Imperial College London

Anna Korre

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Earth Science & Engineering

Professor of Environmental Engineering
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7372a.korre Website

 
 
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Location

 

1.32BRoyal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

139 results found

Santibanez-Borda E, Korre A, Nie Z, Durucan Set al., 2021, A multi-objective optimisation model to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and costs in offshore natural gas upstream chains, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 297, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0959-6526

The urgency of climate change, while the world economy is projected to depend on fossil fuels for some time, requires substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the oil and gas industry. This study proposes a methodology for the decarbonisation of offshore natural gas production networks through progressive electrification, either by connecting offshore platforms with nearby renewable energy sources, e.g. offshore wind farms, or by sharing resources so as to improve their energy generation efficiency. In this context, a novel multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed to simultaneously minimise greenhouse gas emissions and associated costs from a determined offshore platform network, considering technical constraints, such as maintaining the energy balance of the network, ensuring that cables are installed to enable energy flows, and respecting the maximum generation capacities and minimum operating loads of turbines. For demonstration purposes, the proposed methodology was applied to a UK Southern North Sea network and optimised using the augmented -constraint method. The Pareto front approximation obtained suggests that the studied network’s cumulative greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by 25% over the next 10 years at an average cost of US$370.9 per tonne CO2e. This study also explores the impact that uncertainties and postponing investment decisions may have in the set context.

Journal article

Cao W, Shi J-Q, Durucan S, Korre Aet al., 2021, Evaluation of shear slip stress transfer mechanism for induced microseismicity at In Salah CO2 storage site, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 107, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1750-5836

Stress transfer caused by injection-induced fault reactivation plays a significant role in triggering induced seismicity. This work aims to investigate to which extent the shear slip stress transfer mechanism might have contributed to a 4-month period of heightened microseismicity around one of the horizontal injection wells (KB-502) at the In Salah CO2 storage site. Building upon previous reservoir modelling and history matching work by the authors, coupled geomechanical and reservoir modelling of CO2 injection at KB-502 was carried out, featuring the explicit simulation of injection-induced fault reactivation and stress transfer, and the implementation of a strain-dependent permeability model to represent the fault hydrological behaviour. This approach allows a much-improved overall match to the field bottomhole pressures at KB-502 over the previous results, where fault zone reactivation and associated dynamic permeability behaviour were not considered, especially over the 4-month period of interest. Based upon the coupled modelling results, Coulomb stress changes were used to evaluate the potential for enhanced microseismicity related to CO2 injection-induced fault reactivation at KB-502. Analyses on the potential for microseismicity have shown that seismic events are likely to take place in both hydraulically connected regions and stress transfer influenced regions. The variation of computed Coulomb stress changes in near-fault areas compares favourably with the heightened field recorded seismicity during the period modelled. The integrated interpretation of microseismic monitoring and coupled geomechanics and reservoir modelling have suggested that the shear slip stress transfer mechanism was active and contributed to the occurrence of induced seismicity at In Salah.

Journal article

Lander L, Kallitsis E, Hales A, Edge JS, Korre A, Offer Get al., 2021, Cost and carbon footprint reduction of electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries through efficient thermal management, Applied Energy, Vol: 289, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0306-2619

Electric vehicles using lithium-ion batteries are currently the most promising technology to decarbonise the transport sector from fossil-fuels. It is thus imperative to reduce battery life cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions to make this transition both economically and environmentally beneficial. In this study, it is shown that battery lifetime extension through effective thermal management significantly decreases the battery life cycle cost and carbon footprint. The battery lifetime simulated for each thermal management system is implemented in techno-economic and life cycle assessment models to calculate the life cycle costs and carbon footprint for the production and use phase of an electric vehicles. It is demonstrated that by optimising the battery thermal management system, the battery life cycle cost and carbon footprint can be reduced by 27% (from 0.22 $·km−1 for air cooling to 0.16 $·km−1 for surface cooling) and 25% (from 0.141 kg CO2 eq·km−1 to 0.104 kg CO2 eq·km−1), respectively. Moreover, the importance of cell design for cost and environmental impact are revealed and an improved cell design is proposed, which reduces the carbon footprint and life cycle cost by 35% to 0.0913 kg CO2 eq·km−1 and 40% to 0.133 $·km−1, respectively, compared with conventional cell designs combined with air cooling systems.

Journal article

Cao W, Durucan S, Cai W, Shi J-Q, Korre Aet al., 2020, A physics-based probabilistic forecasting methodology for hazardous microseismicity associated with longwall coal mining, International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol: 232, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0166-5162

Mining-induced microseismicity is widely considered as a result of slippage of pre-existing critically stressed fractures caused by stress perturbations around an advancing face. An in-depth analysis of the recorded microseismicity associated with longwall top coal caving mining at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia has been previously carried out and reported by the authors. It has been concluded that while microseismic event rate is affected by mining intensity (longwall face daily advance rate) as well as local abundance of pre-existing fractures, spatial and magnitude characteristics of microseismicity are predominantly influenced by the latter. Based upon this improved understanding of fracture-slip seismic-generation mechanism, the current work aimed at establishing a data-driven yet physics-based probabilistic forecasting methodology for hazardous microseismicity using microseismic monitoring data with concurrent face advance records. Through performing statistical analyses and probability distribution fitting for temporal, magnitude and spatial characteristics of microseismicity within a time window, a short-term forecasting model is developed to estimate the probability of potentially hazardous microseismicity over the next time interval in the form of a joint probability. The real time forecasting of hazardous microseismicity during longwall coal mining is realised through regularly updating the statistical model using the most recent microseismic sequence datasets and face advance records. This forecasting methodology is featured by the physical basis which provides a good explicability of forecasting results, and the probabilistic perspective which accounts for the stochastic nature of mining-induced microseismicity. This model has been employed to make time-varying forecasts of hazardous microseismicity around two longwall panels over a one-year coal production period at Coal Mine Velenje, and satisfactory results at both panels were achieved. In addition, t

Journal article

Kallitsis E, Korre A, Mousamas D, Avramidis Pet al., 2020, Environmental life cycle assessment of Mediterranean sea bass and sea bream, Sustainability, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2071-1050

The aquaculture sector is the fastest growing food production industry, with sea bass and sea bream consisting important exporting goods in the Mediterranean region. This work presents results of a life cycle assessment of Mediterranean sea bass and sea bream, based on primary data collected from a Greek producer. The system boundary included fish feed production and the rearing operation, as well as the packaging and delivery processes, which were neglected in preceding literature studies. The life cycle inventory developed addressed previous data gaps in the production of Mediterranean aquaculture species. Comparison to preceding studies revealed differences on the production inventories and identified methodological choices leading to variability. Packaging and delivery processes were found to contribute approximately 40% towards the global warming score. The production of both sea bass and sea bream was shown to come with high eutrophication impacts occurring from the rearing stage. The feed production was identified as the most environmental impact intensive process throughout the life cycle. Sea bass came with lower environmental impacts per unit live mass, which was reversed when the species were compared on a protein basis. The replicable and transparent model presented here, contributes towards the more accurate quantification of the environmental impacts associated with Mediterranean aquaculture species and supports efforts aiming to promote environmental protection through dietary change.

Journal article

Cao W, Yildirim B, Durucan S, Wolf K-H, Cai W, Agrawal H, Korre Aet al., 2020, Fracture behaviour and seismic response of naturally fractured coal subjected to true triaxial stresses and hydraulic fracturing, Fuel: the science and technology of fuel and energy, Vol: 288, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0016-2361

Hydraulic fracturing of coalbed methane wells has been widely practised as an effective method to increase drainage efficiency in low-permeability, low-pressure and low-saturated coal seams. To investigate hydraulic fracture performance and associated seismic response in coal, hydraulic fracturing experiments were carried out on two cubic coal blocks containing a host of natural fractures using a true triaxial rock testing machine equipped with loading, injection and acoustic systems. The acoustic system uses transducers with active sources to repetitively generate and receive ultrasonic P/S wave pulses for characterising mechanical properties of the coal blocks and revealing fracture growth. Silicon oil was injected into the middle of coal blocks to create hydraulic fractures under deviatoric stress conditions, and the stress and displacement, borehole pressure and volume, and seismic response were recorded over the injection process. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was conducted before and after the experiments to identify the location and geometry of hydraulic and natural fractures. Results have shown that the fracturing behaviour, the drawdown period of borehole pressure and the intrusion of fracturing fluid are dominated by the complexity and insulation offered by internal natural fracture networks of coal blocks. In addition, seismic spectrograms captured both fracture initiation and its subsequent interaction with natural fractures, which indicates that the induced fracture and fracturing fluid interfere with the propagation of seismic waves and influence ultrasonic seismic characteristics. Seismic velocity tomography of ultrasonic acoustic signals recorded also provided the spatial information of fractures, such as approximate locations of pre-existing fractures and injection-disturbed regions.

Journal article

Stork AL, Chalari A, Durucan S, Korre A, Nikolov Set al., 2020, Fibre-optic monitoring for high-temperature Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) projects at geothermal energy sites, First Break, Vol: 38, Pages: 61-67, ISSN: 0263-5046

It is often assumed that geothermal energy provides a clean source of renewable energy without emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) or other greenhouse gases. In fact, most geothermal energy plants emit CO2 and small amounts of other gases, typically up to 5% of by weight. Reinjection of produced CO2 back into the geothermal fields has been proposed by several researchers in the past. The EU funded CarbFix and CarbFix2 projects have successfully demonstrated that CO2 reinjection into basaltic rocks can provide a safe and efficient geological storage method. The ACT Programme funded SUCCEED project is focused on understanding the effects of and developing technologies to enable reinjection of produced CO2 at geothermal plants in different geological settings. Monitoring the process is vital to understand the effects, possibilities and limitations of injection but the availability of suitable sensors is limited in high-temperature and harsh environments. This problem can be overcome with the use of distributed fibre-optic sensors which are able to withstand such harsh environments and record temperature, seismic and strain signals. This article describes actual and planned deployments of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) technology at the Hellisheidi and Kizildere geothermal fields in Iceland and Turkey, respectively, and outlines the practical considerations for such deployments.

Journal article

Cao W, Durucan S, Cai W, Shi J-Q, Korre A, Jamnikar S, Rošer J, Lurka A, Siata Ret al., 2020, The role of mining intensity and pre-existing fracture attributes on spatial, temporal and magnitude characteristics of microseismicity in longwall coal mining, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol: 53, Pages: 4139-4162, ISSN: 0723-2632

Knowledge regarding microseismic characteristics associated with longwall coal mining is crucial in evaluating the potential for underground mining hazards. Although microseismicity is induced by mining activities, it still remains uncertain as to what extent mining activities influence the spatial, temporal, and magnitude characteristics of microseismicity. To establish a thorough understanding of the relationship between microseismic characteristics and mining activities, a 27-month long microseismic monitoring campaign was conducted around a highly stressed coal zone and eight producing longwall panels at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia. Each microseismic event was classified to be associated with the producing longwall panel that triggered it, and the microseismic response to multi-panel longwall top coal caving face advance was analysed. Monitoring data have shown that locations of microseismic events coincided with stress concentrated regions. It was established that both seismic count and energy-intensive regions associated with coal mining in different panels are spatially connected, but they do not fully overlap with mined-out or stress concentrated areas. In addition, microseismic event counts frequency was found to be well correlated with mining intensity, while seismic energy magnitude and spatial distribution are poorly correlated with the same. Therefore, microseismic characteristics could not be explained solely by the mining-induced stress transfer and mining intensity, but are believed to be dominated by pre-existing natural fractures throughout the coal seam. Analyses of these observations helped the development of a conceptual seismic-generation model, which provides new insights into the causes of microseismicity in coal mining.

Journal article

Cao W, Shi J-Q, Durucan S, Si G, Korre Aet al., 2020, Gas-driven rapid fracture propagation under unloading conditions in coal and gas outbursts, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol: 130, ISSN: 1365-1609

Coal and gas outbursts have long posed a serious risk to safe and efficient production in coal mines. It is recognised that coal and gas outbursts are triggered by excavation unloading followed by gas-driven rapid propagation of a system of pre-existing or mining-induced fractures. Gas-filled fractures parallel to a working face are likely to experience opening first, then expansion and rapid propagation stages under unloading conditions. The fracture opening is driven by the effective stress inside the fracture, while the fracture expansion and rapid propagation is propelled by the pressure build-up of desorbed gas in the vicinity of the fracture. Based upon this understanding, this research aimed to identify the key factors affecting outburst initiation and its temporal evolution during roadway developments. Specifically, the response of pre-set fractures in a thin coal seam sandwiched between rock layers to roadway development is simulated using a geomechanical model coupled with fracture mechanics for fracture opening and propagation. In addition, kinetic gas desorption and its migration into open fractures is considered. During simulations outburst is deemed to occur when the fracture length exceeds the dimension of a host element. The findings of this research suggest that the simulated coal and gas outburst caused by roadway development may be considered as a dynamic gas desorption-driven fracture propagation process. The occurrence of coal and gas outbursts is found to be influenced mainly by the coal properties, fracture attributes, and initial gas pressure and the in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, the model predictions in terms of dome-shaped erupted-zone and layer-by-layer coal breakage are consistent with the field reports. In addition, the model results suggest that delayed occurrence of coal and gas outbursts, especially after sudden exposure of a coal seam or after blasting disturbance, reported in the literature may be related to the gas desorp

Journal article

Kallitsis E, Korre A, Kelsall G, Kupfersberger M, Nie Zet al., 2020, Environmental life cycle assessment of the production in China of lithium-ion batteries with nickel-cobalt-manganese cathodes utilising novel electrode chemistries, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 254, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0959-6526

Advances in lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology, offering higher mass specific energies, volumetric energy densities, potential differences and energy efficiencies, are key enablers of the large-scale uptake of electric vehicles (EVs). Nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide (NCM) cathode formulations have emerged as the dominant choice in the battery industry. Further performance improvements are expected from the introduction of silicon-graphite composite anodes and nickel-rich cathodes alongside cost reductions achieved through upscaling the battery manufacturing. This work presents results of life cycle assessments concerning the environmental burdens associated with the production of novel electrode batteries and the impacts of the Chinese domination in lithium-ion battery manufacturing. The production of LIBs in China was shown to come at a high environmental cost of 40% higher Global Warming Potential (GWP) than earlier literature suggests. The novel batteries were shown to exhibit similar threats to humans and ecosystems as the commercialised ones, occurring mainly from the metals used in the battery cells; environmental impact reductions are shown to occur as a result of the increased nominal storage capacities of novel battery technologies. The replicable model presented provides the means to quantify the environmental impacts of production of LIBs including those with novel electrode chemistries and offers robust means of decision making that complement scientific and engineering developments targeting LIB performance improvements and cost reductions.

Journal article

Agrawal H, Cao W, Durucan S, Korre Aet al., 2020, Development of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology to evaluate the effect of lithological heterogeneity on rock bursts and gas outbursts in longwall coal mining

A coupled geomechanical and gas flow model was developed to analyse rock burst and gas outburst risk associated with retreating longwall coal mining in heterogeneous coal seams. Mechanical, elastic and reservoir properties of a heterogeneous coal seam were attributed consistently for several realisations to analyse their influence on rock burst and gas outburst potential. Several scenarios were developed by varying the degree of lithological heterogeneity caused by xylite within a mostly detritic lignite coal seam in the modelled heterogeneous zone. Model results have shown that, as the longwall face approaches the heterogeneous zone, the changes in vertical stress along the face, as well as ahead of it, are affected strongly by the degree of heterogeneity. The potential for a rapid increase in gas emission rate and outburst risk, which may occur as the face cuts through the heterogeneous zone, was also found to depend largely on the degree of heterogeneity implemented.

Conference paper

Cao W, Shi J-Q, Durucan S, Korre A, Jamnikar Set al., 2019, Numerical modelling of anomalous microseismicity influenced by lithological heterogeneity in longwall top coal caving mining, International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol: 216, ISSN: 0166-5162

Mining-induced microseismicity has been extensively used to evaluate the potential for rock bursts and coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines. In a research project completed a few years ago, it was observed that characteristics of microseismicity around a working longwall panel were fairly consistent over the monitoring period until a lithological heterogeneity zone with a relatively high coal strength was reached. The current research presented in this paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the effect of lithological heterogeneity on microseismic activity in longwall coal mining. The heterogeneous zone inferred from the tomography measurements was first digitalised and implemented into a 3D geomechanical model. A microseismicity modelling approach which combines deterministic stress and failure analysis together with a stochastic fracture slip evaluation was used to simulate the evolution of microseismicity induced by the progressive face advance passing through the heterogeneous zone. The heterogeneity was taken into account by varying the material strength and the fracture attributes of the elements within the high strength zone. Results have shown that both the high rock strength of coal lithotype and low power law scaling exponent of fractures within this zone contribute to the reduction in fitted b values from frequency-magnitude distribution of microseismicity and the increase in fitted Gaussian distribution parameters to the logarithmic event energy. These deviations are believed to result from the combined effects of increased stress drops and slipped fracture sizes when the heterogeneous zone is approached.

Journal article

Shi JQ, Durucan S, Korre A, Ringrose P, Mathieson Aet al., 2019, History matching and pressure analysis with stress-dependent permeability using the In Salah CO2 storage case study, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 91, ISSN: 1750-5836

Using the In Salah CO2 storage case study, this study demonstrates how reservoir simulation history-matching and pressure analysis can be used to improve conformance assurance. By adopting a holistic approach to reservoir simulation and history matching, in conjunction with the injection pressure analysis and use of microseismic monitoring data, an improved understanding of the injection processes at the In Salah storage site was gained, revealing distinctively different responses to CO2 injection at each of the three injection wells. It has been shown that injection well performance at wells KB-501 and KB-503 was characterised by periods of matrix and fracture flow, the latter being due to shear reactivation of existing fractures in the vicinity of the wellbore. In contrast, the analysis at KB-502 revealed that CO2 injection has resulted in fracture reactivation in both shear and tensile modes with propagation both laterally and vertically.The findings of this study have shown that the injection-induced microseismic events recorded close to the KB-502 well is mainly caused by injecting CO2 into a 4-kilometer long fracture-zone intersecting the borehole. This fracture zone experienced tensile opening of fractures during injection and then subsequent partial closure after the injection was suspended. It is furthermore clear that the rather unique combination of microseismic and InSAR monitoring data and reservoir history matching around the injection well KB-502 provide highly valuable insights into injection-induced seismicity and fracture flow behaviour for CO2 storage projects. Episodes of flow in natural fractures can be separated from flow in induced fractures and the need for a dynamic, stress-dependent, permeability variable have been demonstrated.

Journal article

Korre A, Durucan S, Nie Z, 2019, Life cycle environmental impact assessment of coupled underground coal gasification and CO2 capture and storage: alternative end uses for the UCG product gases, International Journal of Greehouse Gas Control, Vol: 91, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1750-5836

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to provide a source of energy or chemical feedstock derived from coal seams, where traditional mining methods are not suitable or are uneconomical. This paper presents the life cycle inventory models developed for the UCG processes and three alternative syngas utilisation options with and without CO2 capture and storage. The paper compares the life cycle carbon footprint of two different conventional above ground coal fired power generation options with UCG Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation with/without CCS for two different lignites and one bituminous coal. One of the lignites is then used to compare the life cycle performance of different syngas utilisation options: power generation, ammonia production with power generation, and methanol production with power generation. It was found that the life cycle carbon footprint of conventional above ground coal fired power generation is very much dependent on the in-situ methane content of the coal used, and methane emissions experienced during mining and accompanying upstream processes, whereas the same for UCG-IGCC power depends more on the process dependent syngas composition. UCG methanol production with associated power and CCS is shown to release more life cycle CO2-eq emissions per tonne of lignite consumed than that of UCG ammonia production with associated power and CCS and UCG CCGT power generation with CCS. Furthermore, when chemicals production from UCG is considered as the main objective, the most substantial improvements in comparison to conventional methods are associated with UCG ammonia process per tonne of chemical produced.

Journal article

Cao W, Durucan S, Cai W, Shi JQ, Korre Aet al., 2019, Multiple-panel longwall top coal caving induced microseismicity: Monitoring and development of a statistical forecasting model for hazardous microseismicity, 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Continuous microseismic monitoring was carried out around 9 producing longwall top coal caving (LTCC) panels with concurrently recorded daily face advance rates at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia over a 27-month monitoring period. The monitoring results suggested that spatial and magnitude characteristics of microseismicity are dominated by those of underlying fractures, while microseismic event rate is under the combined effects of local natural fracture abundance and mining intensity. On this basis, a data-driven yet physics-based forecasting methodology was established for LTCC induced hazardous microseismicity, which is above a given threshold of energy magnitude and within a certain distance to the longwall face. Statistical analyses were first conducted to characterise temporal, magnitude and spatial characteristics of long-term recorded microseismicity, based on which a short-term forecasting model was developed to calculate the probability of hazardous microseismicity considering the three characteristics. The model developed was employed to forecast the likelihood of hazardous microseismicity at one of these LTCC panels, and the forecasted results were supported by the monitoring. This statistical model has important implications in the evaluation of mining-induced hazards, and it can be used to optimise longwall face advance rates to minimise the risk of hazardous microseismicity in burst-prone deep-level mining sites.

Conference paper

Yildirim B, Durucan S, Cao W, Cai W, Shi J, Korre A, Wolf KHet al., 2019, Experimental and numerical investigation into hydraulic fracture and natural fracture interaction in shale formations, 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Two 0.3 m × 0.3 m × 0.3 m shale blocks, one representing a homogeneous sample while the other representing a naturally fractured sample, are modelled using the lattice based DEM code, XSite. The synthetic rock mass approach (SRM), which assigns the smooth joint contacts (SJM) to the weakness planes, is used to represent the natural fractures in shale block-2. Firstly, the developed models are compared with the findings of previously conducted true-triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments with acoustic measurements, and their subsequent computed tomography (CT) and seismic velocity tomography results. The 3D model results confirmed the curved shape hydraulic fractures, which propagated perpendicular to the minimum stress directions in both shale blocks. Model results also captured the natural fracture (NF) and hydraulic fracture (HF) interaction, particularly the arrest, the dilation of major NFs, followed by crossing with offset mechanism, in shale block-2. Secondly, the parametric studies are carried out to investigate the role of fluid flow rate (q), and fluid viscosity (µ) on different NF/HF interaction mechanisms. The effects of q and µ are discussed based on the total stimulated area including the tensile and shear microcracks, the pipe apertures, and the pressure evolutions within NFs.

Conference paper

Cai W, Durucan S, Shi JQ, Cao W, Agrawal H, Korre A, Jamnikar S, Rošer Jet al., 2019, Development of fractal-fuzzy evaluation methodology and its application for seismic hazards assessment using microseismic monitoring in coal mining, 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Seismic hazards have become one of the common risks in underground coal mining and their assessment is an important component of the safety management. In this study, a methodology, involving nine fractal dimension-based indices and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, has been developed based on the processed real time microseismic data from an underground coal mine, which allows for a better and quantitative evaluation of the likelihood for the seismic hazards. In the fuzzy model, the membership function was built using a Gaussian shape and the weight of each index was determined using the performance metric F score derived from the confusion matrix. The assessment results were initially characterised as a probability belonging to each of four risk levels (none, weak, moderate and strong). The comprehensive result was then evaluated by integrating the maximum membership degree principle (MMDP) and the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR). The model parameters of this methodology were first calibrated using historical microseismic data over a period of seven months at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia, and then applied to analyse more recent microseismic monitoring data. The results indicate that the calibrated model was able to assess seismic hazards in the mine.

Conference paper

Si G, Durucan S, Shi JQ, Korre A, Cao Wet al., 2019, Parametric analysis of slotting operation induced failure zones to stimulate low permeability coal seams, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol: 52, Pages: 163-182, ISSN: 0723-2632

The main constrain for effective gas drainage in coal mines is the low permeability nature of coal reservoirs. As coal mining activities are extending to deeper subsurface, the ever-increasing in situ stress conditions is anticipated to result in much lower permeability and more challenges for gas emission control in coal mines. In recent years, hydraulic slotting using high-pressure waterjet along underground gas drainage boreholes, as a general solution to stimulate low permeability coal seams, has become increasingly favourable. This paper presents a systematic investigation into the sensitivity of borehole slotting performance to a number of field and operational parameters. A wide range of geomechanical properties, in situ stress conditions, slot geometry and spacing of multiple slots were considered in a series of numerical simulations. The relations between these key parameters and the failure zone size/volume induced by slotting were quantified. The effect of different parameters in improving slotting performance has also been ranked, which provides theoretical base for mine operators to optimise slotting operations.

Journal article

Durucan S, Cao W, Cai W, Shi JQ, Korre A, Si G, Jamnikar S, Roser Jet al., 2019, Monitoring, assessment and mitigation of rock burst and gas outburst induced seismicity in longwall top coal caving mining, Pages: 11-20

Underground coal extractions lead to continuous stress and pressure redistribution around mine openings which, in some cases, may lead to coal and gas outburst and rock bursts. This paper presents seismic monitoring research, which aimed at characterising the dynamic behaviour of the coal seam in response to gateroad development and longwall top coal caving mining at Coal Mine Velenje. The early campaigns involved time-lapse active seismic tomography and microseismic monitoring at the two selected longwall panels. Based on the findings of this early work, a more comprehensive microseismic monitoring programme was set up. Seismic monitoring data were processed and used for model development and rock burst/gas outburst risk assessment purposes, which also led to the development of measures to mitigate against seismic hazards.

Conference paper

Cao W, Durucan S, Cai W, Shi JQ, Korre Aet al., 2019, Multiple-panel longwall top coal caving induced microseismicity: Monitoring and development of a statistical forecasting model for hazardous microseismicity

Continuous microseismic monitoring was carried out around 9 producing longwall top coal caving (LTCC) panels with concurrently recorded daily face advance rates at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia over a 27-month monitoring period. The monitoring results suggested that spatial and magnitude characteristics of microseismicity are dominated by those of underlying fractures, while microseismic event rate is under the combined effects of local natural fracture abundance and mining intensity. On this basis, a data-driven yet physics-based forecasting methodology was established for LTCC induced hazardous microseismicity, which is above a given threshold of energy magnitude and within a certain distance to the longwall face. Statistical analyses were first conducted to characterise temporal, magnitude and spatial characteristics of long-term recorded microseismicity, based on which a short-term forecasting model was developed to calculate the probability of hazardous microseismicity considering the three characteristics. The model developed was employed to forecast the likelihood of hazardous microseismicity at one of these LTCC panels, and the forecasted results were supported by the monitoring. This statistical model has important implications in the evaluation of mining-induced hazards, and it can be used to optimise longwall face advance rates to minimise the risk of hazardous microseismicity in burst-prone deep-level mining sites.

Conference paper

Yildirim B, Durucan S, Cao W, Cai W, Shi J, Korre A, Wolf KHet al., 2019, Experimental and numerical investigation into hydraulic fracture and natural fracture interaction in shale formations

Copyright 2019 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association. Two 0.3 m × 0.3 m × 0.3 m shale blocks, one representing a homogeneous sample while the other representing a naturally fractured sample, are modelled using the lattice based DEM code, XSite. The synthetic rock mass approach (SRM), which assigns the smooth joint contacts (SJM) to the weakness planes, is used to represent the natural fractures in shale block-2. Firstly, the developed models are compared with the findings of previously conducted true-triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments with acoustic measurements, and their subsequent computed tomography (CT) and seismic velocity tomography results. The 3D model results confirmed the curved shape hydraulic fractures, which propagated perpendicular to the minimum stress directions in both shale blocks. Model results also captured the natural fracture (NF) and hydraulic fracture (HF) interaction, particularly the arrest, the dilation of major NFs, followed by crossing with offset mechanism, in shale block-2. Secondly, the parametric studies are carried out to investigate the role of fluid flow rate (q), and fluid viscosity (µ) on different NF/HF interaction mechanisms. The effects of q and µ are discussed based on the total stimulated area including the tensile and shear microcracks, the pipe apertures, and the pressure evolutions within NFs.

Conference paper

Cai W, Durucan S, Shi JQ, Cao W, Agrawal H, Korre A, Jamnikar S, Rošer Jet al., 2019, Development of fractal-fuzzy evaluation methodology and its application for seismic hazards assessment using microseismic monitoring in coal mining

Copyright 2019 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association. Seismic hazards have become one of the common risks in underground coal mining and their assessment is an important component of the safety management. In this study, a methodology, involving nine fractal dimension-based indices and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, has been developed based on the processed real time microseismic data from an underground coal mine, which allows for a better and quantitative evaluation of the likelihood for the seismic hazards. In the fuzzy model, the membership function was built using a Gaussian shape and the weight of each index was determined using the performance metric F score derived from the confusion matrix. The assessment results were initially characterised as a probability belonging to each of four risk levels (none, weak, moderate and strong). The comprehensive result was then evaluated by integrating the maximum membership degree principle (MMDP) and the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR). The model parameters of this methodology were first calibrated using historical microseismic data over a period of seven months at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia, and then applied to analyse more recent microseismic monitoring data. The results indicate that the calibrated model was able to assess seismic hazards in the mine.

Conference paper

Yildirim B, Durucan S, Cao W, Cai W, Shi J, Korre A, Wolf KHet al., 2019, Experimental and numerical investigation into hydraulic fracture and natural fracture interaction in shale formations

Two 0.3 m × 0.3 m × 0.3 m shale blocks, one representing a homogeneous sample while the other representing a naturally fractured sample, are modelled using the lattice based DEM code, XSite. The synthetic rock mass approach (SRM), which assigns the smooth joint contacts (SJM) to the weakness planes, is used to represent the natural fractures in shale block-2. Firstly, the developed models are compared with the findings of previously conducted true-triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments with acoustic measurements, and their subsequent computed tomography (CT) and seismic velocity tomography results. The 3D model results confirmed the curved shape hydraulic fractures, which propagated perpendicular to the minimum stress directions in both shale blocks. Model results also captured the natural fracture (NF) and hydraulic fracture (HF) interaction, particularly the arrest, the dilation of major NFs, followed by crossing with offset mechanism, in shale block-2. Secondly, the parametric studies are carried out to investigate the role of fluid flow rate (q), and fluid viscosity (µ) on different NF/HF interaction mechanisms. The effects of q and µ are discussed based on the total stimulated area including the tensile and shear microcracks, the pipe apertures, and the pressure evolutions within NFs.

Conference paper

Cai W, Durucan S, Shi JQ, Cao W, Agrawal H, Korre A, Jamnikar S, Rošer Jet al., 2019, Development of fractal-fuzzy evaluation methodology and its application for seismic hazards assessment using microseismic monitoring in coal mining

Seismic hazards have become one of the common risks in underground coal mining and their assessment is an important component of the safety management. In this study, a methodology, involving nine fractal dimension-based indices and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, has been developed based on the processed real time microseismic data from an underground coal mine, which allows for a better and quantitative evaluation of the likelihood for the seismic hazards. In the fuzzy model, the membership function was built using a Gaussian shape and the weight of each index was determined using the performance metric F score derived from the confusion matrix. The assessment results were initially characterised as a probability belonging to each of four risk levels (none, weak, moderate and strong). The comprehensive result was then evaluated by integrating the maximum membership degree principle (MMDP) and the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR). The model parameters of this methodology were first calibrated using historical microseismic data over a period of seven months at Coal Mine Velenje in Slovenia, and then applied to analyse more recent microseismic monitoring data. The results indicate that the calibrated model was able to assess seismic hazards in the mine.

Conference paper

Santibanez Borda E, Govindan R, Elahi N, Korre A, Durucan Set al., 2019, Maximising the dynamic CO2 storage capacity through the optimisation of CO2 injection and brine production rates, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 80, Pages: 76-95, ISSN: 1750-5836

CO2 storage capacity in saline aquifers can dramatically be reduced by pressure build up due to the CO2 injection process. In this paper, a novel optimisation strategy that maximises the CO2 storage capacity utilisation and net profits before tax is presented in a scenario of simultaneous CO2 injection and brine production to help control pressure build up and increase the effective storage capacity. The strategy is tested at the region surrounding the Forties and Nelson fields, assuming both as pure saline aquifer traps. The optimisation was performed considering constraints such that the CO2 plume distribution does not migrate outside the license boundaries, the fracture pressure is not reached within the reservoir, and the CO2 injection and brine production rates occur within feasible limits. The problem was first formulated analytically with the aid of surrogate models, and then optimised using the SIMPLEX and Generalized Reduced Gradient methods.Results for the Forties and Nelson fields show that by allowing five brine production wells producing up to 2.2 MMtonnes/year, the CO2 storage capacity increased between 112-145% compared to the case where no brine production is practiced.

Journal article

Yildirim B, Cao W, Shi JQ, Durucan S, Korre Aet al., 2018, Discrete element modelling of hydraulic fracture interaction with natural fractures in shale formations, 2nd International Discrete Fracture Network Engineering Conference, Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Research presented in this paper aimed at establishing a better understanding of natural fracture (NF)/hydraulic fracture (HF) interaction mechanisms and fracture network development in naturally fractured and nonhomogeneous shale formations through numerical modelling using the two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D). Hydraulic fracture propagation was firstly modelled in a 30 m x 30 m model representing intact rock by bonded particle method (BPM), which served as a base case in the research. Then a single, deterministic natural fracture was embedded into the same model by a smooth joint contact model (SJM) to investigate different NF/HF interaction mechanisms under a range of different conditions by varying the angle of approach, differential horizontal stress, and the mechanical properties of a fracture within the model. Based on the parametric research findings, number and diversity of natural fractures in the model were increased both deterministically and stochastically, and the results are compared and discussed.

Conference paper

Cao W, Shi JQ, Durucan S, Si G, Korre Aet al., 2018, Gas-driven rapid fracture propagation and gas outbursts under unloading conditions in coal seams, 52nd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Coal and gas outbursts have long posed a serious risk to safe and efficient production in coal mines. It is recognised that the coal and gas outbursts are triggered by excavation unloading followed by gas-driven rapid propagation of a system of preexisting or mining-induced fractures. Gas-filled fractures parallel to a working face are likely to experience opening first, then expansion and rapid propagation stages under unloading conditions. This research aimed to identify the key factors affecting outburst initiation and its temporal evolution during roadway developments. Specifically, the response of pre-set fractures in a coal seam sandwiched between rock layers to roadway development is simulated using a geomechanical model coupled with fracture mechanics for fracture opening and propagation. In addition, kinetic gas desorption and its migration into open fractures is considered. During simulations outburst is deemed to occur when the fracture length exceeds the dimension of a host element. The findings of this research suggests that the simulated coal and gas outburst may be considered as a dynamic gas desorption-driven fracture propagation process. The occurrence of coal and gas outbursts is found to be influenced mainly by the coal properties, fracture attributes, and initial gas pressure and the in situ stress conditions.

Conference paper

Yildirim B, Cao W, Durucan S, Korre A, Wolf KH, Bakker R, Barnhoorn Aet al., 2018, The effect of natural fracture heterogeneity on hydraulic fracture performance and seismic response in shale and coal formations, 52nd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association.

Two 0.3 m × 0.3 m × 0.3 m cubic blocks of shale and coal were used for hydraulic fracturing experiments under true tri-axial stress conditions. The shale block used was highly homogeneous and without visible fractures, while the coal block contained a host of natural fractures. The mechanical and hydraulic properties of both rocks were characterized through multi-stage triaxial tests, Brazilian disk tests, and porosity and permeability measurements. A true tri-axial rock testing machine equipped with loading, pump and acoustic systems was used in the experiment. The acoustic system uses 48 transducers with active sources to repetitively generate and receive ultrasonic P/S wave pulses to reveal fracture initiation and growth. Before the experiment, initial seismic response of both blocks was recorded under hydrostatic stress conditions to characterize anisotropy and heterogeneity of the blocks as reference. Silicon oil was injected centrally into both blocks to create a hydrofracture under deviatoric stress conditions and the load, displacement, pump pressure and volume, and seismic response during the injection process were recorded. Results from two blocks are being compared in terms of hydrofracture geometry and seismic features.

Conference paper

Cao W, Shi J, Si G, Durucan S, Korre Aet al., 2018, Numerical modelling of microseismicity associated with longwall coal mining, International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol: 193, Pages: 30-45, ISSN: 0166-5162

Microseismicity has long been a precursor for underground mining hazards such as rockbursts and coal and gas outbursts. In this research, a methodology combining deterministic stress and failure analysis and stochastic fracture slip evaluation, based upon the widely accepted fracture slip seismicity-generation mechanism, has been developed to simulate microseismic events induced by longwall mining. Using the built-in DFN facility in FLAC3D, discrete fractures following a power law size distribution are distributed throughout a 3D continuum model in a probabilistic way to account for the stochastic nature of microseismicity. The DFN-based modelling approach developed was adopted to simulate the evolution of microseismicity induced by the progressive face advance in a longwall top coal caving (LTCC) panel at Coal Mine Velenje, Slovenia. At each excavation step, global stress and failure analysis with reference to the strain-softening post-failure behaviour characteristic of coal, and fracture slip evaluation for microseismicity are conducted sequentially. The model findings are compared to the microseismic event data recorded during a long-term field monitoring campaign conducted at the same LTCC panel. It was found that the released energy and frequency-magnitude distribution of microseismicity are associated with the slipped fracture sizes and fracture size distribution. These features for recorded microseismic events were fairly constant until a xylite rich heterogeneous zone ahead of the working face was approached, which indicates that fractures within the extracted coal seam follow the same size distribution. The features obtained from modelled microseismic events were consistent over the production period, and matched well the field observations. Furthermore, the model results indicate that the power law fracture size distribution can be used to model longwall-mining-induced microseismicity. This model provides a unique prospective to understand longwall coal m

Journal article

Korre A, Durucan S, Shi J, 2018, CO2 injection induced microseismicity around well KB-502 at in Salah and insights from reservoir history matching

In the In Salah CO2 storage project in central Algeria, three long-reach horizontal injection wells (KB-501, KB-502 and KB-503) were used to inject the CO2, removed from the gas production stream, into the down-dip aquifer leg of the Carboniferous C10.2 gas reservoir. Between 2004 and 2011, over 3.8 million tonnes of CO2 have been stored in the c. 1.9km deep Carboniferous sandstone unit (C10.2) at the Krechba field. In a previous study by the authors, history matching of the (estimated) injection bottomhole pressure was carried out for KB-502 over the first injection period between April 2005 and July 2007. In the current work, history matching has been extended to the end of injection period in 2011. The obtained results are correlated with the reported induced microseismicity. The reservoir simulation results obtained have provided useful information which allows us to better interpret the recorded microseimicity induced by CO2 injection into a well.

Conference paper

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