225 results found
Welch CL, Aldred MA, Balachandar S, et al., 2023, Defining the clinical validity of genes reported to cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, Genetics in Medicine, Vol: 25, ISSN: 1098-3600
PURPOSE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, progressive vasculopathy with significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Genetic testing is currently recommended for adults diagnosed with heritable, idiopathic, anorexigen-, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-, and congenital heart disease-associated PAH, PAH with overt features of venous/capillary involvement, and all children diagnosed with PAH. Variants in at least 27 genes have putative evidence for PAH causality. Rigorous assessment of the evidence is needed to inform genetic testing. METHODS: An international panel of experts in PAH applied a semi-quantitative scoring system developed by the NIH Clinical Genome Resource to classify the relative strength of evidence supporting PAH gene-disease relationships based on genetic and experimental evidence. RESULTS: Twelve genes (BMPR2, ACVRL1, ATP13A3, CAV1, EIF2AK4, ENG, GDF2, KCNK3, KDR, SMAD9, SOX17, and TBX4) were classified as having definitive evidence and 3 genes (ABCC8, GGCX, and TET2) with moderate evidence. Six genes (AQP1, BMP10, FBLN2, KLF2, KLK1, and PDGFD) were classified as having limited evidence for causal effects of variants. TOPBP1 was classified as having no known PAH relationship. Five genes (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, NOTCH3, SMAD1, and SMAD4) were disputed because of a paucity of genetic evidence over time. CONCLUSION: We recommend that genetic testing includes all genes with definitive evidence and that caution be taken in the interpretation of variants identified in genes with moderate or limited evidence. Genes with no known evidence for PAH or disputed genes should not be included in genetic testing.
Piggin M, Johnson H, Asantewa-Sechereh N, et al., 2023, Insight Report: Online public involvement session on proposed cardiovascular research programmes
A group of researchers across Imperial College London (some of whom are also part of the Imperial Biomedical Research Centre (BRC)) are applying for £5 million funding over 5 years from the British Heart Foundation (BHF) to fund a BHF Centre for Research Excellence at Imperial to support research on various aspects of cardiovascular medicine. The four research themes the funding proposal will cover are as follows: 1. Societal and Environmental Factors 2. Learning from Heart Patients 3. Vascular Ageing (Blood vessels)4. Remote (at home) personal monitoring
Jackson C, Stewart ID, Plekhanova T, et al., 2023, Effects of sleep disturbance on dyspnoea and impaired lung function following hospital admission due to COVID-19 in the UK: a prospective multicentre cohort study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 673-684, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is common following hospital admission both for COVID-19 and other causes. The clinical associations of this for recovery after hospital admission are poorly understood despite sleep disturbance contributing to morbidity in other scenarios. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance after discharge following hospital admission for COVID-19 and to assess whether this was associated with dyspnoea. METHODS: CircCOVID was a prospective multicentre cohort substudy designed to investigate the effects of circadian disruption and sleep disturbance on recovery after COVID-19 in a cohort of participants aged 18 years or older, admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in the UK, and discharged between March, 2020, and October, 2021. Participants were recruited from the Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID). Follow-up data were collected at two timepoints: an early time point 2-7 months after hospital discharge and a later time point 10-14 months after hospital discharge. Sleep quality was assessed subjectively using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and a numerical rating scale. Sleep quality was also assessed with an accelerometer worn on the wrist (actigraphy) for 14 days. Participants were also clinically phenotyped, including assessment of symptoms (ie, anxiety [Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale questionnaire], muscle function [SARC-F questionnaire], dyspnoea [Dyspnoea-12 questionnaire] and measurement of lung function), at the early timepoint after discharge. Actigraphy results were also compared to a matched UK Biobank cohort (non-hospitalised individuals and recently hospitalised individuals). Multivariable linear regression was used to define associations of sleep disturbance with the primary outcome of breathlessness and the other clinical symptoms. PHOSP-COVID is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: 2320 of 2468 participants in the PHOSP-COVID study attended
Williams GJ, Al-Baraikan A, Rademakers FE, et al., 2023, Wearable technology and the cardiovascular system: the future of patient assessment, The Lancet: Digital Health, Vol: 5, Pages: e467-e476, ISSN: 2589-7500
The past decade has seen a dramatic rise in consumer technologies able to monitor a variety of cardiovascular parameters. Such devices initially recorded markers of exercise, but now include physiological and health-care focused measurements. The public are keen to adopt these devices in the belief that they are useful to identify and monitor cardiovascular disease. Clinicians are therefore often presented with health app data accompanied by a diverse range of concerns and queries. Herein, we assess whether these devices are accurate, their outputs validated, and whether they are suitable for professionals to make management decisions. We review underpinning methods and technologies and explore the evidence supporting the use of these devices as diagnostic and monitoring tools in hypertension, arrhythmia, heart failure, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. Used correctly, they might improve health care and support research.
Yeh F-C, Chen C-N, Xie C-Y, et al., 2023, TLR7/8 activation induces autoimmune vasculopathy and causes severe pulmonary arterial hypertension., Eur Respir J, Vol: 62
This study introduced a combination of autoimmune stimuli (TLR-7/8 agonist) and endothelial injury (Sugen) and established a novel rat model representing immune–vascular pathological events mimicking human PAH associated with autoimmune disorders https://bit.ly/3P3H5V0
McAuley HJC, Evans RA, Bolton CE, et al., 2023, Prevalence of physical frailty, including risk factors, up to 1 year after hospitalisation for COVID-19 in the UK: a multicentre, longitudinal cohort study., EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 57, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2589-5370
BACKGROUND: The scale of COVID-19 and its well documented long-term sequelae support a need to understand long-term outcomes including frailty. METHODS: This prospective cohort study recruited adults who had survived hospitalisation with clinically diagnosed COVID-19 across 35 sites in the UK (PHOSP-COVID). The burden of frailty was objectively measured using Fried's Frailty Phenotype (FFP). The primary outcome was the prevalence of each FFP group-robust (no FFP criteria), pre-frail (one or two FFP criteria) and frail (three or more FFP criteria)-at 5 months and 1 year after discharge from hospital. For inclusion in the primary analysis, participants required complete outcome data for three of the five FFP criteria. Longitudinal changes across frailty domains are reported at 5 months and 1 year post-hospitalisation, along with risk factors for frailty status. Patient-perceived recovery and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were retrospectively rated for pre-COVID-19 and prospectively rated at the 5 month and 1 year visits. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN10980107. FINDINGS: Between March 5, 2020, and March 31, 2021, 2419 participants were enrolled with FFP data. Mean age was 57.9 (SD 12.6) years, 933 (38.6%) were female, and 429 (17.7%) had received invasive mechanical ventilation. 1785 had measures at both timepoints, of which 240 (13.4%), 1138 (63.8%) and 407 (22.8%) were frail, pre-frail and robust, respectively, at 5 months compared with 123 (6.9%), 1046 (58.6%) and 616 (34.5%) at 1 year. Factors associated with pre-frailty or frailty were invasive mechanical ventilation, older age, female sex, and greater social deprivation. Frail participants had a larger reduction in HRQoL compared with before their COVID-19 illness and were less likely to describe themselves as recovered. INTERPRETATION: Physical frailty and pre-frailty are common following hospitalisation with COVID-19. Improvement in frailty was seen between 5 and 12 months although
Eichstaedt CA, Belge C, Chung WK, et al., 2023, Genetic counselling and testing in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a consensus statement on behalf of the International Consortium for Genetic Studies in PAH, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 61, ISSN: 0903-1936
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease that can be caused by (likely) pathogenic germline genomic variants. In addition to the most prevalent disease gene, BMPR2 (bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2), several genes, some belonging to distinct functional classes, are also now known to predispose to the development of PAH. As a consequence, specialist and non-specialist clinicians and healthcare professionals are increasingly faced with a range of questions regarding the need for, approaches to and benefits/risks of genetic testing for PAH patients and/or related family members. We provide a consensus-based approach to recommendations for genetic counselling and assessment of current best practice for disease gene testing. We provide a framework and the type of information to be provided to patients and relatives through the process of genetic counselling, and describe the presently known disease causal genes to be analysed. Benefits of including molecular genetic testing within the management protocol of patients with PAH include the identification of individuals misclassified by other diagnostic approaches, the optimisation of phenotypic characterisation for aggregation of outcome data, including in clinical trials, and importantly through cascade screening, the detection of healthy causal variant carriers, to whom regular assessment should be offered.
Carusi A, Winter PDD, Armstrong I, et al., 2023, Medical artificial intelligence is as much social as it is technological, NATURE MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
Kheyfets VO, Sweatt AJ, Gomberg-Maitland M, et al., 2023, Computational platform for doctor-artificial intelligence cooperation in pulmonary arterial hypertension prognostication: a pilot study, ERJ OPEN RESEARCH, Vol: 9
Liew F, Talwar S, Cross A, et al., 2023, SARS-CoV-2-specific nasal IgA wanes 9 months after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and is not induced by subsequent vaccination, EBioMedicine, Vol: 87, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2352-3964
Background:Most studies of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 focus on circulating antibody, giving limited insights into mucosal defences that prevent viral replication and onward transmission. We studied nasal and plasma antibody responses one year after hospitalisation for COVID-19, including a period when SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was introduced.Methods:In this follow up study, plasma and nasosorption samples were prospectively collected from 446 adults hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 2020 and March 2021 via the ISARIC4C and PHOSP-COVID consortia. IgA and IgG responses to NP and S of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron (BA.1) variants were measured by electrochemiluminescence and compared with plasma neutralisation data.Findings:Strong and consistent nasal anti-NP and anti-S IgA responses were demonstrated, which remained elevated for nine months (p < 0.0001). Nasal and plasma anti-S IgG remained elevated for at least 12 months (p < 0.0001) with plasma neutralising titres that were raised against all variants compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Of 323 with complete data, 307 were vaccinated between 6 and 12 months; coinciding with rises in nasal and plasma IgA and IgG anti-S titres for all SARS-CoV-2 variants, although the change in nasal IgA was minimal (1.46-fold change after 10 months, p = 0.011) and the median remained below the positive threshold determined by pre-pandemic controls. Samples 12 months after admission showed no association between nasal IgA and plasma IgG anti-S responses (R = 0.05, p = 0.18), indicating that nasal IgA responses are distinct from those in plasma and minimally boosted by vaccination.Interpretation:The decline in nasal IgA responses 9 months after infection and minimal impact of subsequent vaccination may explain the lack of long-lasting nasal defence against reinfection and the limited effects of vaccination on transmission. These findings highlight the need to develop vaccines that enhance nasal immunity.Funding:This
Kariotis S, Jammeh E, Swietlik EM, et al., 2022, Biological heterogeneity in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension identified through unsupervised transcriptomic profiling of whole blood, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 2041-1723
Lawrie A, Hamilton N, Wood S, et al., 2022, Healthcare resource utilization and quality of life in patients with sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary Circulation, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2045-8940
A retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted to generate real-world evidence in adult patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) at a referral center in England between 2012 and 2019. Data from the referral center electronic medical record database were linked to the National Health Service Hospital Episode Statistics database to collect and analyze patient demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, treatment patterns, health-related quality of life (HRQoL; assessed using the EmPHasis-10 questionnaire), healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), costs, and survival. Sixty-two patients with SAPH were identified. At diagnosis, 84% were in WHO functional class III and presented with significant pulmonary hemodynamic impairment. Cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities were commonly reported prediagnosis. Median EmPHasis-10 score at diagnosis was 34, indicative of poor HRQoL. In the 1st year after diagnosis, median (Q1, Q3) per-patient HCRU was 1 (0, 2) all-cause inpatient hospitalizations; 3 (2, 4) same-day hospitalizations; and 9 (6, 11) outpatient consultations. In 24 patients who were hospitalized longer than 1 day in the 1st year after diagnosis, the median duration of hospitalization was 4 days. With a median follow-up of 1.8 years, the median overall survival was 2.9 years. In this cohort of patients with SAPH, poor HRQoL and high HCRU were observed following diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on HRQoL and HCRU in patients with SAPH. More research is needed on treatment options for this population with high unmet needs.
Saunders L, Collier G, Chan H, et al., 2022, Longitudinal lung function assessment of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 using 1H and 129Xe lung MRI, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 60, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0903-1936
BackgroundMicrovascular abnormalities and impaired gas transfer have been observed in patients with COVID-19. The progression of pulmonary changes in these patients remains unclear.Research QuestionDo patients hospitalized with COVID-19 without evidence of architectural distortion on structural imaging exhibit longitudinal improvements in lung function measured by using 1H and 129Xe MRI between 6 and 52 weeks following hospitalization?Study Design and MethodsPatients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia underwent a pulmonary 1H and 129Xe MRI protocol at 6, 12, 25, and 51 weeks following hospital admission in a prospective cohort study between November 2020 and February 2022. The imaging protocol was as follows: 1H ultra-short echo time, contrast-enhanced lung perfusion, 129Xe ventilation, 129Xe diffusion-weighted, and 129Xe spectroscopic imaging of gas exchange.ResultsNine patients were recruited (age 57 ± 14 [median ± interquartile range] years; six of nine patients were male). Patients underwent MRI at 6 (n = 9), 12 (n = 9), 25 (n = 6), and 51 (n = 8) weeks following hospital admission. Patients with signs of interstitial lung damage were excluded. At 6 weeks, patients exhibited impaired 129Xe gas transfer (RBC to membrane fraction), but lung microstructure was not increased (apparent diffusion coefficient and mean acinar airway dimensions). Minor ventilation abnormalities present in four patients were largely resolved in the 6- to 25-week period. At 12 weeks, all patients with lung perfusion data (n = 6) showed an increase in both pulmonary blood volume and flow compared with 6 weeks, although this was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks, significant improvements in 129Xe gas transfer were observed compared with 6-week examinations; however, 129Xe gas transfer remained abnormally low at weeks 12, 25, and 51.Interpretation129Xe gas transfer was impaired up to 1 year following hospitalization in patients who were hospitalized with COVI
Goh ZM, Balasubramanian N, Alabed S, et al., 2022, Right ventricular remodelling in pulmonary arterial hypertension predicts treatment response, HEART, Vol: 108, Pages: 1392-1400, ISSN: 1355-6037
Majeed RW, Wilkins MR, Howard L, et al., 2022, Pulmonary vascular research institute GoDeep: a meta-registry merging deep phenotyping datafrom international PH reference centers, Pulmonary Circulation, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-8940
The Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute GoDeep meta-registry is a collaboration of pulmonary hypertension (PH) reference centers across the globe. Merging worldwide PH data in a central meta-registry to allow advanced analysis of the heterogeneity of PH and its groups/subgroups on a worldwide geographical, ethnical, and etiological landscape (ClinTrial. gov NCT05329714). Retrospective and prospective PH patient data (diagnosis based on catheterization; individuals with exclusion of PH are included as a comparator group) are mapped to a common clinical parameter set of more than 350 items, anonymized and electronically exported to a central server. Use and access is decided by the GoDeep steering board, where each center has one vote. As of April 2022, GoDeep comprised 15,742 individuals with 1.9 million data points from eight PH centers. Geographic distribution comprises 3990 enrollees (25%) from America and 11,752 (75%) from Europe. Eighty-nine perecent were diagnosed with PH and 11% were classified as not PH and provided a comparator group. The retrospective observation period is an average of 3.5 years (standard error of the mean 0.04), with 1159 PH patients followed for over 10 years. Pulmonary arterial hypertension represents the largest PH group (42.6%), followed by Group 2 (21.7%), Group 3 (17.3%), Group 4 (15.2%), and Group 5 (3.3%). The age distribution spans several decades, with patients 60 years or older comprising 60%. The majority of patients met an intermediate risk profile upon diagnosis. Data entry from a further six centers is ongoing, and negotiations with >10 centers worldwide have commenced. Using electronic interface-based automated retrospective and prospective data transfer, GoDeep aims to provide in-depth epidemiological and etiological understanding of PH and its various groups/subgroups on a global scale, offering insights for improved management.
Dixon PH, Levine AP, Cebola I, et al., 2022, GWAS meta-analysis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy implicates multiple hepatic genes and regulatory elements, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2041-1723
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder affecting 0.5–2% of pregnancies. The majority of cases present in the third trimester with pruritus, elevated serum bile acids and abnormal serum liver tests. ICP is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes, including spontaneous preterm birth and stillbirth. Whilst rare mutations affecting hepatobiliary transporters contribute to the aetiology of ICP, the role of common genetic variation in ICP has not been systematically characterised to date. Here, we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses for ICP across three studies including 1,138 cases and 153,642 controls. Eleven loci achieve genome-wide significance and have been further investigated and fine-mapped using functional genomics approaches. Our results pinpoint common sequence variation in liver-enriched genes and liver-specific cis-regulatory elements as contributing mechanisms to ICP susceptibility.
Boucherat O, Yokokawa T, Krishna V, et al., 2022, Identification of LTBP-2 as a plasma biomarker for right ventricular dysfunction in human pulmonary arterial hypertension, Nature Cardiovascular Research, Vol: 1, Pages: 748-760
Although right ventricular (RV) function is the primary determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the molecular mechanisms of RV remodeling and the circulating factors reflecting its function remain largely elusive. In this context, the identification of new molecular players implicated in maladaptive RV remodeling along with the optimization of risk stratification approaches in PAH are key priorities. Through combination of transcriptomic and proteomic profiling of RV tissues with plasma proteome profiling, we identified a panel of proteins, mainly related to cardiac fibrosis, similarly upregulated in the RV and plasma of patients with PAH with decompensated RV. Among these, we demonstrated that plasma latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 (LTBP-2) level correlates with RV function in human PAH and adds incremental value to current risk stratification models to predict long-term survival in two independent PAH cohorts.
Evans RA, Leavy OC, Richardson M, et al., 2022, Clinical characteristics with inflammation profiling of long COVID and association with 1-year recovery following hospitalisation in the UK: a prospective observational study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 761-775, ISSN: 2213-2600
BackgroundNo effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions exist for patients with long COVID. We aimed to describe recovery 1 year after hospital discharge for COVID-19, identify factors associated with patient-perceived recovery, and identify potential therapeutic targets by describing the underlying inflammatory profiles of the previously described recovery clusters at 5 months after hospital discharge.MethodsThe Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruiting adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital with COVID-19 across the UK. Recovery was assessed using patient-reported outcome measures, physical performance, and organ function at 5 months and 1 year after hospital discharge, and stratified by both patient-perceived recovery and recovery cluster. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was performed for patient-perceived recovery at 1 year. Cluster analysis was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach using clinical outcomes at 5 months. Inflammatory protein profiling was analysed from plasma at the 5-month visit. This study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN10980107, and recruitment is ongoing.Findings2320 participants discharged from hospital between March 7, 2020, and April 18, 2021, were assessed at 5 months after discharge and 807 (32·7%) participants completed both the 5-month and 1-year visits. 279 (35·6%) of these 807 patients were women and 505 (64·4%) were men, with a mean age of 58·7 (SD 12·5) years, and 224 (27·8%) had received invasive mechanical ventilation (WHO class 7–9). The proportion of patients reporting full recovery was unchanged between 5 months (501 [25·5%] of 1965) and 1 year (232 [28·9%] of 804). Factors associated with being less likely to report full recovery at 1 year were female sex (odds ratio 0·68 [95% CI 0·46–0·99]), obes
Boehm M, Arnold N, Braithwaite A, et al., 2022, Eplerenone attenuates pathological pulmonary vascular rather than right ventricular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (vol 18, 41, 2018), BMC PULMONARY MEDICINE, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1471-2466
Jones RJ, De Bie EMDD, Groves E, et al., 2022, Autoimmunity is a significant feature of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 206, Pages: 81-93, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Autoimmunity is thought to play a role in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). It is not clear if this is causative or a bystander of disease and if it carries any prognostic or treatment significance. OBJECTIVE: To study autoimmunity in IPAH using a large cross-sectional cohort. METHODS: Assessment of the circulating immune cell phenotype was undertaken using flow cytometry and the profile of serum immunoglobulins was generated using a standardised multiplex array of 19 clinically validated autoantibodies in 473 cases and 946 controls. Additional GST-fusion array and ELISA data were used to identify a serum autoantibody to BMPR2. Clustering analyses and clinical correlations were employed to determine associations between immunogenicity and clinical outcomes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Flow cytometric immune profiling demonstrates IPAH is associated with an altered humoral immune response in addition to raised IgG3. Multiplexed autoantibodies were significantly raised in IPAH, and clustering demonstrated three distinct clusters: 'high autoantibody', 'low autoantibody', and a small 'intermediate' cluster exhibiting high levels of RNP-complex. The high autoantibody cluster had worse haemodynamics but improved survival. A small subset of patients demonstrated immunoglobulin reactivity to BMPR2. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes aberrant immune regulation and presence of autoantibodies as a key feature in the profile of a significant proportion of IPAH patients and is associated with clinical outcomes. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Rhodes C, Wharton J, Swietlik E, et al., 2022, Using the plasma proteome for risk stratifying patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, Pages: 1102-1111, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of cardiac origin, is used to risk stratify patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its limitations include poor sensitivity to early vascular pathology. Other biomarkers of vascular or systemic origin may also be useful in the management of PAH.Objectives: Identify prognostic proteins in PAH which complement NT-proBNP and clinical risk scores.Methods: An aptamer-based assay (SomaScan-V4) targeting 4,152 proteins was used to measure plasma proteins in patients with idiopathic, heritable or drug-induced-PAH from the UK National Cohort of PAH (n=357) and the French EFORT study (n=79). Prognostic proteins were identified in discovery-replication analyses of UK samples. Proteins independent of 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) and NT-proBNP entered LASSO modelling and the best combination in a single score was evaluated against clinical targets in EFORT.Measurements and Main Results: Thirty-one proteins robustly informed prognosis independent of NT-proBNP and 6-MWD in the UK Cohort. A weighted combination score of 6 proteins was validated at baseline (5-year mortality, AUC:0.73, 95%CI:0.63-0.85) and follow-up in EFORT (AUC:0.84, 95%CI:0.75-0.94, p=9.96x10-6). The protein score risk-stratified patients independent of established clinical targets and risk equations. The addition of the 6-protein model score to NT-proBNP improved prediction of 5-year outcomes from AUC:0.762 (0.702-0.821) to 0.818 (0.767-0.869) by ROC analysis (p=0.00426 for difference in AUC) in the UK replication and French samples combined. Conclusions: The plasma proteome informs prognosis beyond established factors in PAH and may provide a more sensitive measure of therapeutic response.
Errington N, Kariotis S, Jammeh E, et al., 2022, Unsupervised Clustering of PH Using Circulating miRNA - Towards Molecular Classification of PH?, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X
Kariotis S, Jammeh E, Swietlik EM, et al., 2022, Longitudinal Analysis of Three Major Risk-Associated Transcriptomic Subgroups Within the IPAH Classification, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X
Boucherat O, Agrawal V, Lawrie A, et al., 2022, The Latest in Animal Models of Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Ventricular Failure, CIRCULATION RESEARCH, Vol: 130, Pages: 1466-1486, ISSN: 0009-7330
Harbaum L, Rhodes CJ, Wharton J, et al., 2022, Mining the plasma proteome for insights into the molecular pathology of pulmonary arterial hypertension., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by structural remodelling of pulmonary arteries and arterioles. Underlying biological processes are likely reflected in a perturbation of circulating proteins. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and analyse the plasma proteome of PAH patients using inherited genetic variation to inform on underlying molecular drivers. METHODS: An aptamer-based assay was used to measure plasma proteins in 357 patients with idiopathic or heritable PAH, 103 healthy volunteers and 23 relatives of PAH patients. In discovery and replication subgroups, the plasma proteomes of PAH and healthy individuals were compared and the relationship to transplantation-free survival in PAH determined. To examine causal relationships to PAH, protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) that influenced protein levels in the patient population were used as instruments for Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: From 4,152 annotated plasma proteins, levels of 208 differed between PAH patients and healthy subjects and 49 predicted long-term survival. MR based on cis-pQTL located in proximity to the encoding gene for proteins that were prognostic and distinguished PAH from health estimated an adverse effect for higher levels of netrin-4 (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95%-confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.08) and a protective effect for higher levels of thrombospondin-2 (OR 0.83, 95%-CI 0.74-0.94) on PAH. Both proteins tracked the development of PAH in previously healthy relatives and changes in thrombospondin-2 associated with pulmonary arterial pressure at disease onset. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated analysis of the plasma proteome and genome implicates two secreted matrix-binding proteins, netrin-4 and thrombospondin-2, in the pathobiology of PAH.
Alandejani F, Alabed S, Garg P, et al., 2022, Training and clinical testing of artificial intelligence derived right atrial cardiovascular magnetic resonance measurements, Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Vol: 24, ISSN: 1097-6647
BACKGROUND: Right atrial (RA) area predicts mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society pulmonary hypertension guidelines. The advent of deep learning may allow more reliable measurement of RA areas to improve clinical assessments. The aim of this study was to automate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) RA area measurements and evaluate the clinical utility by assessing repeatability, correlation with invasive haemodynamics and prognostic value. METHODS: A deep learning RA area CMR contouring model was trained in a multicentre cohort of 365 patients with pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular pathology and healthy subjects. Inter-study repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)) and agreement of contours (DICE similarity coefficient (DSC)) were assessed in a prospective cohort (n = 36). Clinical testing and mortality prediction was performed in n = 400 patients that were not used in the training nor prospective cohort, and the correlation of automatic and manual RA measurements with invasive haemodynamics assessed in n = 212/400. Radiologist quality control (QC) was performed in the ASPIRE registry, n = 3795 patients. The primary QC observer evaluated all the segmentations and recorded them as satisfactory, suboptimal or failure. A second QC observer analysed a random subcohort to assess QC agreement (n = 1018). RESULTS: All deep learning RA measurements showed higher interstudy repeatability (ICC 0.91 to 0.95) compared to manual RA measurements (1st observer ICC 0.82 to 0.88, 2nd observer ICC 0.88 to 0.91). DSC showed high agreement comparing automatic artificial intelligence and manual CMR readers. Maximal RA area mean and standard deviation (SD) DSC metric for observer 1 vs observer 2, automatic measurements vs observer 1 and automatic measurements vs observer 2 i
Dowey R, Cole J, Thompson AAR, et al., 2022, Enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap formation in COVID-19 is inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor ruboxistaurin, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2312-0541
Background: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like DNA and protein lattices which are expelled by neutrophils to trap and kill pathogens, but which cause significant damage to the host tissue. NETs have emerged as critical mediators of lung damage, inflammation and thrombosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other diseases, but there are no therapeutics to prevent or reduce NETs that are available to patients. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers (n=9) and hospitalised patients with COVID-19 at the acute stage (n=39) and again at 3-4 months post-acute sampling (n=7). NETosis was measured by SYTOX green assays. Results: Here, we show that neutrophils isolated from hospitalised patients with COVID-19 produce significantly more NETs in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from healthy control subjects. A subset of patients was captured at follow-up clinics (3-4 months post-acute sampling), and while LPS-induced NET formation is significantly lower at this time point, it remains elevated compared to healthy controls. LPS- and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced NETs were significantly inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor ruboxistaurin. Ruboxistaurin-mediated inhibition of NETs in healthy neutrophils reduces NET-induced epithelial cell death. Conclusion: Our findings suggest ruboxistaurin could reduce proinflammatory and tissue-damaging consequences of neutrophils during disease, and since it has completed phase III trials for other indications without safety concerns, it is a promising and novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.
Alkhanfar D, Shahin Y, Alandejani F, et al., 2022, Severe pulmonary hypertension associated with lung disease is characterised by a loss of small pulmonary vessels on quantitative computed tomography, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2312-0541
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) predicts reduced functional status, clinical worsening and increased mortality, with patients with severe PH-CLD (≥35 mmHg) having a significantly worse prognosis than mild to moderate PH-CLD (21-34 mmHg). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association between computed tomography (CT)-derived quantitative pulmonary vessel volume, PH severity and disease aetiology in CLD. Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with CLD who underwent CT pulmonary angiography, lung function testing and right heart catheterisation were identified from the ASPIRE registry between October 2012 and July 2018. Quantitative assessments of total pulmonary vessel and small pulmonary vessel volume were performed. Results: 90 patients had PH-CLD including 44 associated with COPD/emphysema and 46 with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Patients with severe PH-CLD (n=40) had lower small pulmonary vessel volume compared to patients with mild to moderate PH-CLD (n=50). Patients with PH-ILD had significantly reduced small pulmonary blood vessel volume, compared to PH-COPD/emphysema. Higher mortality was identified in patients with lower small pulmonary vessel volume. Conclusion: Patients with severe PH-CLD, regardless of aetiology, have lower small pulmonary vessel volume compared to patients with mild-moderate PH-CLD, and this is associated with a higher mortality. Whether pulmonary vessel changes quantified by CT are a marker of remodelling of the distal pulmonary vasculature requires further study.
Alandejani F, Hameed A, Tubman E, et al., 2022, Imaging and risk stratification in pulmonary arterial hypertension: time to include right ventricular assessment, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2297-055X
Background: Current European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend regular risk stratification with an aim of treating patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to improve or maintain low-risk status (<5% 1-year mortality). Methods: Consecutive patients with PAH who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) were identified from the Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary hypertension Identified at a Referral centre (ASPIRE) registry. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression and multi-variable logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: In 311 consecutive, treatment-naïve patients with PAH undergoing cMRI including 121 undergoing follow-up cMRI, measures of right ventricular (RV) function including right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and RV end systolic volume and right atrial (RA) area had prognostic value. However, only RV metrics were able to identify a low-risk status. Age (p < 0.01) and RVEF (p < 0.01) but not RA area were independent predictors of 1-year mortality. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for guidelines to include measures of RV function rather than RA area alone to aid the risk stratification of patients with PAH.
Turton HA, Pickworth J, Paterson GG, et al., 2022, Soluble P-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor Rise in Healthy Volunteers Following Non-exertional Ascent to High Altitude, FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 13
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