of micropitting damage in samples made of case-carburised gear steel. The test conditions are closely controlled to isolate the influence of the variable of interest. In particular, any variation in bulk heating at different SRRs is eliminated so that tests are conducted at the same film thickness for all SRRs. The results show that increasing the magnitude of SRR increases the level of micropitting damage and that negative SRRs (i.e. the component where damage is being accumulated is slower) produce more micropitting than the equivalent positive SRRs. Measurements of elastohydrodynamic film thickness show that in the absence of bulk heating, increasing SRR does not cause a reduction in EHL film thickness and therefore this cannot be the reason for the increased micropitting at higher SRRs. Instead, we show that the main mechanism by which increase in SRR
Peng B, Spikes H, Kadiric A, 2019, The development and application of a scuffing test based on contra-rotation, Tribology Letters, Vol: 67, ISSN: 1023-8883
Scuffing is a surface failure mode that occurs in sliding–rolling contacts subjected to high loads and high sliding speeds, such as those in gears and cam-followers. Owing to its sudden onset, rapid progression and dependence on both fluid and boundary lubricant films, scuffing is difficult to study in a repeatable manner. This paper describes further development of a recently proposed scuffing test method based on contra-rotation, its extension to higher loads using a new experimental set-up and its application to study the onset of scuffing with a selection of model and fully-formulated oils. The method employs two surfaces moving in opposite directions under rolling–sliding conditions, with a fixed load and step-wise increasing sliding speed. By decoupling the entrainment and sliding speeds, the method allows the effects of lubricant formulation on scuffing performance to be isolated from the influence of viscosity. The approach achieves high sliding speeds in parallel with low entrainment speeds, while minimising the undesirable effects of surface wear and frictional heating. The proposed test is relatively fast and economical, with total test time of about 30 min including specimen cleaning and set-up. Results show that the newly implemented modifications have improved the repeatability of the test method, so that the number of repeat tests required for reliable oil ranking results is minimal. Tests with model and fully-formulated oils show that the onset of scuffing is characterised by a sharp and unrecoverable increase in friction and accompanied by the destruction of any boundary films. All tests show that the relationship load × speedn = constant holds at scuffing, with the exact value of the exponent n being dependent on the oil formulation. Additivised oils were shown to have enhanced scuffing resistance, which arises from their ability to postpone the uncontrollable rise in friction to higher sliding speeds. Finally, the critical maximu
Manieri F, Stadler K, Morales-Espejel GE, et al., 2019, The origins of white etching cracks and their significance to rolling bearing failures, International Journal of Fatigue, Vol: 120, Pages: 107-133, ISSN: 0142-1123
Presence of white etching cracks has been widely associated with early failures of rolling bearings in a number of applications, with wind turbine gearbox bearings being the most frequently cited and practically significant example. Despite the recent research efforts, there is yet no universal agreement on the mechanisms of formation of these cracks and little direct evidence of their significance to bearing reliability. In an attempt to address this, this paper proposes a new theory on the origins and significance of white etching cracks. The paper provides systematic experimental evidence in support of this theory through rolling contact fatigue tests performed with AISI 52100 bearing steel specimens on a triple-disc machine over a wide range of contact conditions. The test results show that white etching cracks can be formed with base oils as well as commercially formulated transmission and engine oils. WECs were generated under slide-roll-ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.3, under positive and negative sliding, different contact pressures and specific film thicknesses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. No white etching areas were ever observed without the associate crack being present, and it was also shown that white etching areas themselves can be produced in a pure rubbing contact of bearing steels under both lubricated and unlubricated conditions. These results provide direct evidence that the steel transformations that exhibit themselves as white etching areas are formed through rubbing of the existing crack faces, and that the chemical composition of the lubricant and the magnitude and direction of sliding are not the primary driver of WEC formation, in contrast to literature. Instead, the results presented here show that WECs are formed through the action of a specific stress history in time via the following mechanism: (i) Short-lived high contact stresses, which can be caused by a number of factors, act in the initial stages of the component life to initiate early f
Morales-Espejel GE, Rycerz P, Kadiric A, 2018, Prediction of micropitting damage in gear teeth contacts considering the concurrent effects of surface fatigue and mild wear, Wear, Vol: 398-399, Pages: 99-115, ISSN: 0043-1648
The present paper studies the occurrence of micropitting damage in gear teeth contacts. An existing general micropitting model, which accounts for mixed lubrication conditions, stress history, and fatigue damage accumulation, is adapted here to deal with transient contact conditions that exist during meshing of gear teeth. The model considers the concurrent effects of surface fatigue and mild wear on the evolution of tooth surface roughness and therefore captures the complexities of damage accumulation on tooth flanks in a more realistic manner than hitherto possible. Applicability of the model to gear contact conditions is first confirmed by comparing its predictions to relevant experiments carried out on a triple-disc contact fatigue rig. Application of the model to a pair of meshing spur gears shows that under low specific oil film thickness conditions, the continuous competition between surface fatigue and mild wear determines the overall level as well as the distribution of micropitting damage along the tooth flanks. The outcome of this competition in terms of the final damage level is dependent on contact sliding speed, pressure and specific film thickness. In general, with no surface wear, micropitting damage increases with decreasing film thickness as may be expected, but when some wear is present micropitting damage may reduce as film thickness is lowered to the point where wear takes over and removes the asperity peaks and hence reduces asperity interactions. Similarly, when wear is negligible, increased sliding can increase the level of micropitting by increasing the number of asperity stress cycles, but when wear is present, an increase in sliding may lead to a reduction in micropitting due to faster removal of asperity peaks. The results suggest that an ideal situation in terms of surface damage prevention is that in which some mild wear at the start of gear pair operation adequately wears-in the tooth surfaces, thus reducing subsequent micropitting, fo
Kadiric A, Rycerz P, 2017, Influence of Contact Conditions on the Onset of Micropitting in Rolling-Sliding Contacts Pertinent to Gear Applications
De Laurentis N, Cann P, Lugt P, et al., 2017, The Influence of Base Oil Properties on the Friction Behaviour of Lithium Greases in Rolling/Sliding Concentrated Contacts, Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
This study investigates the influence of base oil type and viscosity on the frictional behaviour of lithium-thickened bearing greases. A series of model lithium greases were manufactured by systematically varying viscosity and type of base oil, so that the influence of a single base oil property could be studied in isolation. In addition, selected greases were blended with oleic acid, with the purpose of evaluating its effectiveness in further reducing grease friction. Friction coefficient and film thickness were measured in laboratory ball-on-disc tribometers over a range of speeds and temperatures. For a specific oil type, the influence of base oil viscosity on friction was found to be closely related to its effect on film thickness: greases formulated with PAO oils covering a wide range of viscosities gave very similar friction at the same nominal film thickness. For a given base oil viscosity, base oil type was found to have a strong influence on grease friction under all test conditions. PAO-based greases generally produced lower friction than mineral- and ester-based greases. Addition of oleic acid to the test greases did not significantly affect friction within the range of test conditions employed in this study. The results provide new insight into the frictional behaviour of greases, which may be used to help inform new low-friction grease formulations for rolling bearing applications.
Guegan J, Kadiric A, Gabelli A, et al., 2017, Reply to the 'Comment on "The Relationship Between Friction and Film Thickness in EHD Point Contacts in the Presence of Longitudinal Roughness'' by Guegan, Kadiric, Gabelli, & Spikes' by Scott Bair, Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
Kanazawa Y, Sayles RS, Kadiric A, 2017, Film formation and friction in grease lubricated rolling-sliding non-conformal contacts, Tribology International, Vol: 109, Pages: 505-518, ISSN: 1879-2464
This study investigates the film formation and friction in grease lubricated, rolling-sliding, non-conformal contacts over a range of entrainment speeds, surface roughnesses and contact temperatures. The effects of grease composition are assessed by employing custom made, additive free, lithium and diurea thickened greases, whose composition is systematically varied so that the effects of the thickener and the base oil can be isolated. All film thickness and friction measurements were conducted under fully-flooded conditions. It was found that at low speeds all tested greases are able to form thicker films than the corresponding base oils. The thickness and behaviour of these films is determined by the thickener type and is independent of the base oil viscosity and the test temperature. At higher speeds, the film thickness is governed by the base oil properties alone and can be predicted by the EHD theory. At low speeds, films with diurea greases grow with time under constant speed and residual films persist under load after contact motion ceases. The real lambda ratio, based on measured grease film thickness, was shown to correlate well with contact friction. The transition from the thickener dominated behaviour to that dominated by the base oil occurs at a relatively constant film thickness, regardless of the base oil viscosity and test temperatures, rather than at a given entrainment speed. Based on the presented evidence, it is here proposed that the mechanism of formation of grease films at low speeds, is analogous to that reported to operate in EHL contacts lubricated with colloidal dispersions, namely the mechanical entrapment and deposition of thickener fibres, and that, rather than the widely quoted ‘transition speed’, it is the ratio of the thickener fibre size to prevailing film thickness that determines the range of conditions under which the film enhancement due to the action of thickener is present.
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