Imperial College London

PROFESSOR AZEEM MAJEED

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair - Primary Care and Public Health & Head of Department
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3368a.majeed Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Pirkko Carmack +44 (0)20 7594 3368

 
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Location

 

Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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830 results found

El-Osta A, Hennessey C, Pilot C, Tahir M, Bagkeris E, Akram M, Alboksmaty A, Barbanti E, Bakhet M, Vos V, Banarsee R, Majeed Aet al., 2021, A digital solution to streamline access to smoking cessation interventions in England; findings from a primary care pilot (STOPNOW study), Public Health in Practice, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2666-5352

Objectives:Despite the proven efficacy of several smoking cessation medications that have been shown to improve long-term abstinence rates, approximately two-thirds of smokers report not having used medication in their most recent quit attempt. A main barrier could be delayed access to pharmacological interventions. This study investigated the utility of a primary care linked online portal to streamline timely access to pharmacological support to patients who want to quit smoking by making an asynchronous request for treatment to their general practitioner.Study design:Prospective cohort study.Methods:An online portal with added functionality was developed, which allowed patients with a unique link to make an asynchronous request for treatment. Two GP practices identified a total of 4337 eligible patients who received an SMS or email invite to engage with an online portal including an electronic survey to capture information about smoking behaviours and to request treatment. Portal informatics and patient level data were analysed to measure the efficacy of the online system in reducing the time between making a formal request to treatment and access to pharmacological support. The primary outcome measure was the time between making a formal request for treatment and access to pharmacological support from a designated community pharmacy.Results:323 patients (7.4%) initiated the survey, but only 56 patients completed the survey and made a formal request for treatment. 94% of participants did not return to use the portal to make a second or follow-up request for treatment. Only 3 participants completed the 12-week pathway. A total of 75 medication items were prescribed and collected by 56 patients. The time difference between the formal request to treatment and GP review ranged between 20 h and 1 week. The time difference between approval of prescription by the GP and access to medication was 5 days ± 2.1 days (range = 1.9–7.0 days).Conclusion:The widespre

Journal article

Greenfield G, Shmueli L, Harvey A, Quezada-Yamamoto H, Davidovitch N, Pliskin J, Rawaf S, Majeed FAA, Hayhoe Bet al., 2021, Patient-initiated second medical consultations: patient characteristics and motivating factors, impact on care and satisfaction: A systematic review, BMJ Open, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives: To review the characteristics and motivations of patients seeking second opinions, and the impact of such opinions on patient management, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. Data sources: Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and HMIC databases.Study design: A systematic literature search was performed for terms related to second opinion and patient characteristics. Study quality was assessed using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data collection / Extraction methods: We included articles focused on patient-initiated second opinions, which provided quantitative data on their impact on diagnosis, treatment, prognosis or patient satisfaction, described the characteristics or motivating factors of patients who initiated a second opinion, or the cost-effectiveness of patient-initiated second opinions. Principal findings: Thirty-one articles were included in the review. 27 studies considered patient characteristics, 18 patient motivating factors, 10 patient satisfaction, and 17 clinical agreement between the first and second opinion. Seeking a second opinion was more common in women, middle age patients, more educated patients; and in people having a chronic condition, with higher income or socioeconomic status or living in central urban areas. Patients seeking a second opinion sought to gain more information or reassurance about their diagnosis or treatment. While many second opinions confirm the original diagnosis or treatment, discrepancies in opinions had a potential major impact on patient outcomes in up to 58% of cases. No studies reporting on the cost-effectiveness of patient initiated second opinions.Conclusions: Seeking a second opinion was more common in women, middle-age patients, and more educated patients, and in people having a chronic condition, with higher income or socioeconomic status or living in central urban areas. Patients seeking a second opinion sought to gain m

Journal article

Palladino R, Chataway J, Majeed A, Marrie RAet al., 2021, Interface of Multiple Sclerosis, Depression, Vascular Disease, and Mortality: A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study., Neurology

ObjectiveTo assess whether the association between depression, vascular disease, and mortality differs in people with MS as compared with age, sex and general practice-matched controls.MethodsWe conducted a population-based retrospective matched cohort study between 1-Jan-1987 and 30-Sep-2018, which included people with MS and matched controls without MS from England, stratified by depression status. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression models to test the association between MS, depression and time to incident vascular disease and mortality. Analyses were also stratified by sex.Results12,251 people with MS and 72,572 matched controls were identified. At baseline, 21% of people with MS and 9% of controls had depression. As compared with matched controls without depression, people with MS had an increased risk of incident vascular disease regardless of whether they had comorbid depression. The 10-year hazard of all-cause mortality was 1.75-fold greater in controls with depression (95%CI 1.59-1.91), 3.88-fold greater in people with MS without depression (95%CI 3.66-4.10), and 5.43-fold greater in people with MS and depression (95%CI 4.88-5.96). Overall, the interaction between MS status and depression was synergistic, with 14% of the observed effect attributable to the interaction. Sex-stratified analyses confirmed differences in hazard ratios.ConclusionsDepression is associated with increased risks of incident vascular disease and mortality in people with MS and the effects of depression and MS on all-cause mortality are synergistic. Further studies should evaluate whether effectively treating depression is associated with a reduced risk of vascular disease and mortality.

Journal article

Neves AL, Li E, Serafini A, Gimenez GL, Lingner H, Koskela T, Hoffman RD, Collins C, Petek D, Claveria A, Tsopra R, Irving G, Gusso G, O'Neill BG, Hoedebecke K, Espitia SM, Ungan M, Nessler K, Lazic V, Laranjo L, Ensieh M, Fernandez MJ, Ghafur S, Fontana G, Majeed A, Car J, Darzi Aet al., 2021, Evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on the adoption of virtual care in general practice in 20 countries (inSIGHT): rationale and study protocol, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: In recent decades, virtual care has emerged as a promising option to support primary care delivery. However, despite the potential, adoption rates remained low. With the outbreak of COVID-19, it has suddenly been pushed to the forefront of care delivery. As we progress into the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need and opportunity to review the impact remote care had in primary care settings and reassess its potential future role. This study aims to explore the perspectives of General Practitioners (GPs) / Family Doctors on a.) use of virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic; b.) perceived impact on quality and safety of care; c.) essential factors for high-quality and sustainable use of virtual care in the future. Methods: Online cross-sectional questionnaire of GPs, distributed across 20 countries. The survey was hosted in Qualtrics and distributed using email, social media, and the researchers’ personal contact networks. General Practitioners were eligible for the survey if they were working mainly in primary care during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistical analysis will be performed for quantitative variables, and relationships between the use of virtual care and perceptions on impact on quality and safety of care, and participants’ characteristics, may be explored. Qualitative data (free-text responses) will be analysed using framework analysis. Results: Data collection took place from June to September 2020. As of this manuscript’s submission, a total of 1,605 GP respondents participated in the questionnaire. Further data analysis is currently ongoing. Discussion: The study will provide a comprehensive overview of the availability of virtual care technologies, perceived impact on quality and safety of care and essential factors for high-quality future use. In addition, a description of the under

Journal article

Salman D, Beaney T, Robb C, Loots CADJ, Giannakopoulou P, Udeh-Momoh C, Ahmadi Abhari S, Majeed F, Middleton LT, McGregor AHet al., 2021, The impact of social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical activity levels of adults aged 50-92 years: a baseline survey of the CHARIOT COVID-19 Rapid Response prospective cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives: Physical inactivity is more common in older adults, is associated with social isolation and loneliness, and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. We examined the effect of social restrictions to reduce COVID-19 transmission in the UK (lockdown), on physical activity (PA) levels of older adults, and the social predictors of any change.Design: Baseline analysis of a survey-based prospective cohort study Setting: Adults enrolled in the Cognitive Health in Ageing Register for Investigational and Observational Trials (CHARIOT) cohort from General Practitioner (GP) practices in North West London were invited to participate from April to July 2020.Participants: 6,219 cognitively healthy adults aged 50 to 92 years completed the survey.Main outcome measures: Self-reported PA before and after the introduction of lockdown, as measured by Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) minutes. Associations of PA with demographic, lifestyle and social factors, mood and frailty.Results: Mean PA was significantly lower following the introduction of lockdown, from 3,519 MET minutes/week to 3,185 MET minutes/week (p<0.001). After adjustment for confounders and pre-lockdown PA, lower levels of PA after the introduction of lockdown were found in those who were over 85 years old (640 [95% CI: 246 to 1034] MET minutes/week less); were divorced or single (240 [95% CI: 120 to 360] MET minutes/week less); living alone (277 [95% CI: 152 to 402] MET minutes/week less); reported feeling lonely often (306 [95% CI: 60 to 552] MET minutes/week less); and showed symptoms of depression (1007 [95% CI: 1401 to 612] MET minutes/week less) compared to those aged 50-64 years, married, co-habiting, and not reporting loneliness or depression, respectively. Conclusions and Implications: Markers of social isolation, loneliness and depression were associated with lower PA following the introduction of lockdown in the UK. Targeted interventions to increase PA in these groups should be consid

Journal article

Greenfield G, Okoli O, Quezada Yamamoto H, Blair M, Saxena S, Majeed F, Hayhoe Bet al., 2021, Characteristics of frequently attending children in hospital emergency departments: a systematic review, BMJ Open, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective: To summarise the literature on frequent attendances to hospital emergency departments and describe sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of children who attend EDs frequently.Setting: Hospital emergency departments.Participants: Children <21 years, attending hospital emergency departments frequently.Primary outcome measures: Outcomes measures were defined separately in each study, and were predominantly the number of ED attendances per year.Results: We included 21 studies representing 6,513,627 children. Between 0.3% to 75% of all paediatric ED users were frequent users. Most studies defined 4 or more visits per year as a “frequent ED” usage. Children who were frequent ED users were more likely to be less than 5 years old. In the US, patients with public insurance were more likely to be frequent attenders. Frequent ED users more likely to be frequent users of primary care and have long-term conditions; the most common diagnoses were infections and gastroenteritis.Conclusions: The review included a wide range of information across various health systems, however children who were frequent ED users have some universal characteristics in common. Policies to reduce frequent attendance might usefully focus on preschool children and supporting primary care in responding to primary-care oriented conditions.

Journal article

Majeed F, Wingfield D, Taghavi Azar Sharabiani M, Molokhia Met al., 2021, Risk of Covid-19 in shielded and nursing care home patients: cohort study in general practice, British Journal of General Practice Open, ISSN: 2398-3795

Background: Covid-19 cases were first detected in the UK in January 2020 and vulnerable patients were asked to shield from March to reduce their risk of Covid-19 infection.Aim: To determine the risk and determinants of Covid-19 diagnosis in shielded vs. non-shielded groups adjusted for key comorbidities not explained by shielding. Design: Retrospective cohort study of adults with COVID-19 infection between 1/2/20-15/5/20 in West London. Method: Individuals diagnosed with Covid-19 were identified in SystmOne records using clinical codes. Infection risks were adjusted for socio-demographic factors, nursing home status and comorbidities. Results: Of 57,713 adults, 573 (1%) individuals were identified as shielded and 1,074 adults had documented Covid-19 infections (1.9%). Covid-19 infection rate in the shielded group individuals compared with non-shielded adult individuals was 6.5 % (37/573) vs. 1.8 % (1,037/57, 140), p<0.0001. A multivariable fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression identified that Covid-19 infection was increased with aHR (95% CI): shielding status 1.52 (1.00-2.30), p=0.048. Other determinants of Covid-19 infection included nursing home residency 7.05 (4.22-11.77) p<0.001, Black African, 2.52 (1.99-3.18) p<0.001, Other 1.74 (1.42-2.13) p<0.001, Non-stated 1.70 (1.02-2.84) p=0.04, or South Asian ethnicity 1.46 (1.10-1.93) p=0.01, history of respiratory disease 1.51 (1.06-2.16), p=0.02, deprivation (3rd vs. least deprived IMD quintile) 1.25 (1.01-1.56) p=0.045, obesity (BMI>30kg/m2) 1.39 (1.18-1.63) p<0.001, and age 1.02 (1.01-1.02) p<0.001. Male gender was associated with lower risk of Covid-19 infection: 0.71 (0.62-0.82) p<0.001.Conclusion: Shielded individuals had a higher Covid-19 infection rate compared with non-shielded individuals, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, nursing home status, and comorbidities.

Journal article

Shemtob L, Ferris M, Asanati K, Majeed Aet al., 2021, Vaccinating healthcare workers against covid-19., BMJ, Vol: 374, Pages: n1975-n1975

Journal article

Majeed A, 2021, Longitudinal data on covid-19 immunity could be collected from medical records, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 374, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Aliabadi S, Anyanwu P, Beech E, Jauneikaite E, Wilson P, Hope R, Majeed A, Muller-Pebody B, Costelloe Cet al., 2021, Effect of antibiotic stewardship interventions in primary care on antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England (2013-18): a quasi-experimental, ecological, data linkage study., Lancet Infect Dis

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health concern, driven by overuse of antibiotics. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a national antimicrobial stewardship intervention, the National Health Service (NHS) England Quality Premium implemented in 2015-16, on broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing and Escherichia coli bacteraemia resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics in England. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental, ecological, data linkage study, we used longitudinal data on bacteraemia for patients registered with a general practitioner in the English National Health Service and patients with E coli bacteraemia notified to the national mandatory surveillance programme between Jan 1, 2013, and Dec 31, 2018. We linked these data to data on antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E coli from Public Health England's Second-Generation Surveillance System. We did an ecological analysis using interrupted time-series analyses and generalised estimating equations to estimate the change in broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribing over time and the change in the proportion of E coli bacteraemia cases for which the causative bacteria were resistant to each antibiotic individually or to at least one of five broad-spectrum antibiotics (co-amoxiclav, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin), after implementation of the NHS England Quality Premium intervention in April, 2015. FINDINGS: Before implementation of the Quality Premium, the rate of antibiotic prescribing for all five broad-spectrum antibiotics was increasing at rate of 0·2% per month (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1·002 [95% CI 1·000-1·004], p=0·046). After implementation of the Quality Premium, an immediate reduction in total broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing rate was observed (IRR 0·867 [95% CI 0·837-0·898], p<0·0001). This effect was sustained until the end of the study period; a 57% reduction in rate of antibiotic pr

Journal article

El-Osta A, Webber I, Alaa A, Bagkeris E, Mian S, Sharabiani M, Majeed Aet al., 2021, What is the suitability of clinical vignettes in benchmarking the performance of online symptom checkers? An audit study, BMJ Open, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Nugawela MD, Gurudas S, Prevost AT, Mathur R, Robson J, Hanif W, Majeed A, Sivaprasad Set al., 2021, Ethnic disparities in the development of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a uk multi-ethnic population with diabetes: An observational cohort study, Journal of Personalized Medicine, Vol: 11

There is little data on ethnic differences in incidence of DR and sight threatening DR (STDR) in the United Kingdom. We aimed to determine ethnic differences in the development of DR and STDR and to identify risk factors of DR and STDR in people with incident or prevalent type II diabetes (T2DM). We used electronic primary care medical records of people registered with 134 general practices in East London during the period from January 2007–January 2017. There were 58,216 people with T2DM eligible to be included in the study. Among people with newly diagnosed T2DM, Indian, Pakistani and African ethnic groups showed an increased risk of DR with Africans having highest risk of STDR compared to White ethnic groups (HR: 1.36 95% CI 1.02–1.83). Among those with prevalent T2DM, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Caribbean ethnic groups showed increased risk of DR and STDR with Indian having the highest risk of any DR (HR: 1.24 95% CI 1.16–1.32) and STDR (HR: 1.38 95% CI 1.17–1.63) compared with Whites after adjusting for all covariates considered. It is important to optimise prevention, screening and treatment options in these ethnic minority groups to avoid health inequalities in diabetes eye care.

Journal article

Tudor Car L, Myint Kyaw B, Nannan Panday RS, van der Kleij R, Chavannes N, Majeed A, Car Jet al., 2021, Digital health training programs for medical students: a scoping review, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background: Medical schools worldwide are accelerating the introduction of digital health courses into their curricula. This review collated and analyzed the literature evaluating digital health education for medical students to inform development of future courses and identify areas where curricula may need to be strengthened.Methods: We carried out a scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute’s guidance and reported in line with PRISMA-ScR guidelines. We searched six major bibliographic databases and grey literature sources for the articles published from January 2000 to November 2019. Two authors independently screened the retrieved citations and extracted the data from the included studies. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus discussion between the authors. The findings were analyzed using thematic analysis and presented narratively.Results: A total of 34 studies focusing on different digital courses were included in this review. Most (n=22) were published from 2010 to 2019 and originated from the US (n=20). The reported digital health courses were mostly elective (n=20), integrated into the existing curriculum (n=24) and focused mainly on medical informatics (n=17). Most of the courses targeted medical students from first to third year (n=17) and the duration of the courses ranged from an hour to three academic years. Most (n=22) reported the use of blended education. Six of 34 delivered courses entirely digitally using online modules, offline learning, Massive Open Online Courses, and virtual patient simulations. The reported courses used various assessment approaches such as paper-based assessments, in person observations and/or online-based assessment. Thirty studies evaluated courses mostly using uncontrolled before and after design and generally reported improvements in students’ learning outcomes. ConclusionsDigital health courses reported in the literature were mostly elective, focused on a single area of digital health and lac

Journal article

Cecil E, Dewa L, Ma R, Majeed F, Aylin Pet al., 2021, General practitioner and nurse practitioner attitudes towards electronic reminders in primary care: A qualitative analysis, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives Reminders in primary care administrative systems aim to help clinicians provide evidence-based care, prescribe safely and save money. However, increased use of reminders can lead to alert fatigue. Our study aimed to assess general practitioners’ (GPs) and nurse practitioners’ (NPs) views on electronic reminders in primary care.Design A qualitative analysis using semistructured interviews.Setting and participants Fifteen GPs and NP based in general practices located in North-West London and Yorkshire, England.Methods We collected data on participants’ views on: (1) perceptions of the value of information provided; (2) reminder-related behaviours and (3) how to improve reminders. We carried out a thematic analysis.Results Participants were familiar with reminders in their clinical systems and felt many were important to support their clinical work. However, participants reported, on average, 70% of reminders were ignored. Four major themes emerged: (1) reaction to a reminder, which was mixed and varied by situation. (2) Factors influencing the decision to act on reminders, often related to experience, consultation styles and interests of participants. Time constraints, alert design, inappropriate presentation and litigation were also factors. (3) Negative consequences of using reminders were increased workload or costs and compromising GP and NPs behaviour. (4) Factors relating to improving users’ engagement with reminders were prevention of unnecessary reminders through data linkage across healthcare administrative systems or the development of more intelligent algorithms. Participants felt training was vital to effectively manage reminders.Conclusions GPs and NPs believe reminders are useful in supporting the provision of good quality patient care. Improving GPs and NPs’ engagement with reminders centres on further developing their relevance to their clinical practice, which is personalised, considers cognitive workflow and s

Journal article

Tudor Car L, Kyaw BM, Nannan Panday RS, van der Kleij R, Chavannes N, Majeed A, Car Jet al., 2021, Digital Health Training Programs for Medical Students: Scoping Review (Preprint), DH

<sec> <title>BACKGROUND</title> <p>Medical schools worldwide are accelerating the introduction of digital health courses into their curricula. The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to this swift and widespread transition to digital health and education. However, the need for digital health competencies goes beyond the COVID-19 pandemic because they are becoming essential for the delivery of effective, efficient, and safe care.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>OBJECTIVE</title> <p>This review aims to collate and analyze studies evaluating digital health education for medical students to inform the development of future courses and identify areas where curricula may need to be strengthened.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>METHODS</title> <p>We carried out a scoping review by following the guidance of the Joanna Briggs Institute, and the results were reported in accordance with the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews) guidelines. We searched 6 major bibliographic databases and gray literature sources for articles published between January 2000 and November 2019. Two authors independently screened the retrieved citations and extracted the data from the included studies. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus discussions between the authors. The findings were analyzed using thematic analysis and presented narratively.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>RESULTS</title> <p>A total of 34 studies focusing on different digital courses were included in this review. Most of the studies (22/34, 65%) wer

Journal article

Majeed A, Papaluca M, Molokhia M, 2021, Assessing the long-term safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol: 114, Pages: 337-340, ISSN: 0141-0768

Journal article

Gurudas S, Nugawela M, Prevost AT, Sathish T, Mathur R, Rafferty JM, Blighe K, Rajalakshmi R, Mohan AR, Saravanan J, Majeed A, Mohan V, Owens DR, Robson J, Sivaprasad Set al., 2021, Development and validation of resource-driven risk prediction models for incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2045-2322

Prediction models for population-based screening need, for global usage, to be resource-driven, involving predictors that are affordably resourced. Here, we report the development and validation of three resource-driven risk models to identify people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at risk of stage 3 CKD defined by a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to below 60 mL/min/1.73m2. The observational study cohort used for model development consisted of data from a primary care dataset of 20,510 multi-ethnic individuals with T2DM from London, UK (2007–2018). Discrimination and calibration of the resulting prediction models developed using cox regression were assessed using the c-statistic and calibration slope, respectively. Models were internally validated using tenfold cross-validation and externally validated on 13,346 primary care individuals from Wales, UK. The simplest model was simplified into a risk score to enable implementation in community-based medicine. The derived full model included demographic, laboratory parameters, medication-use, cardiovascular disease history (CVD) and sight threatening retinopathy status (STDR). Two less resource-intense models were developed by excluding CVD and STDR in the second model and HbA1c and HDL in the third model. All three 5-year risk models had good internal discrimination and calibration (optimism adjusted C-statistics were each 0.85 and calibration slopes 0.999–1.002). In Wales, models achieved excellent discrimination(c-statistics ranged 0.82–0.83). Calibration slopes at 5-years suggested models over-predicted risks, however were successfully updated to accommodate reduced incidence of stage 3 CKD in Wales, which improved their alignment with the observed rates in Wales (E/O ratios near to 1). The risk score demonstrated similar model performance compared to direct evaluation of the cox model. These resource-driven risk prediction models may enable universal screening for Stage 3 CKD t

Journal article

Ngaosuwan K, Johnston DG, Godsland IF, Cox J, Majeed A, Quint JK, Oliver N, Robinson Set al., 2021, Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: e2759-e2768, ISSN: 0021-972X

CONTEXT: Mortality data in patients with adrenal insufficiency are inconsistent, possibly due to temporal and geographical differences between patients and their reference populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality risk and causes of death in adrenal insufficiency with an individually-matched reference population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: UK general practitioner database (CPRD). PARTICIPANTS: 6821 patients with adrenal insufficiency (primary, 2052; secondary, 3948) and 67564 individually-matched controls (primary, 20366; secondary, 39134). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause and cause-specific mortality; hospital admission from adrenal crisis. RESULTS: With follow-up of 40799 and 406899 person-years for patients and controls respectively, the hazard ratio (HR; [95%CI]) for all-cause mortality was 1.68 [1.58 - 1.77]. HRs were greater in primary (1.83 [1.66 - 2.02]) than in secondary (1.52 [1.40 - 1.64]) disease; (HR; primary versus secondary disease, 1.16 [1.03 - 1.30]). The leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (HR 1.54 [1.32-1.80]), along with malignant neoplasms and respiratory disease. Deaths from infection were also relatively high (HR 4.00 [2.15 - 7.46]). Adrenal crisis contributed to 10% of all deaths. In the first two years following diagnosis, the patients' mortality rate and hospitalisation from adrenal crisis were higher than in later years. CONCLUSION: Mortality was increased in adrenal insufficiency, especially primary, even with individual matching and was observed early in the disease course. Cardiovascular disease was the major cause but mortality from infection was also high. Adrenal crisis was a common contributor. Early education for prompt treatment of infections and avoidance of adrenal crisis hold potential to reduce mortality.

Journal article

Kendrick PJ, Reitsma MB, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abdoli A, Abdollahi M, Abedi A, Abhilash ES, Aboyans V, Adebayo OM, Advani SM, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmadi K, Ahmed H, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akunna CJ, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alhabib KF, Ali T, Alif SM, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alomari MA, Amin TT, Amini S, Amu H, Ancuceanu R, Anderson JA, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antony B, Anvari D, Arabloo J, Arian ND, Arora M, Artanti KD, Asmare WN, Atnafu DD, Ausloos M, Awan AT, Ayano G, Aynalem GL, Azari S, B DB, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Banach M, Banerjee SK, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barqawi HJ, Basu S, Bayati M, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Bekuma TT, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Benzian H, Benziger CP, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhala N, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bibi S, Bijani A, Biondi A, Braithwaite D, Brenner H, Brunoni AR, Burkart K, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Car J, Carreras G, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Cattaruzza MSS, Chang J-C, Chaturvedi P, Chen S, Chido-Amajuoyi OG, Chu D-T, Chung S-C, Ciobanu LG, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dagnew B, Dai X, Damasceno AAM, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Darega Gela J, Derbew Molla M, Desta AA, Dharmaratne SD, Dhimal M, Eagan AW, Ebrahimi Kalan M, Edvardsson K, Effiong A, El Tantawi M, Elbarazi I, Esmaeilnejad S, Fadhil I, Faraon EJA, Farwati M, Farzadfar F, Fazlzadeh M, Feigin VL, Feldman R, Filip I, Filippidis F, Fischer F, Flor LS, Foigt NA, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Gad MM, Gallus S, Geberemariyam BS, Gebregiorgis BG, Getacher L, Getachew Obsa A, Ghafourifard M, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Ghashghaee A, Ghith N, Gil GF, Gill PS, Ginawi IA, Goharinezhad S, Golechha M, Gopalani SV, Gorini G, Grivna M, Guha A, Guimarães RA, Guo Y, Gupta RD, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gupta V, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haider MR, Hamadeh RR, Hankey GJ, Hargono A, Hay SI, Heidari G, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Hird TR, Holla R, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc M, Hostiuc S, Househ M, Hsiao T, Huang J, Ibeneme CU, Ibitoye SE, Ilet al., 2021, Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Public Health, Vol: 6, Pages: e482-e499, ISSN: 2468-2667

BackgroundChewing tobacco and other types of smokeless tobacco use have had less attention from the global health community than smoked tobacco use. However, the practice is popular in many parts of the world and has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. Understanding trends in prevalence with age, over time, and by location and sex is important for policy setting and in relation to monitoring and assessing commitment to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.MethodsWe estimated prevalence of chewing tobacco use as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 using a modelling strategy that used information on multiple types of smokeless tobacco products. We generated a time series of prevalence of chewing tobacco use among individuals aged 15 years and older from 1990 to 2019 in 204 countries and territories, including age-sex specific estimates. We also compared these trends to those of smoked tobacco over the same time period.FindingsIn 2019, 273·9 million (95% uncertainty interval 258·5 to 290·9) people aged 15 years and older used chewing tobacco, and the global age-standardised prevalence of chewing tobacco use was 4·72% (4·46 to 5·01). 228·2 million (213·6 to 244·7; 83·29% [82·15 to 84·42]) chewing tobacco users lived in the south Asia region. Prevalence among young people aged 15–19 years was over 10% in seven locations in 2019. Although global age-standardised prevalence of smoking tobacco use decreased significantly between 1990 and 2019 (annualised rate of change: –1·21% [–1·26 to –1·16]), similar progress was not observed for chewing tobacco (0·46% [0·13 to 0·79]). Among the 12 highest prevalence countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Sri Lanka, and Yemen), only Yemen had a significant

Journal article

Cecil E, Bottle A, Majeed A, Aylin Pet al., 2021, Factors associated with potentially missed acute deterioration in primary care, British Journal of General Practice, Vol: 24/6/21, Pages: e547-e554, ISSN: 0960-1643

BACKGROUND: In the UK, the majority of primary care contacts are uncomplicated. However, safety incidents resulting in patient harm occur, such as failure to recognise a patient's deterioration in health. AIM: We aimed to determine patient and healthcare factors associated with potentially missed deterioration. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cohort of patients registered with English CPRD general practices between 01-04-2014 and 31-12-2017 with linked hospital data. METHODS: We defined a potentially missed deterioration as a patient, seen in primary care by a GP in the three days before hospitalisation, having a self-referred admission. We used generalised estimating equations to investigate factors associated with odds of a self-referred admission. We investigated all diagnoses and subsets of commonly reported missed conditions. RESULTS: There were 116,097 patients who contacted a GP three days prior to an emergency admission. Patients with sepsis or urinary tract infections were more likely to self-refer, adjusted odds ratio 1.10 95%CI(1.02-1.19) and 1.09 (1.04-1.14) respectively. GP appointment durations were associated with self-referral. On average, a 5-minute increase resulted in 10% decrease in odds of self-referred admissions, 0.90 (0.89-0.91). Patients having a telephone (compared with face-to-face) consultation 1.13 (1.09-1.16), previous health service use and health status were also associated with self-referred admission. CONCLUSIONS: Differentiating deterioration from self-limiting conditions can be difficult for clinicians, particularly in patients with sepsis, UTI or with long-term conditions. Our findings supports the call for longer GP consultations and cautions reliance on telephone consultations in primary care; however, research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms.

Journal article

Udeh-Momoh CT, Watermeyer T, Price G, de Jager Loots CA, Reglinska-Matveyev N, Ropacki M, Ketter N, Fogle M, Raghavan N, Arrighi M, Brashear R, Di J, Baker S, Giannakopoulou P, Robb C, Bassil D, Cohn M, McLellan-Young H, Crispin J, Lakey K, Lisa C, Chowdary Seemulamoodi Y, Kafetsouli D, Perera D, Car J, Majeed A, Ward H, Ritchie K, Perneczky R, Kivipelto M, Scott D, Bracoud L, Saad Z, Novak G, Ritchie CW, Middleton Let al., 2021, Protocol of the cognitive health in ageing register: investigational, observational and trial studies in dementia research (CHARIOT): prospective readiness cOhort (PRO) SubStudy., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2044-6055

INTRODUCTION: The Cognitive Health in Ageing Register: Investigational, Observational and Trial Studies in Dementia Research (CHARIOT): Prospective Readiness cOhort (PRO) SubStudy (CPSS), sponsored by Janssen Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC, is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker enriched observational study that began 3 July 2015 CPSS aims to identify and validate determinants of AD, alongside cognitive, functional and biological changes in older adults with or without detectable evidence of AD pathology at baseline. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: CPSS is a dual-site longitudinal cohort (3.5 years) assessed quarterly. Cognitively normal participants (60-85 years) were recruited across Greater London and Edinburgh. Participants are classified as high, medium (amnestic or non-amnestic) or low risk for developing mild cognitive impairment-Alzheimer's disease based on their Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status performance at screening. Additional AD-related assessments include: a novel cognitive composite, the Global Preclinical Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite, brain MRI and positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Lifestyle, other cognitive and functional data, as well as biosamples (blood, urine, and saliva) are collected. Primarily, study analyses will evaluate longitudinal change in cognitive and functional outcomes. Annual interim analyses for descriptive data occur throughout the course of the study, although inferential statistics are conducted as required. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: CPSS received ethical approvals from the London-Central Research Ethics Committee (15/LO/0711) and the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (RPC 630/3764/33110) The study is at the forefront of global AD prevention efforts, with frequent and robust sampling of the well-characterised cohort, allowing for detection of incipient pathophysiological, cognitive and functional changes that could inform therape

Journal article

Hodes S, Majeed A, 2021, Building a sustainable infrastructure for covid-19 vaccinations long term., BMJ, Vol: 373, Pages: n1578-n1578

Journal article

Reitsma MB, Kendrick PJ, Ababneh E, Abbafati C, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abhilash ES, Abila DB, Aboyans V, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Adebayo OM, Advani SM, Aghaali M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmadi K, Ahmed H, Aji B, Akunna CJ, Al-Aly Z, Alanzi TM, Alhabib KF, Ali L, Alif SM, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alla F, Allebeck P, Alvis-Guzman N, Amin TT, Amini S, Amu H, Amul GGH, Ancuceanu R, Anderson JA, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antony B, Anvari D, Arabloo J, Arian ND, Arora M, Asaad M, Ausloos M, Awan AT, Ayano G, Aynalem GL, Azari S, B DB, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Bakhshaei MH, Banach M, Banik PC, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barqawi HJ, Basu S, Bayati M, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Behzadifar M, Bekuma TT, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berfield KSS, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bintoro BS, Biondi A, Birara S, Braithwaite D, Brenner H, Brunoni AR, Burkart K, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LA, Car J, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Cattaruzza MSS, Chang J-C, Chen S, Chu D-T, Chung S-C, Cirillo M, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dadras O, Dai X, Damasceno AAM, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Darega Gela J, Davletov K, Derbew Molla M, Dessie GA, Desta AA, Dharmaratne SD, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Do HT, Douiri A, Duncan BB, Duraes AR, Eagan AW, Ebrahimi Kalan M, Edvardsson K, Elbarazi I, El Tantawi M, Esmaeilnejad S, Fadhil I, Faraon EJA, Farinha CSES, Farwati M, Farzadfar F, Fazlzadeh M, Feigin VL, Feldman R, Fernandez Prendes C, Ferrara P, Filip I, Filippidis F, Fischer F, Flor LS, Foigt NA, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Gad MM, Gaidhane AM, Gallus S, Geberemariyam BS, Ghafourifard M, Ghajar A, Ghashghaee A, Giampaoli S, Gill PS, Glozah FN, Gnedovskaya EV, Golechha M, Gopalani SV, Gorini G, Goudarzi H, Goulart AC, Greaves F, Guha A, Guo Y, Gupta B, Gupta RD, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gupta V, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haider MR, Hamadeh RR, Hankey GJ, Hargono A, Hartono RK, Hassankhani H, Hay SI, Heidari G, Hertelet al., 2021, Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 2337-2360, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundEnding the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally.MethodsWe estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available.FindingsGlobally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers.Int

Journal article

Johnson SC, Cunningham M, Dippenaar IN, Sharara F, Wool EE, Agesa KM, Han C, Miller-Petrie MK, Wilson S, Fuller JE, Balassyano S, Bertolacci GJ, Davis Weaver N, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Naghavi Met al., 2021, Public health utility of cause of death data: applying empirical algorithms to improve data quality, BMC MEDICAL INFORMATICS AND DECISION MAKING, Vol: 21

Journal article

McKay AJ, Gunn LH, Nugawela MD, Sathish T, Majeed A, Vamos E, Molina G, Sivaprasad Set al., 2021, Associations between attainment of incentivized primary care indicators and incident sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in England: A population-based historical cohort study, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 1322-1330, ISSN: 1462-8902

AimTo examine the impact of attainment of primary care diabetes clinical indicators on progression to sight‐threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) among those with mild non‐proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).Materials and MethodsAn historical cohort study of 18,978 adults (43.63% female) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before 1 April 2010 and mild NPDR before 1 April 2011 was conducted. The data were obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink during 2010‐2017, provided by 330 primary care practices in England. Exposures included attainment of the Quality and Outcomes Framework HbA1c (≤59 mmol/mol [≤7.5%]), blood pressure (≤140/80 mmHg) and cholesterol (≤5 mmol/L) indicators in the financial year 2010‐2011, as well as the number of National Diabetes Audit processes completed in 2010‐2011. The outcome was time to incident STDR. Nearest neighbour propensity score matching was undertaken, and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were then fitted using the matched samples. Concordance statistics were calculated for each model.ResultsA total of 1037 (5.5%) STDR diagnoses were observed over a mean follow‐up of 3.6 (SD 2.0) years. HbA1c, blood pressure and cholesterol indicator attainment were associated with lower rates of STDR (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] 0.64 [0.55‐0.74; p < .001], 0.83 [0.72‐0.94; p = .005] and 0.80 [0.66‐0.96; p = .015], respectively).ConclusionsOur findings provide support for meeting appropriate indicators for the management of type 2 diabetes in primary care to bring a range of benefits, including improved health outcomes—such as a reduction in the risk of STDR—for people with type 2 diabetes.

Journal article

Rao A, Razzaq H, Panamarenko B, Bottle A, Majeed A, Gray Eet al., 2021, Online application for self-referral of the patients with breast symptoms, Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Vol: 66, ISSN: 2049-0801

IntroductionThe study aimed to devise a self-referral mobile/web application for patients with new breast symptoms, giving them an outcome, thus bypassing the need for primary care consultation.MethodsThe online application was designed on the automated algorithm based on evidence-based guidelines for referral to breast onco-plastic units. A retrospective questionnaire-based anonymous survey was carried out at the breast unit in Southend University Hospital (January 2019 to March 2020). The outcome of the patients was recorded, the same data was entered in the software and its outcome was compared with their clinic outcome to assess and validate the software. Chi-square and t-test were used in formulating results.ResultsData was collected for 366 patients who were referred urgently to the clinic. Only 50.5% (n = 186) were appropriately referred, with the main complaint being breast lump (94.1%). 39.6% of referred patients did not require a secondary care referral. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying patients requiring urgent referral was 100% and 98%, respectively.ConclusionA significant number of urgent referrals to breast units do not require urgent specialist referral, and this results in a big strain on the hospital service. The discussed self-referral pathway is a promising alternative with the potential to reduce workload in primary and secondary care and improve patient satisfaction.

Journal article

Harris M, Kreindler J, El-Osta A, Esko T, Majeed Fet al., 2021, Safe management of full-capacity live/mass events in COVID19 will require mathematical, epidemiological and economic modelling, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol: 114, Pages: 290-294, ISSN: 0141-0768

Journal article

Sartorius B, VanderHeide JD, Yang M, Goosmann EA, Hon J, Haeuser E, Cork MA, Perkins S, Jahagirdar D, Schaeffer LE, Serfes AL, LeGrand KE, Abbastabar H, Abebo ZH, Abosetugn AE, Abu-Gharbieh E, Accrombessi MMK, Adebayo OM, Adegbosin AE, Adekanmbi V, Adetokunboh OO, Adeyinka DA, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmadi K, Ahmed MB, Akalu Y, Akinyemi OO, Akinyemi RO, Aklilu A, Akunna CJ, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam N, Alamneh AA, Alanzi TM, Alemu BW, Alhassan RK, Ali T, Alipour V, Amini S, Ancuceanu R, Ansari F, Anteneh ZA, Anvari D, Anwer R, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Asemahagn MA, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Asmare WN, Atnafu DD, Atout MMW, Atreya A, Ausloos M, Awedew AF, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayanore MA, Aynalem YA, Ayza MA, Azari S, Azene ZN, Babar Z-U-D, Baig AA, Balakrishnan S, Banach M, Bärnighausen TW, Basu S, Bayati M, Bedi N, Bekuma TT, Bezabhe WMM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhutta ZA, Bibi S, Bikbov B, Birhan TA, Bitew ZW, Bockarie MJ, Boloor A, Brady OJ, Bragazzi NL, Briko AN, Briko NI, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Cárdenas R, Carvalho F, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chowdhury MAK, Chu D-T, Cook AJ, Cormier NM, Cowden RG, Culquichicon C, Dagnew B, Dahlawi SMA, Damiani G, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Daoud F, Daryani A, das Neves J, Davis Weaver N, Derbew Molla M, Deribe K, Desta AA, Deuba K, Dharmaratne SD, Dhungana GP, Diaz D, Djalalinia S, Doku PN, Dubljanin E, Duko B, Eagan AW, Earl L, Eaton JW, Effiong A, El Sayed Zaki M, El Tantawi M, Elayedath R, El-Jaafary SI, Elsharkawy A, Eskandarieh S, Eyawo O, Ezzikouri S, Fasanmi AO, Fasil A, Fauk NK, Feigin VL, Ferede TY, Fernandes E, Fischer F, Foigt NA, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Francis JM, Fukumoto T, Gad MM, Geberemariyam BS, Gebregiorgis BG, Gebremichael B, Gesesew HA, Getacher L, Ghadiri K, Ghashghaee A, Gilani SA, Ginindza TG, Glagn M, Golechha M, Gona PN, Gubari MIM, Gugnani HC, Guido D, Guled RA, Hall BJ, Hamidi S, Handiso DW, Hargono A, Hashi A, Hassanipour S, Hassankhani H, Hayat K, Herteliu C, Hidru HDDet al., 2021, Subnational mapping of HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15–49 years in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–18: a modelling study, The Lancet HIV, Vol: 8, Pages: e363-e375, ISSN: 2352-3018

BackgroundHigh-resolution estimates of HIV burden across space and time provide an important tool for tracking and monitoring the progress of prevention and control efforts and assist with improving the precision and efficiency of targeting efforts. We aimed to assess HIV incidence and HIV mortality for all second-level administrative units across sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsIn this modelling study, we developed a framework that used the geographically specific HIV prevalence data collected in seroprevalence surveys and antenatal care clinics to train a model that estimates HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15–49 years. We used a model-based geostatistical framework to estimate HIV prevalence at the second administrative level in 44 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for 2000–18 and sought data on the number of individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by second-level administrative unit. We then modified the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) to use these HIV prevalence and treatment estimates to estimate HIV incidence and mortality by second-level administrative unit.FindingsThe estimates suggest substantial variation in HIV incidence and mortality rates both between and within countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with 15 countries having a ten-times or greater difference in estimated HIV incidence between the second-level administrative units with the lowest and highest estimated incidence levels. Across all 44 countries in 2018, HIV incidence ranged from 2·8 (95% uncertainty interval 2·1–3·8) in Mauritania to 1585·9 (1369·4–1824·8) cases per 100 000 people in Lesotho and HIV mortality ranged from 0·8 (0·7–0·9) in Mauritania to 676·5 (513·6–888·0) deaths per 100 000 people in Lesotho. Variation in both incidence and mortality was substantially greater at the subnational level than at the national level and the highest estimated ra

Journal article

Majeed F, 2021, rgera, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, ISSN: 0098-7484

Journal article

Anderson M, O'Neill C, Macleod Clark J, Street A, Woods M, Johnston-Webber C, Charlesworth A, Whyte M, Foster M, Majeed A, Pitchforth E, Mossialos E, Asaria M, McGuire Aet al., 2021, Securing a sustainable and fit-for-purpose UK health and care workforce, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 1992-2011, ISSN: 0140-6736

Approximately 13% of the total UK workforce is employed in the health and care sector. Despite substantial workforce planning efforts, the effectiveness of this planning has been criticised. Education, training, and workforce plans have typically considered each health-care profession in isolation and have not adequately responded to changing health and care needs. The results are persistent vacancies, poor morale, and low retention. Areas of particular concern highlighted in this Health Policy paper include primary care, mental health, nursing, clinical and non-clinical support, and social care. Responses to workforce shortfalls have included a high reliance on foreign and temporary staff, small-scale changes in skill mix, and enhanced recruitment drives. Impending challenges for the UK health and care workforce include growing multimorbidity, an increasing shortfall in the supply of unpaid carers, and the relative decline of the attractiveness of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer internationally. We argue that to secure a sustainable and fit-for-purpose health and care workforce, integrated workforce approaches need to be developed alongside reforms to education and training that reflect changes in roles and skill mix, as well as the trend towards multidisciplinary working. Enhancing career development opportunities, promoting staff wellbeing, and tackling discrimination in the NHS are all needed to improve recruitment, retention, and morale of staff. An urgent priority is to offer sufficient aftercare and support to staff who have been exposed to high-risk situations and traumatic experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to growing calls to recognise and reward health and care staff, growth in pay must at least keep pace with projected rises in average earnings, which in turn will require linking future NHS funding allocations to rises in pay. Through illustrative projections, we show that, to sustain annual growth in the workforce at

Journal article

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