Imperial College London

Angela Kedgley

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Bioengineering

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 0747a.kedgley Website




514BBuilding E - Sir Michael UrenWhite City Campus






BibTex format

author = {Shah, D and Kedgley, AE},
doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.07.001},
journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
pages = {3061--3068},
title = {Control of a wrist joint motion simulator: a phantom study},
url = {},
volume = {49},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The presence of muscle redundancy and co-activation of agonist-antagonist pairs in vivo makes the optimization of the load distribution between muscles in physiologic joint simulators vital. This optimization is usually achieved by employing different control strategies based on position and/or force feedback. A muscle activated physiologic wrist simulator was developed to test and iteratively refine such control strategies on a functional replica of a human arm. Motions of the wrist were recreated by applying tensile loads using electromechanical actuators. Load cells were used to monitor the force applied by each muscle and an optical motion capture system was used to track joint angles of the wrist in real-time. Four control strategies were evaluated based on their kinematic error, repeatability and ability to vary co-contraction. With kinematic errors of less than 1.5°, the ability to vary co-contraction, and without the need for predefined antagonistic forces or muscle force ratios, novel control strategies – hybrid control and cascade control – were preferred over standard control strategies – position control and force control. Muscle forces obtained from hybrid and cascade control corresponded well with in vivo EMG data and muscle force data from other wrist simulators in the literature. The decoupling of the wrist axes combined with the robustness of the control strategies resulted in complex motions, like dart thrower’s motion and circumduction, being accurate and repeatable. Thus, two novel strategies with repeatable kinematics and physiologically relevant muscle forces are introduced for the control of joint simulators.
AU - Shah,D
AU - Kedgley,AE
DO - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.07.001
EP - 3068
PY - 2016///
SN - 1873-2380
SP - 3061
TI - Control of a wrist joint motion simulator: a phantom study
T2 - Journal of Biomechanics
UR -
UR -
VL - 49
ER -