Imperial College London

DrAlexanderLyon

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Clinical Senior Lecturer in Heart Failure
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3409a.lyon Website

 
 
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Location

 

ICTEM buildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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184 results found

Lagarto J, Dyer B, Dunsby C, Peters N, French P, Dunsby C, Lyon Aet al., In vivo label-free optical monitoring of structural and metabolic remodeling of myocardium following infarction, Biomedical Optics Express, ISSN: 2156-7085

Cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) involves structural and functional alterations in the infarcted and remote viable myocardium that can ultimately lead to heart failure. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood and, following our previous study of the autofluorescence lifetime and diffuse reflectance signatures of the myocardium in vivo at 16 weeks post MI in rats [Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 324 (2015)], we here present data obtained at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post myocardial infarction that help follow the temporal progression of these changes. Our results demonstrate that both structural and metabolic changes in the heart can be monitored from the earliest time points following MI using label-free optical readouts, not only in the region of infarction but also in the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Changes in the autofluorescence intensity and lifetime parameters associated with collagen type I autofluorescence were indicative of progressive collagen deposition in tissue that was most pronounced at earlier time points and in the region of infarction. In addition to significant collagen deposition in infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium, we also report changes in the autofluorescence parameters associated with reduced nicotinamide adenine (phosphate) dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which we associate with metabolic alterations throughout the heart. Parallel measurements of the diffuse reflectance spectra indicated an increased contribution of reduced cytochrome c. Our findings suggest that combining time-resolved spectrofluorometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy could provide a useful means to monitor cardiac function in vivo at the time of surgery.

Journal article

Seferović PM, Polovina M, Bauersachs J, Arad M, Gal TB, Lund LH, Felix SB, Arbustini E, Caforio ALP, Farmakis D, Filippatos GS, Gialafos E, Kanjuh V, Krljanac G, Limongelli G, Linhart A, Lyon AR, Maksimović R, Miličić D, Milinković I, Noutsias M, Oto A, Oto Ö, Pavlović SU, Piepoli MF, Ristić AD, Rosano GMC, Seggewiss H, Ašanin M, Seferović JP, Ruschitzka F, Čelutkiene J, Jaarsma T, Mueller C, Moura B, Hill L, Volterrani M, Lopatin Y, Metra M, Backs J, Mullens W, Chioncel O, de Boer R, Anker S, Rapezzi C, Coats AJS, Tschöpe Cet al., 2019, Heart failure in cardiomyopathies: a position paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN: 1388-9842

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

Journal article

Hu J-R, Florido R, Lipson EJ, Naidoo J, Ardehali R, Tocchetti CG, Lyon AR, Padera RF, Johnson DB, Moslehi Jet al., 2019, Cardiovascular toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH, Vol: 115, Pages: 854-868, ISSN: 0008-6363

Journal article

Triposkiadis F, Butler J, Abboud FM, Armstrong PW, Adamopoulos S, Atherton JJ, Backs J, Bauersachs J, Burkhoff D, Bonow RO, Chopra VK, de Boer RA, de Windt L, Hamdani N, Hasenfuss G, Heymans S, Hulot J-S, Konstam M, Lee RT, Linke WA, Lunde IG, Lyon AR, Maack C, Mann DL, Mebazaa A, Mentz RJ, Nihoyannopoulos P, Papp Z, Parissis J, Pedrazzini T, Rosano G, Rouleau J, Seferovic PM, Shah AM, Starling RC, Tocchetti CG, Trochu J-N, Thum T, Zannad F, Brutsaert DL, Segers VF, De Keulenaer GWet al., 2019, The continuous heart failure spectrum: moving beyond an ejection fraction classification, European Heart Journal, ISSN: 1522-9645

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

Journal article

Rhea IB, Lyon AR, Fradley MG, 2019, Anticoagulation of cardiovascular conditions in the cancer patient: Review of old and new therapies, Current Oncology Reports, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1523-3790

Purpose of Review: The anticoagulation strategies for various cardiac-specific pathologies including atrial fibrillation are changing. Applying these strategies in patients with concomitant active cancer requires additional considerations. Here, we review the most recent changes in the anticoagulation management of common cardiac diseases and their application in cancer patients. Recnt Findings: There are a range of indications for therapeutic anticoagulation in cancer patients including venous thromboembolism (VTE), atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL), prosthetic heart valves, and intracardiac thrombi. Certain cancer therapeutics such as ibrutinib and anthracycline chemotherapy increase the risk of developing AF/AFL and pose unique challenges in anticoagulation management. Anticoagulation decisions for AF/AFL often utilize the CHADS2 or the CHA2DS2-VASc score with annualized stroke risk; however, these risk stratification models may be inadequate in cancer patients. Cancer type, stage, prognosis, and bleeding risk are all relevant when considering whether to initiate therapeutic anticoagulation. Moreover, thrombocytopenia may limit the ability to provide anticoagulation. Subsequent analyses of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) show fewer bleeding complications and thromboembolic events compared to warfarin in AF/AFL with apixaban and edoxaban particularly promising in this population for VTE, pulmonary embolism, and AF/AFL. There is a lack of data regarding ablation therapy and left atrial occlusion devices in this population. There is a growing experience of DOACs for intracardiac thrombi. Warfarin is still appropriate for patients with prosthetic heart valves and left ventricular assist devices.Summary: Anticoagulation management in the cancer patient can be challenging. DOACs are often a safe alternative to warfarin in cancer-associated DVT/PE and AF/AFL, and may be preferable in certain circumstances. Other cardiac indications for anticoagulation including th

Journal article

Garcia-Pavia P, Kim Y, Restrepo-Cordoba A, Ware J, Barton PJRet al., Genetic variants associated with cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy, Circulation, ISSN: 0009-7322

BackgroundCancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. These parametersincompletely account for substantial inter-individual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM.MethodsWe studied 213 CCM patients from three cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped breast cancer adults (n=73) and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including nine pre-specified genes were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) participants(n=2053), healthy volunteers(n=445), and ancestry-matchedreference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed, stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice.ResultsCCM was diagnosed 0.4-9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult CCM patients had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the U.S. population. Among nine prioritized genes CCM patients had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts (p≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) predominated, occurring in 7.5% CCM patients versus 1.1% TCGA participants (p=7.36e-08), 0.7% healthy volunteers (p=3.42e-06), and 0.6% reference population (p=5.87e-14). Adult CCM patients with TTNtv experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation (p=0.003)and impaired myocardial recovery (p=0.03) than those without.Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wildtype (p=0.0004 and p<0.002, respectively).ConclusionsUnrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtv, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events

Journal article

Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Ardehali H, Fischmeister R, Burridge P, Hirsch E, Lyon ARet al., 2019, Late onset heart failure after childhood chemotherapy, European Heart Journal, Vol: 40, Pages: 798-800, ISSN: 1522-9645

Journal article

Awadalla M, Golden DLA, Mahmood SS, Alvi RM, Mercaldo ND, Hassan MZO, Banerji D, Rokicki A, Mulligan C, Murphy SPT, Jones-O'Connor M, Cohen JV, Heinzerling LM, Armanious M, Sullivan RJ, Damrongwatanasuk R, Chen CL, Gupta D, Kirchberger MC, Moslehi JJ, Shah SP, Ganatra S, Thavendiranathan P, Rizvi MA, Sahni G, Lyon AR, Tocchetti CG, Mercurio V, Thuny F, Ederhy S, Mahmoudi M, Lawrence DP, Groarke JD, Nohria A, Fradley MG, Reynolds KL, Neilan TGet al., 2019, Influenza vaccination and myocarditis among patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2051-1426

BackgroundInfluenza vaccination (FV) is recommended for patients with cancer. Recent data suggested that the administration of the FV was associated with an increase in immune-related adverse events (irAEs) among patients on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Myocarditis is an uncommon but serious complication of ICIs and may also result from infection with influenza. There are no data testing the relationship between FV and the development of myocarditis on ICIs.MethodsPatients on ICIs who developed myocarditis (n = 101) (cases) were compared to ICI-treated patients (n = 201) without myocarditis (controls). A patient was defined as having the FV if they were administered the FV from 6 months prior to start of ICI to anytime during ICI therapy. Alternate thresholds for FV status were also tested. The primary comparison of interest was the rate of FV between cases and controls. Patients with myocarditis were followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, hemodynamically significant complete heart block and cardiovascular death.ResultsThe FV was administered to 25% of the myocarditis cases compared to 40% of the non-myocarditis ICI-treated controls (p = 0.01). Similar findings of lower rates of FV administration were noted among myocarditis cases when alternate thresholds were tested. Among the myocarditis cases, those who were vaccinated had 3-fold lower troponin levels when compared to unvaccinated cases (FV vs. No FV: 0.12 [0.02, 0.47] vs. 0.40 [0.11, 1.26] ng/ml, p = 0.02). Within myocarditis cases, those administered the FV also had a lower rate of other irAEs when compared to unvaccinated cases (36 vs. 55% p = 0.10) including lower rates of pneumonitis (12 vs. 36%, p = 0.03). During follow-up (175 [IQR 89, 363] days), 47% of myocarditis cases experienced a MACE. Myocarditis cases who received the FV were a

Journal article

de Boer RA, De Keulenaer G, Bauersachs J, Brutsaert D, Cleland JG, Diez J, Du X-J, Ford P, Heinzel FR, Lipson KE, McDonagh T, Lopez-Andres N, Lunde IG, Lyon AR, Pollesello P, Prasad SK, Tocchetti CG, Mayr M, Sluijter JPG, Thum T, Tschöpe C, Zannad F, Zimmermann W-H, Ruschitzka F, Filippatos G, Lindsey ML, Maack C, Heymans Set al., 2019, Towards better definition, quantification and treatment of fibrosis in heart failure. A scientific roadmap by the Committee of Translational Research of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology, European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN: 1388-9842

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

Journal article

Lyon AR, Habibian M, 2019, Break a sweat to reduce cardiotoxicity - the benefits of exercise training during anthracycline chemotherapy, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol: 26, Pages: 301-304, ISSN: 2047-4873

Journal article

Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Chaitman BR, Bax JJ, Morrow DA, White HD, ESC Scientific Document Groupet al., 2019, Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018)., Eur Heart J, Vol: 40, Pages: 237-269

Journal article

Maack C, Lehrke M, Backs J, Heinzel FR, Hulot J-S, Marx N, Paulus WJ, Rossignol P, Taegtmeyer H, Bauersachs J, Bayes-Genis A, Brutsaert D, Bugger H, Clarke K, Cosentino F, De Keulenaer G, Dei Cas A, González A, Huelsmann M, Iaccarino G, Lunde IG, Lyon AR, Pollesello P, Rena G, Riksen NP, Rosano G, Staels B, van Laake LW, Wanner C, Farmakis D, Filippatos G, Ruschitzka F, Seferovic P, de Boer RA, Heymans Set al., 2018, Heart failure and diabetes: metabolic alterations and therapeutic interventions: a state-of-the-art review from the Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association-European Society of Cardiology, European Heart Journal, Vol: 39, Pages: 4243-4254, ISSN: 1522-9645

Heart failure (HF) is growing to a modern epidemic and despite advances in therapy, it still carries an ominous prognosis and a significant socioeconomic burden.1 Many novel agents that emerged as promising HF drugs failed to improve residual morbidity and mortality.2,3 Since developing and testing new agents has become increasingly costly,4 the concept of repurposing existing drugs for new indications has gained considerable importance.Conceptually, comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity or chronic kidney disease, all highly prevalent in HF populations, have shifted from being innocent bystanders to drivers of HF. This applies especially to HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a phenotype that accounts for more than 50% of HF patients and for which no effective therapy exists thus far.5,6 In particular, the prevalence of T2DM, thereby its combination with HF is rapidly increasing, mainly due to the obesity epidemic.Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes are addressed by an increasing number of clinical studies in T2DM, mainly as safety endpoints for anti-diabetic agents. Some of those drugs have beneficial CV effects independent of their glucose-lowering action. Consequently, anti-diabetic agents have gained interest for their potential repurposing in HF treatment. In this context, the Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) organized a workshop on HF and T2DM, focusing on the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of this relationship. Here, we summarize the main points raised during this workshop, providing an overview of current evidence and open issues.

Journal article

Anker MS, Lena A, Hadzibegovic S, Belenkov Y, Bergler-Klein J, de Boer RA, Cohen-Solal A, Farmakis D, von Haehling S, Lopez-Fernandez T, Pudil R, Suter T, Tocchetti CG, Lyon ARet al., 2018, Modern-day cardio-oncology: a report from the 'Heart Failure and World Congress on Acute Heart Failure 2018', ESC Heart Failure, Vol: 5, Pages: 1083-1091, ISSN: 2055-5822

During the ‘Heart Failure and World Congress on Acute Heart Failure 2018’, many sessions and lectures focused on cardio‐oncology. This important field of research is constantly growing, and therefore, a great amount of time during the congress focused on it. Prevention and early recognition of side effects is very important in cancer patients. One of the most common and potentially severe problems during antineoplastic therapy is cardiotoxicity. Hence, cardio‐oncology is vital in managing cancer patients. This paper will summarize the topics discussed in three main sessions and many additional lectures throughout the ‘Heart Failure and World Congress on Acute Heart Failure 2018’. The covered topics included pathophysiological mechanisms in the development of heart failure, risk factors, and early signs of cardiotoxicity detectable with different circulating and imaging biomarkers, as well as cardioprotective treatments recommended by different guidelines and position papers.

Journal article

Pareek N, Cevallos J, Moliner P, Shah M, Tan LL, Chambers V, Baksi AJ, Khattar RS, Sharma R, Rosen SD, Lyon ARet al., 2018, Activity and outcomes of a cardio-oncology service in the United Kingdom - a five-year experience, European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol: 20, Pages: 1721-1731, ISSN: 1388-9842

AIMS: Cardio-oncology clinics optimise the cardiovascular status of cancer patients but there is a limited description of their structure, case mix, activity and results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the activity and outcomes of a cardio-oncology service, particularly with respect to supporting optimal cancer treatment and survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied patients referred to our service from February 2011 to February 2016. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and parameters of cardiac function were measured at baseline and after optimisation by our service. Up-titration of cardiac treatment, continuation of cancer therapy and mortality were used as outcome measures. Of the 535 patients (55.8% females) referred, rates of cardiotoxicity for anthracyclines, anti-HER2 agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were 75.8%, 69.8% and 62.1%, respectively. Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) (n =128) were younger, had higher rates of hypertension and previous exposure to chemotherapy/radiotherapy (P < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 360 days, 93.8% of the patients with LVSD showed improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (45% pre vs. 53% post; P < 0.001) and NYHA class (NYHA III-IV in 22% pre vs. 10% post; P = 0.01). All patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction and biochemical or functional myocardial toxicity and 88% of patients with LVSD were deemed fit for continuation of cancer therapy after cardiovascular optimisation. CONCLUSIONS: Through the establishment of a cardio-oncology service, it is feasible to achieve high rates of cardiac optimisation and cancer treatment continuation.

Journal article

Rekha B, Velmurugan G, Freddy AJ, Anusha S, Ramprasath T, Karthik KV, Suresh S, Kulshrestha P, Mithieux G, Lyon AR, Selvam GS, Ramasamy Set al., 2018, Chronic intake of 4-Methylimidazole induces hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycaemia via pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia and glucose dyshomeostasis, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322

Caramel colours are the preferential food colouring agent globally, reaches wide age groups through eatables. Colas, a sweetened carbonated drink are most common caramel coloured beverage and its consumption is linked with diabetes, obesity, pancreatic cancer and other endocrine disorders. A major by-product produced during caramelization is 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) that is detected in noteworthy concentrations in colas and other beverages. Previous studies revealed the neurotoxic and carcinogenic potential of 4-MEI in animals at higher doses but the effect of 4-MEI at theoretical maximum daily intake dose on glucose homeostasis is unexplored. Here, mice treated with 4-MEI (32 µg/kg bodyweight/day) for seven weeks exhibited severe hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia mediated by hyperplasia of pancreatic beta cells and induces metabolic alterations. On combinatorial treatment, 4-MEI suppressed the glucogenic potential of non-artificial sweeteners and promotes lipogenesis. Furthermore, increased levels of C-peptide, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were observed in the humans with regular intake of 4-MEI containing beverages. In summary, 4-MEI induced pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia and leads to disruption of glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study suggests the need for further assessment and reconsideration of the wide usage of 4-MEI containing caramels as food additives.

Journal article

Matthews A, Stanway S, Farmer RE, Strongman H, Thomas S, Lyon AR, Smeeth L, Bhaskaran Ket al., 2018, Long term adjuvant endocrine therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease in female breast cancer survivors: systematic review, BMJ, Vol: 363, Pages: k3845-k3845, ISSN: 0959-8138

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of endocrine therapies on a wide range of specific clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in women with a history of non-metastatic breast cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase up until June 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies were included if they investigated the risk of a specific cardiovascular disease outcome associated with use of either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor, or compared the two treatments, in women with a history of non-metastatic breast cancer. APPRAISAL AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant studies were originally identified and results extracted by one researcher, with a full replication of the study identification process by a combination of two other researchers. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to assess risk of bias in randomised controlled trials, and this tool was adapted to assess risk of bias in observational studies. RESULTS: 26 studies were identified, with results for seven specific cardiovascular disease outcomes (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, and peripheral vascular disease). Results suggested an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in tamoxifen users compared with both non-users and aromatase inhibitor users. Results were also consistent with a higher risk of the vascular diseases myocardial infarction and angina in aromatase inhibitor users compared with tamoxifen users, but there was also a suggestion that this may be partly driven by a protective effect of tamoxifen on these outcomes. Data were limited, and evidence was generally inconsistent for all other cardiovascular disease outcomes. CONCLUSION: This review has collated substantial randomised controlled trial and observational evidence on the effect of endocrine therapies on several specific cardiovascular disease

Journal article

Maack C, Eschenhagen T, Hamdani N, Heinzel FR, Lyon AR, Manstein DJ, Metzger J, Papp Z, Tocchetti CG, Yilmaz MB, Anker SD, Balligand J-L, Bauersachs J, Brutsaert D, Carrier L, Chlopicki S, Cleland JG, de Boer RA, Dietl A, Fischmeister R, Harjola V-P, Heymans S, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Holzmeister J, de Keulenaer G, Limongelli G, Linke WA, Lund LH, Masip J, Metra M, Mueller C, Pieske B, Ponikowski P, Ristic A, Ruschitzka F, Seferovic PM, Skouri H, Zimmermann WH, Mebazaa Aet al., 2018, Treatments targeting inotropy, European Heart Journal, ISSN: 1522-9645

Acute heart failure (HF) and in particular, cardiogenic shock are associated with high morbidity and mortality. A therapeutic dilemma is that the use of positive inotropic agents, such as catecholamines or phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, is associated with increased mortality. Newer drugs, such as levosimendan or omecamtiv mecarbil, target sarcomeres to improve systolic function putatively without elevating intracellular Ca2+. Although meta-analyses of smaller trials suggested that levosimendan is associated with a better outcome than dobutamine, larger comparative trials failed to confirm this observation. For omecamtiv mecarbil, Phase II clinical trials suggest a favourable haemodynamic profile in patients with acute and chronic HF, and a Phase III morbidity/mortality trial in patients with chronic HF has recently begun. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of systolic dysfunction in patients with HF and the mechanisms through which different inotropic agents improve cardiac function. Since adenosine triphosphate and reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria are intimately linked to the processes of excitation-contraction coupling, we also discuss the impact of inotropic agents on mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox regulation. Therefore, this position paper should help identify novel targets for treatments that could not only safely improve systolic and diastolic function acutely, but potentially also myocardial structure and function over a longer-term.

Journal article

Lagarto J, Dyer B, Talbot C, Peters N, French P, Lyon A, Dunsby Cet al., 2018, Characterization of NAD(P)H and FAD autofluorescence signatures in a Langendorff isolated-perfused rat heart model, Biomedical Optics Express, Vol: 9, Pages: 4978-4978, ISSN: 2156-7085

Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a promising label-free approach to characterize biological samples with demonstrated potential to report structural and biochemical alterations in tissues in a number of clinical applications. We report a characterization of the ex vivo autofluorescence fingerprint of cardiac tissue, exploiting a Langendorff-perfused isolated rat heart model to induce physiological insults to the heart, with a view to understanding how metabolic alterations affect the autofluorescence signals. Changes in the autofluorescence intensity and lifetime signatures associated with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) were characterized during oxygen- or glucose-depletion protocols. Results suggest that both NAD(P)H and FAD autofluorescence intensity and lifetime parameters are sensitive to changes in the metabolic state of the heart owing to oxygen deprivation. We also observed changes in NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity and FAD lifetime parameter on reperfusion of oxygen, which might provide information on reperfusion injury, and permanent tissue damage or changes to the tissue during recovery from oxygen deprivation. We found that changes in the autofluorescence signature following glucose-depletion are, in general, less pronounced, and most clearly visible in NAD(P)H related parameters. Overall, the results reported in this investigation can serve as baseline for future investigations of cardiac tissue involving autofluorescence measurements.

Journal article

Lyon AR, Yousaf N, Battisti NML, Moslehi J, Larkin Jet al., 2018, Immune checkpoint inhibitors and cardiovascular toxicity, LANCET ONCOLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: E447-E458, ISSN: 1470-2045

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new class of anticancer therapies that amplify T-cell-mediated immune responses against cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown important benefits in phase 3 trials, and several agents have been approved for specific malignancies. Although adverse events from immune checkpoint inhibitors are a common occurrence, cardiotoxic effects are uncommon, but are often serious complications with a relatively high mortality. Most cardiotoxic effects appear to be inflammatory in nature. Clinical assessment of a combination of biomarkers, electrocardiography, cardiac imaging, and endomyocardial biopsy can be used to confirm a possible diagnosis. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology of immune checkpoint inhibitor-mediated cardiotoxic effects, as well as their clinical presentation, subtypes, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical management, including the introduction of a new surveillance strategy.

Journal article

Meijers WC, Maglione M, Bakker SJL, Oberhuber R, Kieneker LM, de Jong S, Haubner BJ, Nagengast WB, Lyon AR, van der Vegt B, van Veldhuisen DJ, Westenbrink BD, van der Meer P, Silljé HHW, de Boer RAet al., 2018, The failing heart stimulates tumor growth by circulating factors, Circulation, Vol: 138, ISSN: 0009-7322

Background—Heart failure (HF) survival has improved and nowadays many patients with HF die from non-cardiac causes, including cancer. Our aim was to investigate whether a causal relationship exists between HF and the development of cancer.Methods—HF was induced by inflicting large anterior myocardial infarction (MI) in APCmin mice, which are prone to develop precancerous intestinal tumors, and tumor growth was measured. In addition, to rule out hemodynamic impairment, a heterotopic heart transplantation model was employed, where an infarcted or sham-operated heart was transplanted into a recipient mouse, while the native heart was left in situ. After 6 weeks, tumor number, volume, and proliferation were quantified. Candidate secreted proteins were selected because they were previously associated both with (colon) tumor growth and with myocardial production in post-MI proteomic studies. Myocardial gene expression levels of these selected candidates were analyzed, as well as their proliferative effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cells. We validated these candidates by measuring them in plasma of healthy subjects and HF patients. Finally, we associated the relation between cardiac specific and inflammatory biomarkers and new-onset cancer in a large prospective general population cohort.Results—The presence of failing hearts, both native and heterotopically transplanted, resulted in significantly increased intestinal tumor load of 2.4fold in APCmin mice (all P<0.0001). The severity of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and fibrotic scar strongly correlated with tumor growth (P=0.002 and P=0.016, respectively). We identified several proteins (including serpinA3 and A1, fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, and PON1) that were elevated in human patients with chronic HF (N=101) compared to healthy subjects (N=180, P<0.001). Functionally, serpinA3 resulted in marked proliferation effects in human colon cancer (HT-29) cells, associated with Akt-S6 phosphorylation.

Journal article

Chari A, Stewart AK, Russell SD, Moreau P, Herrmann J, Banchs J, Hajek R, Groarke J, Lyon AR, Batty GN, Ro S, Huang M, Iskander KS, Lenihan Det al., 2018, Analysis of carfilzomib cardiovascular safety profile across relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma clinical trials, Blood Advances, Vol: 2, Pages: 1633-1644, ISSN: 2473-9529

Carfilzomib is a selective proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). It has significantly improved outcomes, including overall survival (OS), and shown superiority vs standard treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone and bortezomib plus dexamethasone. The incidence rate of cardiovascular (CV) events with carfilzomib treatment has varied across trials. This analysis evaluated phase 1-3 trials with >2000 RRMM patients exposed to carfilzomib to describe the incidence of CV adverse events (AEs). In addition, the individual CV safety data of >1000 patients enrolled in the carfilzomib arm of phase 3 studies were compared with the control arms to assess the benefit-risk profile of carfilzomib. Pooling data across carfilzomib trials, the CV AEs (grade ≥3) noted included hypertension (5.9%), dyspnea (4.5%), and cardiac failure (4.4%). Although patients receiving carfilzomib had a numeric increase in the rates of any-grade and grade ≥3 cardiac failure, dyspnea, and hypertension, the frequency of discontinuation or death due to these cardiac events was low and comparable between the carfilzomib and control arms. Serial echocardiography in a blinded cardiac substudy showed no objective evidence of cardiac dysfunction in the carfilzomib and control arms. Moreover, carfilzomib had no significant effect on cardiac repolarization. Our results, including the OS benefit, showed that the benefit of carfilzomib treatment in terms of reducing progression or death outweighed the risk for developing cardiac failure or hypertension in most patients. Appropriate carfilzomib administration and risk factor management are recommended for elderly patients and patients with underlying risk factors.

Journal article

Ghadri J-R, Wittstein IS, Prasad A, Sharkey S, Dote K, Akashi YJ, Cammann VL, Crea F, Galiuto L, Desmet W, Yoshida T, Manfredini R, Eitel I, Kosuge M, Nef HM, Deshmukh A, Lerman A, Bossone E, Citro R, Ueyama T, Corrado D, Kurisu S, Ruschitzka F, Winchester D, Lyon AR, Omerovic E, Bax JJ, Meimoun P, Tarantini G, Rihal C, -Hassan SY, Migliore F, Horowitz JD, Shimokawa H, Luscher TF, Templin Cet al., 2018, International expert consensus document on Takotsubo syndrome (part II): diagnostic workup, outcome, and management, European Heart Journal, Vol: 39, Pages: 2047-2062, ISSN: 1522-9645

The clinical expert consensus statement on takotsubo syndrome (TTS) part II focuses on the diagnostic workup, outcome, and management. The recommendations are based on interpretation of the limited clinical trial data currently available and experience of international TTS experts. It summarizes the diagnostic approach, which may facilitate correct and timely diagnosis. Furthermore, the document covers areas where controversies still exist in risk stratification and management of TTS. Based on available data the document provides recommendations on optimal care of such patients for practising physicians.

Journal article

Ghadri J-R, Wittstein IS, Prasad A, Sharkey S, Dote K, Akashi YJ, Cammann VL, Crea F, Galiuto L, Desmet W, Yoshida T, Manfredini R, Eitel I, Kosuge M, Nef HM, Deshmukh A, Lerman A, Bossone E, Citro R, Ueyama T, Corrado D, Kurisu S, Ruschitzka F, Winchester D, Lyon AR, Omerovic E, Bax JJ, Meimoun P, Tarantini G, Rihal C, Y-Hassan S, Migliore F, Horowitz JD, Shimokawa H, Luescher TF, Templin Cet al., 2018, International Expert Consensus Document on Takotsubo Syndrome (Part I): Clinical Characteristics, Diagnostic Criteria, and Pathophysiology, European Heart Journal, Vol: 39, Pages: 2032-2046, ISSN: 1522-9645

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a poorly recognized heart disease that was initially regarded as a benign condition. Recently, it has been shown that TTS may be associated with severe clinical complications including death and that its prevalence is probably underestimated. Since current guidelines on TTS are lacking, it appears timely and important to provide an expert consensus statement on TTS. The clinical expert consensus document part I summarizes the current state of knowledge on clinical presentation and characteristics of TTS and agrees on controversies surrounding TTS such as nomenclature, different TTS types, role of coronary artery disease, and etiology. This consensus also proposes new diagnostic criteria based on current knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy.

Journal article

Ameri P, Canepa M, Anker MS, Belenkov Y, Bergler-Klein J, Cohen-Solal A, Farmakis D, López-Fernández T, Lainscak M, Pudil R, Ruschitska F, Seferovic P, Filippatos G, Coats A, Suter T, Von Haehling S, Ciardiello F, de Boer RA, Lyon AR, Tocchetti CG, Heart Failure Association Cardio-Oncology Study Group of the European Society of Cardiologyet al., 2018, Cancer diagnosis in patients with heart failure: epidemiology, clinical implications and gaps in knowledge, European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol: 20, Pages: 879-887, ISSN: 1388-9842

Cancer and heart failure (HF) are common medical conditions with a steadily rising prevalence in industrialized countries, particularly in the elderly, and they both potentially carry a poor prognosis. A new diagnosis of malignancy in subjects with pre-existing HF is not infrequent, and challenges HF specialists as well as oncologists with complex questions relating to both HF and cancer management. An increased incidence of cancer in patients with established HF has also been suggested. This review paper summarizes the epidemiology and the prognostic implications of cancer occurrence in HF, the impact of pre-existing HF on cancer treatment decisions and the impact of cancer on HF therapeutic options, while providing some practical suggestions regarding patient care and highlighting gaps in knowledge.

Journal article

Patel HC, Hayward C, Wardle AJ, Middleton L, Lyon AR, Di Mario C, Salukhe TV, Sutton R, Rosen SDet al., 2018, The effect of head-up tilt upon markers of heart rate variability in patients with atrial fibrillation, Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1082-720X

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is uncommonly undertaken in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) due to an assumption that ventricular response is random. We sought to determine the effects of head-up tilt (HUT), a stimulus known to elicit an autonomic response, on HRV in patients with AF; we contrasted the findings with those of patients in sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: Consecutive, clinically indicated tilt tests were examined for 207 patients: 176 in SR, 31 in AF. Patients in AF were compared to an age-matched SR cohort (n = 69). Five minute windows immediately before and after tilting were analyzed using time-domain, frequency-domain and nonlinear HRV parameters. Continuous, noninvasive assessment of blood pressure, heart rate and stroke volume were available in the majority of patients. RESULTS: There were significant differences at baseline in all HRV parameters between AF and age matched SR. HUT produced significant hemodynamic changes, regardless of cardiac rhythm. Coincident with these hemodynamic changes, patients in AF had a significant increase in median [quartile 1, 2] DFA-α2 (+0.14 [-0.03, 0.32], p < .005) and a decrease in sample entropy (-0.17 [-0.50, -0.01], p < .005). CONCLUSION: In the SR cohort, increasing age was associated with fewer HRV changes on tilting. Patients with AF had blunted HRV responses to tilting, mirroring those seen in an age matched SR group. It is feasible to measure HRV in patients with AF and the changes observed on HUT are comparable to those seen in patients in sinus rhythm.

Journal article

Wright PT, Bhogal N, Diakonov I, Pannell L, Perera R, Bork N, Schobesberger S, Lucarelli C, Faggian G, Alvarez-Laviada A, Zaccolo M, Kamp TJ, Balijepalli R, Lyon A, Harding SE, Nikolaev V, Gorelik Jet al., 2018, Cardiomyocyte membrane structure and cAMP compartmentation produce anatomical variation in β2AR-cAMP responsiveness in murine hearts, Cell Reports, Vol: 23, Pages: 459-469, ISSN: 2211-1247

Cardiomyocytes from the apex but not the base of the heart increase their contractility in response to β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) stimulation, which may underlie the development of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. However, both cell types produce comparable cytosolic amounts of the second messenger cAMP. We investigated this discrepancy using nanoscale imaging techniques and found that, structurally, basal cardiomyocytes have more organized membranes (higher T-tubular and caveolar densities). Local membrane microdomain responses measured in isolated basal cardiomyocytes or in whole hearts revealed significantly smaller and more short-lived β2AR/cAMP signals. Inhibition of PDE4, caveolar disruption by removing cholesterol or genetic deletion of Cav3 eliminated differences in local cAMP production and equilibrated the contractile response to β2AR. We conclude that basal cells possess tighter control of cAMP because of a higher degree of signaling microdomain organization. This provides varying levels of nanostructural control for cAMP-mediated functional effects that orchestrate macroscopic, regional physiological differences within the heart.

Journal article

Harper AR, Patel HC, Lyon AR, 2018, Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction., Clinical medicine (London, England), Vol: 18, Pages: s24-s29, ISSN: 1470-2118

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents a heterogeneous collection of conditions that are unified by the presence of a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%, evidence of impaired diastolic function and elevated natriuretic peptide levels, all within the context of typical heart failure signs and symptoms. However, while HFpEF is steadily becoming the predominant form of heart failure, disease-modifying treatment options for this population remain sparse. This review provides an overview of the diagnosis, management and prevention of HFpEF for general physicians.

Journal article

Gorter TM, van Veldhuisen DJ, Bauersachs J, Borlaug BA, Celutkiene J, Coats AJS, Crespo-Leiro MG, Guazzi M, Harjola V-P, Heymans S, Hill L, Lainscak M, Lam CSP, Lund LH, Lyon AR, Mebazaa A, Mueller C, Paulus WJ, Pieske B, Piepoli MF, Ruschitzka F, Rutten FH, Seferovic PM, Solomon SD, Shah SJ, Triposkiadis F, Wachter R, Tschoepe C, de Boer RAet al., 2017, Right heart dysfunction and failure in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: mechanisms and management. Position statement on behalf of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, European Journal of Heart Failure, Vol: 20, Pages: 16-37, ISSN: 1388-9842

There is an unmet need for effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Until recently, attention in patients with HFpEF was almost exclusively focused on the left side. However, it is now increasingly recognized that right heart dysfunction is common and contributes importantly to poor prognosis in HFpEF. More insights into the development of right heart dysfunction in HFpEF may aid to our knowledge about this complex disease and may eventually lead to better treatments to improve outcomes in these patients. In this position paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the Committee on Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of right heart dysfunction and failure in patients with HFpEF. Finally, potential treatment strategies, important knowledge gaps and future directions regarding the right side in HFpEF are discussed.

Journal article

Bruengger AAS, Wechalekar K, Khattar R, Rosen SD, Robertus JL, Chau I, Morganstein D, Rosendahl U, Lyon A, Mohiaddin Ret al., 2017, Histologically proven myocardial carcinoid metastases: the value of multimodality imaging, Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Vol: 33, Pages: 1336.e9-1336.e12, ISSN: 1916-7075

We present a case of a patient with intramyocardial metastases from a carcinoid tumor. These findings were detected using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, with functional metabolic activity analyzed using nuclear imaging and confirmed by histologic findings at surgical biopsy. This case highlights the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and the importance of multimodality imaging.

Journal article

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