139 results found
Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense,well-characterised neutrino beams of a neutrino factory and for multi-TeVlepton-antilepton collisions at a muon collider. The international MuonIonization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has demonstrated the principle ofionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce thephase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. This paperdocuments the performance of the detectors used in MICE to measure themuon-beam parameters, and the physical properties of the liquid hydrogen energyabsorber during running.
Aymar G, Becker T, Boogert S, et al., 2020, LhARA: The Laser-hybrid accelerator for radiobiological applications, Frontiers in Physics, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 2296-424X
The “Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications,” LhARA, is conceived as a novel, flexible facility dedicated to the study of radiobiology. The technologies demonstrated in LhARA, which have wide application, will be developed to allow particle-beam therapy to be delivered in a new regimen, combining a variety of ion species in a single treatment fraction and exploiting ultra-high dose rates. LhARA will be a hybrid accelerator system in which laser interactions drive the creation of a large flux of protons or light ions that are captured using a plasma (Gabor) lens and formed into a beam. The laser-driven source allows protons and ions to be captured at energies significantly above those that pertain in conventional facilities, thus evading the current space-charge limit on the instantaneous dose rate that can be delivered. The laser-hybrid approach, therefore, will allow the radiobiology that determines the response of tissue to ionizing radiation to be studied with protons and light ions using a wide variety of time structures, spectral distributions, and spatial configurations at instantaneous dose rates up to and significantly beyond the ultra-high dose-rate “FLASH” regime. It is proposed that LhARA be developed in two stages. In the first stage, a programme of in vitro radiobiology will be served with proton beams with energies between 10 and 15 MeV. In stage two, the beam will be accelerated using a fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator (FFA). This will allow experiments to be carried out in vitro and in vivo with proton beam energies of up to 127 MeV. In addition, ion beams with energies up to 33.4 MeV per nucleon will be available for in vitro and in vivo experiments. This paper presents the conceptual design for LhARA and the R&D programme by which the LhARA consortium seeks to establish the facility.
Aymar G, Becker T, Boogert S, et al., 2020, The laser-hybrid accelerator for radiobiological applications, Publisher: arXiv
The `Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications', LhARA, isconceived as a novel, uniquely-flexible facility dedicated to the study ofradiobiology. The technologies demonstrated in LhARA, which have wideapplication, will be developed to allow particle-beam therapy to be deliveredin a completely new regime, combining a variety of ion species in a singletreatment fraction and exploiting ultra-high dose rates. LhARA will be a hybridaccelerator system in which laser interactions drive the creation of a largeflux of protons or light ions that are captured using a plasma (Gabor) lens andformed into a beam. The laser-driven source allows protons and ions to becaptured at energies significantly above those that pertain in conventionalfacilities, thus evading the current space-charge limit on the instantaneousdose rate that can be delivered. The laser-hybrid approach, therefore, willallow the vast ``terra incognita'' of the radiobiology that determines theresponse of tissue to ionising radiation to be studied with protons and lightions using a wide variety of time structures, spectral distributions, andspatial configurations at instantaneous dose rates up to and significantlybeyond the ultra-high dose-rate `FLASH' regime. It is proposed that LhARA be developed in two stages. In the first stage, aprogramme of in vitro radiobiology will be served with proton beams withenergies between 10MeV and 15MeV. In stage two, the beam will be acceleratedusing a fixed-field accelerator (FFA). This will allow experiments to becarried out in vitro and in vivo with proton beam energies of up to 127MeV. Inaddition, ion beams with energies up to 33.4MeV per nucleon will be availablefor in vitro and in vivo experiments. This paper presents the conceptual designfor LhARA and the R&D programme by which the LhARA consortium seeks toestablish the facility.
The Technical Design for the COMET Phase-I experiment is presented in this paper. COMET is an experiment at J-PARC, Japan, which will search for neutrinoless conversion of muons into electrons in the field of an aluminum nucleus (μ–e conversion, μ−N→e−N); a lepton flavor-violating process. The experimental sensitivity goal for this process in the Phase-I experiment is 3.1×10−15, or 90% upper limit of a branching ratio of 7×10−15, which is a factor of 100 improvement over the existing limit. The expected number of background events is 0.032. To achieve the target sensitivity and background level, the 3.2 kW 8 GeV proton beam from J-PARC will be used. Two types of detectors, CyDet and StrECAL, will be used for detecting the μ–e conversion events, and for measuring the beam-related background events in view of the Phase-II experiment, respectively. Results from simulation on signal and background estimations are also described.
MICE collaboration, Long KR, 2020, Demonstration of cooling by the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, Nature, Vol: 578, Pages: 53-59, ISSN: 0028-0836
The use of accelerated beams of electrons, protons or ions has furthered the development of nearly every scientific discipline. However, high-energy muon beams of equivalent quality have not yet been delivered. Muon beams can be created through the decay of pions produced by the interaction of a proton beam with a target. Such 'tertiary' beams have much lower brightness than those created by accelerating electrons, protons or ions. High-brightness muon beams comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art electron, proton and ion accelerators could facilitate the study of lepton-antilepton collisions at extremely high energies and provide well characterized neutrino beams1-6. Such muon beams could be realized using ionization cooling, which has been proposed to increase muon-beam brightness7,8. Here we report the realization of ionization cooling, which was confirmed by the observation of an increased number of low-amplitude muons after passage of the muon beam through an absorber, as well as an increase in the corresponding phase-space density. The simulated performance of the ionization cooling system is consistent with the measured data, validating designs of the ionization cooling channel in which the cooling process is repeated to produce a substantial cooling effect9-11. The results presented here are an important step towards achieving the muon-beam quality required to search for phenomena at energy scales beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider at a facility of equivalent or reduced footprint6.
Kurup A, Pasternak J, Taylor R, et al., 2019, Simulation of a radiobiology facility for the Centre for the Clinical Application of Particles, Physica Medica, Vol: 65, Pages: 21-28, ISSN: 1120-1797
The Centre for the Clinical Application of Particles’ Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications (LhARA) facility is being studied and requires simulation of novel accelerator components (such as the Gabor lens capture system), detector simulation and simulation of the ion beam interaction with cells. The first stage of LhARA will provide protons up to 15 MeV for in vitro studies. The second stage of LhARA will use a fixed-field accelerator to increase the energy of the particles to allow in vivo studies with protons and in vitro studies with heavier ions.BDSIM, a Geant4 based accelerator simulation tool, has been used to perform particle tracking simulations to verify the beam optics design done by BeamOptics and these show good agreement. Design parameters were defined based on an EPOCH simulation of the laser source and a series of mono-energetic input beams were generated from this by BDSIM. The tracking results show the large angular spread of the input beam (0.2 rad) can be transported with a transmission of almost 100% whilst keeping divergence at the end station very low (<0.1 mrad). The legacy of LhARA will be the demonstration of technologies that could drive a step-change in the provision of proton and light ion therapy (i.e. a laser source coupled to a Gabor lens capture and a fixed-field accelerator), and a system capable of delivering a comprehensive set of experimental data that can be used to enhance the clinical application of proton and light ion therapy.
The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration has developed theMICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) to simulate and analyze experimental data. It serves asthe primary codebase for the experiment, providing for offline batch simulation and reconstructionas well as online data quality checks. The software provides both traditional particle-physicsfunctionalities such as track reconstruction and particle identification, and accelerator physicsfunctions, such as calculating transfer matrices and emittances. The code design is object orientated,but has a top-level structure based on the Map-Reduce model. This allows for parallelization tosupport live data reconstruction during data-taking operations. MAUS allows users to develop in either Python or C++ and provides APIs for both. Various software engineering practices fromindustry are also used to ensure correct and maintainable code, including style, unit and integrationtests, continuous integration and load testing, code reviews, and distributed version control. Thesoftware framework and the simulation and reconstruction capabilities are described
Collaboration TMICE, Adams D, Adey D, et al., 2019, First particle-by-particle measurement of emittance in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, The European Physical Journal C - Particles and Fields, Vol: 79, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1124-1861
The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to cool the muon beam at a future neutrino factory or muon collider. The emittance is measured from an ensemble of muons assembled from those that pass through the experiment. A pure muon ensemble is selected using a particle-identification system that can reject efficiently both pions and electrons. The position and momentum of each muon are measured using a high-precision scintillating-fibre tracker in a 4 T solenoidal magnetic field. This paper presents the techniques used to reconstruct the phase-space distributions in the upstream tracking detector and reports the first particle-by-particle measurement of the emittance of the MICE Muon Beam as a function of muon-beam momentum.
This paper describes the liquid hydrogen system constructed for The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE); MICE was built at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required at a future proton-derived neutrino factory or muon collider. Ionization cooling is achieved by passing the beam through an energy-absorbing material, such as liquid hydrogen, and then re-accelerating the beam using RF cavities. This paper describes the system creating the 22l of liquid hydrogen within the MICE beamline; the necessary safety engineering, the liquid hydrogen absorber and its associated cryogenic and gas systems are presented, along with its performance.
The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has been built at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to demonstrate the principle of muon beam phase-space reduction via ionization cooling. Muon beam cooling will be required at a future proton-derived neutrino factory or muon collider. Ionization cooling is achieved by passing the beam through an energy-absorbing material, such as liquid hydrogen, and then re-accelerating the beam using RF cavities. This paper describes the hydrogen system constructed for MICE including: the liquid-hydrogen absorber, its associated cryogenic and gas systems, the control and monitoring system, and the necessary safety engineering. The performance of the system in cool-down, liquefaction, and stable operation is also presented.
Ronald K, Whyte CG, Dick AJ, et al., 2018, RF system for the MICE demonstration of ionisation cooling, IVEC 2017, Publisher: IEEE
Muon accelerators offer an attractive option for a range of future particle physics experiments. They can enable high energy (TeV+) high energy lepton colliders whilst mitigating the difficulty of synchrotron losses, and can provide intense beams of neutrinos for fundamental physics experiments investigating the physics of flavor. The method of production of muon beams results in high beam emittance which must be reduced for efficient acceleration. Conventional emittance control schemes take too long, given the very short (2.2 microsecond) rest lifetime of the muon. Ionisation cooling offers a much faster approach to reducing particle emittance, and the international MICE collaboration aims to demonstrate this technique for the first time. This paper will present the MICE RF system and its role in the context of the overall experiment.
Bogomilov M, Long KR, The MICE collaboration, 2017, Lattice design and expected performance of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment demonstration of ionization cooling, Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, Vol: 20, ISSN: 2469-9888
Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterized neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavor at a neutrino factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a muon collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) aims to demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using rf cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and reacceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised experiment can deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with its predicted cooling performance.
Kurup A, Pozimski J, Savage P, et al., 2015, Simulations of the FETS laser diagnostic, Pages: 521-525
The Front-End Test Stand (FETS) aims to demonstrate clean chopping of a 60mA, 3MeV H- ion beam. Such high beam intensities require unconventional emittance and profile measuring devices such as the laserwire system that will be used on FETS. A laser is used to neutralise part of the H- ion beam. The main beam is then separated from the stripped beam by using a dipole magnet. This paper presents tracking results of the laser diagnostic lattice using a simulated field map of an existing dipole magnet and investigates the possibility of laser stripping upstream of the dipole.
Adey D, Agarwalla SK, Ankenbrandt CM, et al., 2014, Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 89, ISSN: 1550-7998
A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8 GeV/c ± 10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10σ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simultaneous muon neutrino disappearance analysis that will facilitate tests of various sterile neutrino models.
Kurup A, Puri I, Uchida Y, et al., 2013, Optimisation of the beam line for COMET Phase-I, Pages: 2681-2683
The COMET experiment will search for very rare muon processes that will give us an insight into particle physics beyond the Standard Model. COMET requires an intense beam of muonswith amomentumless than 70MeV/c. This is achieved using an 8 GeV proton beam; a heavy metal target to primarily produce pions; a solenoid capture system; and a curved solenoid to perform charge and momentum selection. It was recently proposed to build COMET in two phases with physics measurements being made in both phases. This requires re-optimising the beam line for a shorter curved solenoid. This will affect the pion and muon yield; the momentum distributions at the detector; and the collimator scheme required. This paper will present the beam line design for COMET Phase-I, which aims to maximise the yield for low momentum muons suppressing sources of backgrounds in the beam. Copyright © 2013 by JACoW- cc Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC-BY-3.0).
Kurup A, Puri I, Uchida Y, et al., 2013, Large emittance beam measurements for COMET Phase-I, Pages: 2684-2686
The COMET experiment will search for very rare muon processes that will give us an insight into particle physics beyond the Standard Model. COMET requires an intense beam of muonswith amomentumless than 70MeV/c. This is achieved using an 8 GeV proton beam; a heavy metal target to primarily produce pions; a solenoid capture system; and a curved solenoid to perform charge and momentum selection. Understanding the pion production yield and transport properties of the beam line is an important part of the experiment. The beam line is a continuous solenoid channel, so it is only possible to place a beam diagnostic device at the end of the beam line. Building COMET in two phases provides the opportunity to investigate the pion production yield and to measure the transport properties of the beam line in Phase-I. This paper will demonstrate how this will be done using the experimental set up for COMET Phase-I. Copyright © 2013 by JACoW- cc Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC-BY-3.0).
Kelliher DJ, Prior CR, Bliss N, et al., 2013, Studies of 10 gev decay ring design for the international design study of the neutrino factory, Pages: 1457-1459
Owing to the discovery of large θ13 , the final muon storage energy in the baseline solution of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) has been set at 10 GeV. A new racetrack design has been produced for the decay ring to meet this requirement. The details of lattice design and the beam dynamics calculations are discussed. The feasibility of the injection system for both positive and negative muons into the ring is explored in detail. Copyright © 2013 by JACoW.
Aubert B, Barate R, Boutigny D, et al., 2013, The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance, NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, Vol: 729, Pages: 615-701, ISSN: 0168-9002
Edgecock TR, Caretta O, Davenne T, et al., 2013, High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe, PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS-ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1098-4402
Letchford A, Clarke-Gayther M, Faircloth D, et al., 2012, Status of the RAL front end test stand, IPAC 2012 - International Particle Accelerator Conference 2012, Pages: 3856-3858
The Front End Test Stand (FETS) under construction at RAL is a demonstrator for front end systems of a future high power proton linac. Possible applications include a linac upgrade for the ISIS spallation neutron source, new future neutron sources, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, a neutrino factory etc. Designed to deliver a 60mA H-minus beam at 3MeV with a 10% duty factor, FETS consists of a high brightness ion source, magnetic low energy beam transport (LEBT), 4-vane 324MHz radio frequency quadrupole, medium energy beam transport (MEBT) containing a high speed beam chopper plus comprehensive diagnostics. This paper describes the current status of the project and future plans. Copyright © 2012 by IEEE.
Bogacz SA, Morozov VS, Roblin YR, et al., 2012, Recent progress toward a muon recirculating linear accelerator, IPAC 2012 - International Particle Accelerator Conference 2012, Pages: 1422-1424
Both Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require very rapid accelerationdue to the short lifetime of muons. After a capture and bunching section, a linac raisesthe energy to about 900 MeV, and is followed by one or more Recirculating LinearAccelerators (RLA), possibly followed by a Rapid Cycling Synchnotron (RCS) or Fixed-FieldAlternating Gradient (FFAG) ring. A RLA reuses the expensive RF linac section for a numberof passes at the price of having to deal with different energies within the same linac.Various techniques including pulsed focusing quadruopoles, beta frequency beating, andmultipass arcs have been investigated via simulations to improve the performance and reducethe cost of such RLAs. Copyright © 2012 by IEEE.
Pasternak J, Chudzinski R, Kurup A, et al., 2012, Injection and broadband matching for the prism muon ffag, Pages: 202-204
The next generation of lepton flavour violation experiments requires high intensity and high quality muon beams. Such conditions can be met using phase rotation of short muon pulses in an FFAG ring, as was proposed for the PRISM project. The very large initial momentum spread and transverse emittance of the muon beam poses a significant challenge for the injection system into the PRISM FFAG. Also, the matching optics between the solenoidal transfer channel and the ring needs to create a specific orbit excursion in the horizontal plane, suppress any vertical dispersion and produce good betatron conditions in both planes. Candidate geometry for the matching and injection system is presented and its performance is tested in tracking studies. Copyright © 2012 by IEEE.
Kurup A, Bliss N, Collomb N, et al., 2012, Costing methodology and status of the neutrino factory, Pages: 1410-1412
The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will produce a referencedesign report in 2013 that will contain a detailed performance analysis of the NeutrinoFactory and a cost estimate. In order to determine the cost a number of engineeringfeatures need to be included in the accelerator physics design, which can require thephysics design to be re-optimised. The cost estimate is determined in such a way as to makeefficient use of the engineering resources available and to simplify the process ofmodifying the physics design to include engineering features. This paper presents detailsof the methodology used to determine the cost estimate and the current status of eachsubsystem. Copyright © 2012 by IEEE.
Pasternak J, Jenner LJ, Kurup A, et al., 2012, Status of the prism ffag design for the next generation muon-to-electron conversion experiment, Pages: 79-81
The PRISM Task Force continues to study high intensity and high quality muon beams needed for next generation lepton flavour violation experiments. In the PRISM case such beams have been proposed to be produced by sending a short proton pulse to a pion production target, capturing pions and performing RF phase rotation on the resulting muon beam in an FFAG ring. This paper summarizes the current status of the PRISM design obtained by the Task Force. In particular various designs for the PRISM FFAG ring are discussed and their performance compared to the baseline one, the injection/extraction systems and matching to the solenoid channels upstream and downstream of the FFAG ring are presented. The feasibility of the construction of the PRISM system is discussed. Copyright © 2012 by IEEE.
Pasternak J, Jenner LJ, Kurup A, et al., 2011, Studies for the prism FFAG ring for the next generation muon to electron conversion experiment, Pages: 826-828
High intensity and high quality muon beams are needed for next generation lepton flavour violation experiments. Such beams can be produced by sending a short proton pulse to a pion production target, capturing the pions and performing RF phase rotation on the resulting muon beam in an FFAG ring. Such a solution was proposed for the PRISM project and this paper summarizes its current status. In particular the PRISM task force was created to address the accelerator and detector issues that need to be solved in order to realise the PRISM experiment. Alternative designs for the PRISM FFAG ring are discussed and their performance compared. The injection/extraction systems and matching to the solenoid channels upstream and downstream of the FFAG ring are presented. The future direction for the study will be outlined. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG.
Kurup A, Bontoiu C, Aslaninejad M, et al., 2011, The muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory, IPAC 2011 - 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference, Pages: 838-840
The first stage of muon acceleration in the Neutrino Factory utilises a superconducting linac to accelerate muons from 244 MeV to 900 MeV. The linac was split into three types of cryomodules with decreasing magnetic fields and increasing amounts of RF voltage but with the design of the superconducting solenoid and RF cavities being the same for all cryomodules. The current status of the muon linac for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory will be presented including a final lattice design of the linac and tracking simulations. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG.
Kurup A, 2011, An automated conditioning system for the MUCOOL experiments at Fermilab, Pages: 844-846
The MUCOOL project aims to study RF cavities for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. The large emittance muon beams in these accelerators require high-gradient RF cavities at low-frequencies and they need to operate in the presence of relatively strong magnetic fields. MUCOOL is conducting a number of tests on 805MHz and 201 MHz cavities in order to develop a technology that can meet all of these requirements. An automated conditioning system was developed for the 805MHz test program for MUCOOL. This system was designed to replicate the logic a human operator would use when conditioning an RF cavity and to provide automated logging of the conditioning process. This paper describes the hardware and software of the system developed. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG.
Kurup A, Bonnal P, Daudin B, et al., 2011, An accelerator design tool for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory, Pages: 841-843
A tool has been developed to simplify the accelerator design process from the lattice design, through tracking simulations with engineering features, to costing the facility. The aim of this tool is to facilitate going through the design loop efficiently and thus allow engineering features to be included early on in the design process without hindering the development of the lattice design. The tool uses a spreadsheet to store information about the accelerator and can generate MADX input files, G4beamline input files and interfaces with the costing tool developed by CERN. Having one source for the information simplifies going between lattice simulations, tracking simulations and costing calculations and eliminates the possibility of introducing discrepancies in the design. The application of this tool to cost the Neutrino Factory, which is part of the IDS-NF and EUROnu studies for delivering the Reference Design Report, will be presented. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG.
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