Imperial College London

Angela Kedgley

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Bioengineering

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 0747a.kedgley Website




514BBuilding E - Sir Michael UrenWhite City Campus






BibTex format

author = {Garland, A and Shah, D and Kedgley, A},
doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.12.024},
journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
pages = {136--140},
title = {Wrist tendon moment arms: Quantification by imaging and experimental techniques},
url = {},
volume = {68},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Subject-specific musculoskeletal models require accurate values of muscle moment arms. The aim of this study was to compare moment arms of wrist tendons obtained from non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to those obtained from an in vitro experimental approach. MRI was performed on ten upper limb cadaveric specimens to obtain the centrelines for the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), and abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendons. From these, the anatomical moment arms about each of the flexion-extension (FE) and radioulnar deviation (RUD) axes of the wrist were calculated. Specimens were mounted on a physiologic wrist simulator to obtain functional measurements of the moment arms using the tendon excursion method. No differences were observed between anatomical and functional values of the FE and RUD moment arms of FCR, ECRL and ECRB, and the RUD moment arm of ECU (p>0.075). Scaling the anatomical moment arms relative to ECRB in FE and ECU in RUD reduced differences in the FE moment arm of FCU and the RUD moment arm of APL to less than 15% (p>0.139). However, differences persisted in moment arms of FCU in RUD, and ECU and APL in FE (p<0.008). This study shows that while measurements of moment arms of wrist tendons using imaging do not always conform to values obtained using in vitro experimental approaches, a stricter protocol could result in the acquisition of subject-specific moment arms to personalise musculoskeletal models.
AU - Garland,A
AU - Shah,D
AU - Kedgley,A
DO - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.12.024
EP - 140
PY - 2017///
SN - 0021-9290
SP - 136
TI - Wrist tendon moment arms: Quantification by imaging and experimental techniques
T2 - Journal of Biomechanics
UR -
UR -
VL - 68
ER -