919 results found
Woodcock T, Novov V, Skirrow H, et al., 2022, Health and socio-demographic characteristics associated with uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination amongst pregnant women: retrospective cohort study, British Journal of General Practice, ISSN: 0960-1643
Pregnant women are at increased risk from influenza, yet maternal influenza vaccination levels remain suboptimal. This study aimed to estimate associations between socio-demographic and health characteristics and seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among pregnant women and understand trends over time to inform interventions to improve vaccine coverage. A retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records of women in North West London with at least one pregnancy overlapping with an influenza season between September 2010 and February 2020. We used a multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model to identify associations between characteristics of interest and primary outcome of influenza vaccination. 451,954 pregnancies, among 260,744 women, were included. In 85,376 (18.9%) pregnancies women were vaccinated against seasonal influenza. Uptake increased from 8.4% in 2010/11 to 26.3% in 2018/19, dropping again to 21.1% in 2019/20. Uptake was lowest among women: aged 15-19 years (12%) or over 40 years (15%; OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.24); of Black ethnicity (14.1%; OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.57), or unknown ethnicity (9.9%; OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.46), lived in more deprived areas (OR least vs most deprived 1.16, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.21), or with no known risk factors for severe influenza. Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in pregnant women increased in the past decade, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but remained suboptimal. We recommend approaches to reducing health inequalities should focus on women of Black ethnicity, younger and older women, and women living in areas of greater socio-economic deprivation.
Rallapalli S, Razai MS, Majeed A, et al., 2022, Diagnosis and management of monkeypox in primary care., J R Soc Med, Pages: 1410768221131914-1410768221131914
The monkeypox virus outbreak continues to evolve worldwide. While most people recover without treatment, primary care clinicians may be the first point of contact for those affected. Prompt assessment, diagnosis, isolation, treatment and prophylaxis will reduce the risk of community transmission. The current public health advice is to test suspected cases and monitor close contacts. If individuals test positive for the monkeypox virus, self-isolation at home is recommended for most people with mild symptoms. If patients report severe symptoms, referral and admission to hospital will be needed, where further interventions such as antivirals may be administered. The infection can spread through close contact; therefore, healthcare professionals must take precautions, such as using appropriate personal protective equipment for possible or probable cases.
Awedew AF, Han H, Abbasi B, et al., 2022, The global, regional, and national burden of benign prostatic hyperplasia in 204 countries and territories from 2000 to 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Healthy Longevity, Vol: 3, Pages: e754-e776
Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common urological disease affecting older men worldwide, but comprehensive data about the global, regional, and national burden of benign prostatic hyperplasia and its trends over time are scarce. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we estimated global trends in, and prevalence of, benign prostatic hyperplasia and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, in 21 regions and 204 countries and territories from 2000 to 2019. Methods: This study was conducted with GBD 2019 analytical and modelling strategies. Primary prevalence data came from claims from three countries and from hospital inpatient encounters from 45 locations. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR version 2.1, was used to estimate the age-specific, location-specific, and year-specific prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Age-standardised prevalence was calculated by the direct method using the GBD reference population. Years lived with disability (YLDs) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia were estimated by multiplying the disability weight by the symptomatic proportion of the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Because we did not estimate years of life lost associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) equalled YLDs. The final estimates were compared across Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles. The 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were estimated as the 25th and 975th of 1000 ordered draws from a bootstrap distribution. Findings: Globally, there were 94·0 million (95% UI 73·2 to 118) prevalent cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia in 2019, compared with 51·1 million (43·1 to 69·3) cases in 2000. The age-standardised prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia was 2480 (1940 to 3090) per 100 000 people. Although the global number of prevalent cases increased by 70·5%
Neira M, Erguler K, Ahmady-Birgani H, et al., 2022, Climate change and human health in the Eastern Mediterranean and middle east: Literature review, research priorities and policy suggestions., Environ Res, Vol: 216
Human health is linked to climatic factors in complex ways, and climate change can have profound direct and indirect impacts on the health status of any given region. Susceptibility to climate change is modulated by biological, ecological and socio-political factors such as age, gender, geographic location, socio-economic status, occupation, health status and housing conditions, among other. In the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME), climatic factors known to affect human health include extreme heat, water shortages and air pollution. Furthermore, the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and the health consequences of population displacement are also influenced by climate change in this region. To inform future policies for adaptation and mitigation measures, and based on an extensive review of the available knowledge, we recommend several research priorities for the region. These include the generation of more empirical evidence on exposure-response functions involving climate change and specific health outcomes, the development of appropriate methodologies to evaluate the physical and psychological effects of climate change on vulnerable populations, determining how climate change alters the ecological determinants of human health, improving our understanding of the effects of long-term exposure to heat stress and air pollution, and evaluating the interactions between adaptation and mitigation strategies. Because national boundaries do not limit most climate-related factors expected to impact human health, we propose that adaptation/mitigation policies must have a regional scope, and therefore require collaborative efforts among EMME nations. Policy suggestions include a decisive region-wide decarbonisation, the integration of environmentally driven morbidity and mortality data throughout the region, advancing the development and widespread use of affordable technologies for the production and management of drinking water by non-traditional means
Greenfield G, 2022, A systematic review of interventions that use multidisciplinary team meetings to manage multimorbidity in primary care, International Journal of Integrated Care, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1568-4156
Introduction: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings could facilitate coordination of care for individuals living with multimorbidity, yet there is limited evidence on their effectiveness. We hence explored the common characteristics of MDT meetings in primary care and assessed the effectiveness of interventions that include such meetings, designed to improve outcomes for adults living with multimorbidity.Methods: A systematic review of literature was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE. A narrative synthesis was performed, extracting study and MDT meeting characteristics, in addition to any outcomes reported.Results: Four randomised controlled trials that were conducted in the United States of America were identified as eligible, recruiting a total of 3,509 adults living with multimorbidity. Common MDT meeting themes include regular frequency of discussion, the absence of patient involvement and the participation of three or four multiprofessionals. Significant improvements were observed in response to interventions with an MDT component across most measures, yet this trend did not extend to physical health outcomes. Discussion: It is unclear if the results in this review are sufficient to support the widespread implementation of MDT meetings in primary care, for adults living with multimorbidity. Due to the paucity of studies collated, further research is required to inform widespread implementation.
Carter J, Mehrotra A, Knights F, et al., 2022, "We don't routinely check vaccination background in adults": a national qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to vaccine delivery and uptake in adult migrants through UK primary care, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Chandok RS, Madar P, Majeed A, 2022, A qualitative study of factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among South Asians in London, JRSM Open, Vol: 13, Pages: 205427042211234-205427042211234, ISSN: 2054-2704
<jats:sec><jats:title>Objectives</jats:title><jats:p> This qualitative study sought to elicit the views and experiences of patients and health-care professionals to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among South Asians in London. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Design</jats:title><jats:p> In-depth semi-structured telephone and virtual interviews. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Setting</jats:title><jats:p> UK. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Participants</jats:title><jats:p> Convenience and purposive sample of 12 individuals including patients, clinicians, and a medical receptionist. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Main Outcome Measures</jats:title><jats:p> Our dataset identifies and explains the reasons for distinguishing between those individuals who are COVID-19 vaccine-hesitant, and those who are COVID-19 vaccine-anxious. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p> COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the decision on whether to - or not to – vaccinate against COVID-19 involves ongoing and unresolved inner conflict about COVID-19 vaccines. Our findings therefore suggest that some individuals may be existing in a state of inbetweeness; where they are neither pro nor anti vaccination, while simultaneously questioning the many ‘truths’ surrounding COVID-19 and not just one truth such as the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We argue that this in-between state is intensified by technology and social media; culminating in the Rashomon Effect, whereby a combination of truths, fractured truths, subjective realities, and unreliable or contradictory sources impact on our perceptions of COVID-19. </jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion
Frostad JJ, Nguyen QP, Baumann MM, et al., 2022, Mapping development and health effects of cooking with solid fuels in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–18: a geospatial modelling study, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 10, Pages: e1395-e1411, ISSN: 2214-109X
Majeed A, Pollock K, Hodes S, et al., 2022, Implementation of covid-19 vaccination in the United Kingdom., BMJ, Vol: 378, Pages: e070344-e070344
Vamos EP, Lai H, Sharabiani M, et al., 2022, Cardio-metabolic factors and risk of dementia in people with type 2 diabetes in England: a large retrospective cohort study, DUK, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S402-S403, ISSN: 0012-186X
GBD 2019 Hepatitis B Collaborators, 2022, Global, regional, and national burden of hepatitis B, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019., Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, Vol: 7, Pages: 796-829
BACKGROUND: Combating viral hepatitis is part of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and WHO has put forth hepatitis B elimination targets in its Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis (WHO-GHSS) and Interim Guidance for Country Validation of Viral Hepatitis Elimination (WHO Interim Guidance). We estimated the global, regional, and national prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), as well as mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to HBV, as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. This included estimates for 194 WHO member states, for which we compared our estimates to WHO elimination targets. METHODS: The primary data sources were population-based serosurveys, claims and hospital discharges, cancer registries, vital registration systems, and published case series. We estimated chronic HBV infection and the burden of HBV-related diseases, defined as an aggregate of cirrhosis due to hepatitis B, liver cancer due to hepatitis B, and acute hepatitis B. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian mixed-effects meta-regression tool, to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, cirrhosis, and aetiological proportions of cirrhosis. We used mortality-to-incidence ratios modelled with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression to estimate the incidence of liver cancer. We used the Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) model, a tool that selects models and covariates on the basis of out-of-sample performance, to estimate mortality due to cirrhosis, liver cancer, and acute hepatitis B. FINDINGS: In 2019, the estimated global, all-age prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·7 to 4·5), corresponding to 316 million (284 to 351) infected people. There was a 31·3% (29·0 to 33·9) decline in all-age prevalence between 1990 and 2019, with a more marked decline of 76·8% (76·2 to 77·5) in prevalence in childr
Crawshaw AF, Farah Y, Deal A, et al., 2022, Defining the determinants of vaccine uptake and undervaccination in migrant populations in Europe to improve routine and COVID-19 vaccine uptake: a systematic review., Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 22, Pages: e254-e266, ISSN: 1473-3099
Understanding why some migrants in Europe are at risk of underimmunisation and show lower vaccination uptake for routine and COVID-19 vaccines is critical if we are to address vaccination inequities and meet the goals of WHO's new Immunisation Agenda 2030. We did a systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42020219214) exploring barriers and facilitators of vaccine uptake (categorised using the 5As taxonomy: access, awareness, affordability, acceptance, activation) and sociodemographic determinants of undervaccination among migrants in the EU and European Economic Area, the UK, and Switzerland. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from 2000 to 2021 for primary research, with no restrictions on language. 5259 data sources were screened, with 67 studies included from 16 countries, representing 366 529 migrants. We identified multiple access barriers-including language, literacy, and communication barriers, practical and legal barriers to accessing and delivering vaccination services, and service barriers such as lack of specific guidelines and knowledge of health-care professionals-for key vaccines including measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, human papillomavirus, influenza, polio, and COVID-19 vaccines. Acceptance barriers were mostly reported in eastern European and Muslim migrants for human papillomavirus, measles, and influenza vaccines. We identified 23 significant determinants of undervaccination in migrants (p<0·05), including African origin, recent migration, and being a refugee or asylum seeker. We did not identify a strong overall association with gender or age. Tailored vaccination messaging, community outreach, and behavioural nudges facilitated uptake. Migrants' barriers to accessing health care are already well documented, and this Review confirms their role in limiting vaccine uptake. These findings hold immediate relevance to strengthening vaccination programmes in high-income countries, including for COVID-19, and suggest
Khanh BT, Lang JJ, Compton K, et al., 2022, The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, LANCET, Vol: 400, Pages: 563-591, ISSN: 0140-6736
Woulfe F, Fadahunsi P, O'Grady M, et al., 2022, Modification and validation of an mHealth app quality assessment methodology for international use: cross sectional and eDelphi studies, JMIR Formative Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2561-326X
Background:Over 325,000 mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) are available to download across various app stores. Quality assurance in this field of medicine remains relatively undefined, however. Globally around 84% of the population have access to mobile broadband networks. Given the potential for mHealth app use in health promotion and disease prevention, their role in medicine world-wide is ever apparent. Quality assurance regulations both nationally and internationally will take time to develop. Frameworks such as the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) and Enlight Suite have demonstrated potential for use in the interim. These frameworks require adaptation to be suitable for use in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) however.Objective:1) Modify the Enlight Suite, an mHealth app quality assessment methodology, to improve its applicability internationally, and 2) to assess the preliminary validity and reliability of this modified tool in practice.Methods:A two-round Delphi study involving 7 mHealth experts with varied backgrounds in medicine, health and technology was conducted to modify and adapt the Enlight Suite for international use as well as to improve its content validity. The Modified Enlight suite (MES) was then used by 800 healthcare professionals and healthcare students to assess a COVID-19 tracker app in an online survey form. The reliability of the MES was assessed using the Cronbach alpha while the construct validity was evaluated using the confirmatory factor analysis.Results:The final version of the MES has 7 sections with 32 evaluating items. Of these items, 5 were novel and based on consensus for inclusion by Delphi panel members. The MES has a satisfactory reliability with an internal consistency Cronbach alpha score of 0.925. The sub-scales also demonstrate acceptable internal consistency. Similarly, the confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates a positive and significant factor loading for all of the 32 items in the MES with a modestly
Beaney T, Kerr G, Hayhoe B, et al., 2022, Comparing registered and resident populations in Primary Care Networks in England: an observational study, BJGP Open
BackgroundPrimary Care Networks (PCNs) were established in England in 2019 and will play a key role in providing care at a neighbourhood level within Integrated Care Systems (ICSs).AimTo identify PCN ‘catchment’ areas and compare the overlap between registered and resident populations of PCNs.Design and SettingObservational study using publicly available data on the number of people within each Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA) registered to each General Practice (GP) in England in April 2021.MethodLSOAs were assigned to the PCN to which the majority of residents were registered. The PCN catchment population was defined as the total number of people resident in all LSOAs assigned to that PCN. We compared PCN catchment populations to the population of people registered to a GP practice in each PCN.ResultsIn April 2021, 6,506 GP practices were part of 1,251 PCNs. 56.1% of PCNs had between 30,000 and 50,000 registered patients. There was a strong correlation (0.91) between the total registered population size and catchment population size. We found significant variation in the percentage of residents in each LSOA registered to a GP practice within the same PCN catchment, and strong associations with both urban-rural status and socioeconomic deprivation.ConclusionThere exists significant variation across England in the overlap between registered and resident (catchment) populations in PCNs which may impact on integration of care in some areas. There was less overlap in urban and more deprived areas which could exacerbate existing health inequalities.
Fadahunsi KP, Wark PA, Mastellos N, et al., 2022, Assessment of clinical information quality in digital health technologies: an international eDelphi study (Preprint), PP Server
<sec> <title>BACKGROUND</title> <p>Digital Health Technologies (DHTs), such as electronic health records and prescribing systems, are transforming healthcare delivery around the world. The quality of information in DHTs is key to the quality and safety of care. We developed a novel Clinical Information Quality (CLIQ) Framework to assess the quality of clinical information in DHTs.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>OBJECTIVE</title> <p>This study explored clinicians’ perspectives on the relevance, definition, and assessment of information quality dimensions in the CLIQ Framework</p> </sec> <sec> <title>METHODS</title> <p>A systematic and iterative eDelphi approach was used to engage clinicians with information governance roles or interest, recruited through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Data were collected using semi-structured online questionnaires until consensus was reached on the information quality dimensions in the CLIQ Framework. Responses on the relevance of the dimensions were summarized to inform decisions on retention of dimensions according to pre-specified rules. Thematic analysis of the free-text responses was used to revise definitions and assessment of dimensions.</p> </sec> <sec> <title>RESULTS</title> <p>Thirty-five clinicians from ten countries participated in the study which was concluded after the second round. Consensus was reached on all the dimensions in the CLIQ Framework i.e., accuracy, completeness, interpretability, plausibility, provenance, relevance, accessibility, portability, security, timelines
Tilney M, Vallejo-Vaz AJ, Majeed A, 2022, IDENTIFICATION OF FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA (FH) IN MALTA: AN UPDATE OF THE FH REGISTRY AND CASCADE SCREENING PROGRAMME IN MALTA, EAS, Publisher: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Pages: E235-E235, ISSN: 0021-9150
GBD 2019 Adolescent Transport and Unintentional Injuries Collaborators, 2022, Adolescent transport and unintentional injuries: a systematic analysis using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019., The Lancet Public Health, Vol: 7, Pages: e657-e669, ISSN: 2468-2667
BACKGROUND: Globally, transport and unintentional injuries persist as leading preventable causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents. We sought to report comprehensive trends in injury-related mortality and morbidity for adolescents aged 10-24 years during the past three decades. METHODS: Using the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2019 Study, we analysed mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributed to transport and unintentional injuries for adolescents in 204 countries. Burden is reported in absolute numbers and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population by sex, age group (10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 years), and sociodemographic index (SDI) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We report percentage changes in deaths and DALYs between 1990 and 2019. FINDINGS: In 2019, 369 061 deaths (of which 214 337 [58%] were transport related) and 31·1 million DALYs (of which 16·2 million [52%] were transport related) among adolescents aged 10-24 years were caused by transport and unintentional injuries combined. If compared with other causes, transport and unintentional injuries combined accounted for 25% of deaths and 14% of DALYs in 2019, and showed little improvement from 1990 when such injuries accounted for 26% of adolescent deaths and 17% of adolescent DALYs. Throughout adolescence, transport and unintentional injury fatality rates increased by age group. The unintentional injury burden was higher among males than females for all injury types, except for injuries related to fire, heat, and hot substances, or to adverse effects of medical treatment. From 1990 to 2019, global mortality rates declined by 34·4% (from 17·5 to 11·5 per 100 000) for transport injuries, and by 47·7% (from 15·9 to 8·3 per 100 000) for unintentional injuries. However, in low-SDI nations the absolute number of deaths increased (by 80·5% to 42 774 for transport
Woodcock T, Greenfield G, Lalvani A, et al., 2022, Patient outcomes following emergency admission to hospital for COVID-19 compared with influenza: retrospective cohort study, Thorax, ISSN: 0040-6376
Background We examine differences in posthospitalisation outcomes, and health system resource use, for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 during the UK’s first pandemic wave in 2020, and influenza during 2018 and 2019.Methods This retrospective cohort study used routinely collected primary and secondary care data. Outcomes, measured for 90 days follow-up after discharge were length of stay in hospital, mortality, emergency readmission and primary care activity.Results The study included 5132 patients admitted to hospital as an emergency, with COVID-19 and influenza cohorts comprising 3799 and 1333 patients respectively. Patients in the COVID-19 cohort were more likely to stay in hospital longer than 10 days (OR 3.91, 95% CI 3.14 to 4.65); and more likely to die in hospital (OR 11.85, 95% CI 8.58 to 16.86) and within 90 days of discharge (OR 7.92, 95% CI 6.20 to 10.25). For those who survived, rates of emergency readmission within 90 days were comparable between COVID-19 and influenza cohorts (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.29), while primary care activity was greater among the COVID-19 cohort (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.37).Conclusions Patients admitted for COVID-19 were more likely to die, more likely to stay in hospital for over 10 days and interact more with primary care after discharge, than patients admitted for influenza. However, readmission rates were similar for both groups. These findings, while situated in the context of the first wave of COVID-19, with the associated pressures on the health system, can inform health service planning for subsequent waves of COVID-19, and show that patients with COVID-19 interact more with healthcare services as well as having poorer outcomes than those with influenza.
GBD 2019 Colorectal Cancer Collaborators, 2022, Global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its risk factors, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Vol: 7, Pages: 627-647, ISSN: 2468-1253
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Given the recent increasing trends in colorectal cancer incidence globally, up-to-date information on the colorectal cancer burden could guide screening, early detection, and treatment strategies, and help effectively allocate resources. We examined the temporal patterns of the global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its risk factors in 204 countries and territories across the past three decades. METHODS: Estimates of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for colorectal cancer were generated as a part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 by age, sex, and geographical location for the period 1990-2019. Mortality estimates were produced using the cause of death ensemble model. We also calculated DALYs attributable to risk factors that had evidence of causation with colorectal cancer. FINDINGS: Globally, between 1990 and 2019, colorectal cancer incident cases more than doubled, from 842 098 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 810 408-868 574) to 2·17 million (2·00-2·34), and deaths increased from 518 126 (493 682-537 877) to 1·09 million (1·02-1·15). The global age-standardised incidence rate increased from 22·2 (95% UI 21·3-23·0) per 100 000 to 26·7 (24·6-28·9) per 100 000, whereas the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 14·3 (13·5-14·9) per 100 000 to 13·7 (12·6-14·5) per 100 000 and the age-standardised DALY rate decreased from 308·5 (294·7-320·7) per 100 000 to 295·5 (275·2-313·0) per 100 000 from 1990 through 2019. Taiwan (province of China; 62·0 [48·9-80·0] per 100 000), Monaco (60·7 [48·5-73&midd
GBD 2019 Diabetes and Air Pollution Collaborators, 2022, Estimates, trends, and drivers of the global burden of type 2 diabetes attributable to PM2·5 air pollution, 1990-2019: an analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet Planetary Health, Vol: 6, Pages: e586-e600, ISSN: 2542-5196
BACKGROUND: Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate an association between exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In view of the high and increasing prevalence of diabetes, we aimed to quantify the burden of type 2 diabetes attributable to PM2·5 originating from ambient and household air pollution. METHODS: We systematically compiled all relevant cohort and case-control studies assessing the effect of exposure to household and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2·5) air pollution on type 2 diabetes incidence and mortality. We derived an exposure-response curve from the extracted relative risk estimates using the MR-BRT (meta-regression-Bayesian, regularised, trimmed) tool. The estimated curve was linked to ambient and household PM2·5 exposures from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019, and estimates of the attributable burden (population attributable fractions and rates per 100 000 population of deaths and disability-adjusted life-years) for 204 countries from 1990 to 2019 were calculated. We also assessed the role of changes in exposure, population size, age, and type 2 diabetes incidence in the observed trend in PM2·5-attributable type 2 diabetes burden. All estimates are presented with 95% uncertainty intervals. FINDINGS: In 2019, approximately a fifth of the global burden of type 2 diabetes was attributable to PM2·5 exposure, with an estimated 3·78 (95% uncertainty interval 2·68-4·83) deaths per 100 000 population and 167 (117-223) disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. Approximately 13·4% (9·49-17·5) of deaths and 13·6% (9·73-17·9) of DALYs due to type 2 diabetes were contributed by ambient PM2·5, and 6·50% (4·22-9·53) of deaths and 5·92% (3·81-8·64) of DALYs by household air pollution. High burdens, in
Asanati K, Majeed A, Shemtob L, et al., 2022, Healthcare workers potentially exposed to HIV: an update., J R Soc Med, Pages: 1410768221107122-1410768221107122
Haakenstad A, Irvine CMS, Knight M, et al., 2022, Measuring the availability of human resources for health and its relationship to universal health coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, LANCET, Vol: 399, Pages: 2129-2154, ISSN: 0140-6736
Armocida B, Monasta L, Sawyer S, et al., 2022, Burden of non-communicable diseases among adolescents aged 10–24 years in the EU, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Vol: 6, Pages: 367-383, ISSN: 2352-4642
BackgroundDisability and mortality burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen worldwide; however, the NCD burden among adolescents remains poorly described in the EU.MethodsEstimates were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. Causes of NCDs were analysed at three different levels of the GBD 2019 hierarchy, for which mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were extracted. Estimates, with the 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), were retrieved for EU Member States from 1990 to 2019, three age subgroups (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years), and by sex. Spearman's correlation was conducted between DALY rates for NCDs and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) of each EU Member State.FindingsIn 2019, NCDs accounted for 86·4% (95% uncertainty interval 83·5–88·8) of all YLDs and 38·8% (37·4–39·8) of total deaths in adolescents aged 10–24 years. For NCDs in this age group, neoplasms were the leading causes of both mortality (4·01 [95% uncertainty interval 3·62–4·25] per 100 000 population) and YLLs (281·78 [254·25–298·92] per 100 000 population), whereas mental disorders were the leading cause for YLDs (2039·36 [1432·56–2773·47] per 100 000 population) and DALYs (2040·59 [1433·96–2774·62] per 100 000 population) in all EU Member States, and in all studied age groups. In 2019, among adolescents aged 10–24 years, males had a higher mortality rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs than females (11·66 [11·04–12·28] vs 7·89 [7·53–8·23]), whereas females presented a higher DALY rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs (8003·25 [5812·78–10&thi
Majeed A, 2022, Let patients self-refer to lifestyle management services for osteoarthritis., BMJ, Vol: 377, Pages: o1359-o1359
Abbas-Hanif A, Modi N, Majeed A, 2022, Long term implications of covid-19 in pregnancy., BMJ, Vol: 377, Pages: e071296-e071296
Haagsma JA, Charalampous P, Ariani F, et al., 2022, The burden of injury in Central, Eastern, and Western European sub-region: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Study, Archives of Public Health, Vol: 80, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0778-7367
BackgroundInjury remains a major concern to public health in the European region. Previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed wide variation in injury death and disability adjusted life year (DALY) rates across Europe, indicating injury inequality gaps between sub-regions and countries. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare GBD 2019 estimates on injury mortality and DALYs across European sub-regions and countries by cause-of-injury category and sex; 2) examine changes in injury DALY rates over a 20 year-period by cause-of-injury category, sub-region and country; and 3) assess inequalities in injury mortality and DALY rates across the countries.MethodsWe performed a secondary database descriptive study using the GBD 2019 results on injuries in 44 European countries from 2000 to 2019. Inequality in DALY rates between these countries was assessed by calculating the DALY rate ratio between the highest-ranking country and lowest-ranking country in each year.ResultsIn 2019, in Eastern Europe 80 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 71 to 89] people per 100,000 died from injuries; twice as high compared to Central Europe (38 injury deaths per 100,000; 95% UI 34 to 42) and three times as high compared to Western Europe (27 injury deaths per 100,000; 95%UI 25 to 28). The injury DALY rates showed less pronounced differences between Eastern (5129 DALYs per 100,000; 95% UI: 4547 to 5864), Central (2940 DALYs per 100,000; 95% UI: 2452 to 3546) and Western Europe (1782 DALYs per 100,000; 95% UI: 1523 to 2115). Injury DALY rate was lowest in Italy (1489 DALYs per 100,000) and highest in Ukraine (5553 DALYs per 100,000). The difference in injury DALY rates by country was larger for males compared to females. The DALY rate ratio was highest in 2005, with DALY rate in the lowest-ranking country (Russian Federation) 6.0 times higher compared to the highest-ranking country (Malta). After 2005, the DALY rate ratio between the lowest- and the highest-ranki
Li E, Tsopra R, Jimenez G, et al., 2022, General practitioners’ perceptions of using virtual primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: An international cross-sectional survey study, PLOS Digital Health, Vol: 1, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 2767-3170
With the onset of COVID-19, general practitioners (GPs) and patients worldwide swiftly transitioned from face-to-face to digital remote consultations. There is a need to evaluate how this global shift has impacted patient care, healthcare providers, patient and carer experience, and health systems. We explored GPs’ perspectives on the main benefits and challenges of using digital virtual care. GPs across 20 countries completed an online questionnaire between June–September 2020. GPs’ perceptions of main barriers and challenges were explored using free-text questions. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. A total of 1,605 respondents participated in our survey. The benefits identified included reducing COVID-19 transmission risks, guaranteeing access and continuity of care, improved efficiency, faster access to care, improved convenience and communication with patients, greater work flexibility for providers, and hastening the digital transformation of primary care and accompanying legal frameworks. Main challenges included patients’ preference for face-to-face consultations, digital exclusion, lack of physical examinations, clinical uncertainty, delays in diagnosis and treatment, overuse and misuse of digital virtual care, and unsuitability for certain types of consultations. Other challenges include the lack of formal guidance, higher workloads, remuneration issues, organisational culture, technical difficulties, implementation and financial issues, and regulatory weaknesses. At the frontline of care delivery, GPs can provide important insights on what worked well, why, and how during the pandemic. Lessons learned can be used to inform the adoption of improved virtual care solutions and support the long-term development of platforms that are more technologically robust and secure.
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