956 results found
Salman D, Marino K, Griffin S, et al., 2023, Concussion in sport: are new guidelines a game changer for primary care?, Br J Gen Pract, Vol: 73, Pages: 440-442
Beaney T, Clarke J, Salman D, et al., 2023, Identifying potential biases in code sequences in primary care electronic healthcare records: a retrospective cohort study of the determinants of code frequency, BMJ Open, ISSN: 2044-6055
Majeed A, Molokhia M, 2023, The future role of the GP Quality and Outcomes Framework in England., BJGP Open, Vol: 7
Edwards L, Pickett J, Ashcroft DM, et al., 2023, UK research data resources based on primary care electronic health records: review and summary for potential users., BJGP Open, Vol: 7
BACKGROUND: The range and scope of electronic health record (EHR) data assets in the UK has recently increased, which has been mainly in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Summarising and comparing the large primary care resources will help researchers to choose the data resources most suited to their needs. AIM: To describe the current landscape of UK EHR databases and considerations of access and use of these resources relevant to researchers. DESIGN & SETTING: Narrative review of EHR databases in the UK. METHOD: Information was collected from the Health Data Research Innovation Gateway, publicly available websites and other published data, and from key informants. The eligibility criteria were population-based open-access databases sampling EHRs across the whole population of one or more countries in the UK. Published database characteristics were extracted and summarised, and these were corroborated with resource providers. Results were synthesised narratively. RESULTS: Nine large national primary care EHR data resources were identified and summarised. These resources are enhanced by linkage to other administrative data to a varying extent. Resources are mainly intended to support observational research, although some can support experimental studies. There is considerable overlap of populations covered. While all resources are accessible to bona fide researchers, access mechanisms, costs, timescales, and other considerations vary across databases. CONCLUSION: Researchers are currently able to access primary care EHR data from several sources. Choice of data resource is likely to be driven by project needs and access considerations. The landscape of data resources based on primary care EHRs in the UK continues to evolve.
Campbell K, Greenfield G, Li E, et al., 2023, The impact of virtual consultations on the quality of primary care: a systematic review, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 25, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 1438-8871
Background: The adoption of virtual consultations, catalysed by the COVID-19 pandemic, has transformed the delivery of primary care services. Due to its rapid global proliferation, there is a need to comprehensively evaluate the impact of virtual consultations on all aspects of care quality.Objective: We evaluated the impact of virtual consultations on the quality of primary care. Methods: Six databases were searched. Studies evaluating the impact of virtual consultations, for any disease, were included. Title and abstract screening, and full-text screening were performed by two pairs of investigators. Risk of bias was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. A narrative synthesis of the results was performed.Findings: Thirty studies (5,469,333 participants) were included in the review. Our findings suggest that virtual consultations are equally or more effective than F2F care for the management of conditions including mental illness, excessive smoking, and alcohol consumption. Four studies indicated positive impacts on some aspects of patient-centredness, however, a negative impact was noted on patients’ perceived autonomy support (i.e., the degree to which people perceive others in positions of authority to be autonomy supportive). Virtual consultations may reduce waiting times, lower patient costs, and reduce rates of follow-up in secondary and tertiary care. The evidence for the impact on clinical safety is extremely limited. Evidence regarding equity was considerably mixed. Overall, it appears that virtual care is more likely to be used by younger, female patients, with disparities between other subgroups depending on contextual factors.Conclusions: Our systematic review has demonstrated that virtual consultations may be equally as effective as F2F care and have a potentially positive impact on the efficiency and timeliness of care However, there is a considerable lack of evidence on the impacts on patient safety, equity, and patient-centredness
Majeed A, 2023, Direct access to cancer diagnostics: the promise and perils of bypassing GPs., BMJ, Vol: 382, Pages: p1917-p1917
Chan SCC, Neves AL, Majeed A, 2023, Electronic health records: don't underestimate the importance of implementation and training., BMJ, Vol: 382, Pages: 1915-1915
Campbell A, Borek AJ, McLeod M, et al., 2023, Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial stewardship support for general practices in England: a qualitative interview study., BJGP Open
BACKGROUND: In England, clinical commissioning group (CCG; now replaced by Integrated Care Systems [ICSs]) and primary care network (PCN) professionals support primary care prescribers to optimise antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). AIM: To explore views and experiences of CCG and PCN staff in supporting AMS, and the impact of COVID-19 on this support. DESIGN & SETTING: Qualitative interview study in primary care in England. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with staff from CCG and PCNs responsible for AMS were conducted at two timepoints via telephone. These were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with 14 participants (nine CCG, five PCN) in December 2020-January 2021 and February-May 2021. The study found that AMS support was (1) deprioritised in order to keep general practice operational and deliver COVID-19 vaccines; (2) disrupted as social distancing made it harder to build relationships, conduct routine AMS activities, and challenge prescribing decisions; and (3) adapted, with opportunities identified for greater use of technology and changing patient and public perceptions of viruses and self-care. It was also found that resources to support AMS were valued if they were both novel, to counter AMS 'fatigue', and sufficiently familiar to fit with existing and/or future AMS. CONCLUSION: AMS needs to be reprioritised in general practice in the post-pandemic era and within the new ICSs in England. This should include interventions and strategies that combine novel elements with already familiar strategies to refresh prescribers' motivation and opportunities for AMS. Behaviour change interventions should be aimed at improving the culture and processes for how PCN pharmacists voice concerns about AMS to prescribers in general practice and take advantage of the changed patient and public perceptions of viruses and self-care.
Thomson AM, McHugh TA, Oron AP, et al., 2023, Global, regional, and national prevalence and mortality burden of sickle cell disease, 2000-2021: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021, The Lancet Haematology, Vol: 10, Pages: e585-e599, ISSN: 2352-3026
BACKGROUND: Previous global analyses, with known underdiagnosis and single cause per death attribution systems, provide only a small insight into the suspected high population health effect of sickle cell disease. Completed as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2021, this study delivers a comprehensive global assessment of prevalence of sickle cell disease and mortality burden by age and sex for 204 countries and territories from 2000 to 2021. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific sickle cell disease mortality using standardised GBD approaches, in which each death is assigned to a single underlying cause, to estimate mortality rates from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-coded vital registration, surveillance, and verbal autopsy data. In parallel, our goal was to estimate a more accurate account of sickle cell disease health burden using four types of epidemiological data on sickle cell disease: birth incidence, age-specific prevalence, with-condition mortality (total deaths), and excess mortality (excess deaths). Systematic reviews, supplemented with ICD-coded hospital discharge and insurance claims data, informed this modelling approach. We employed DisMod-MR 2.1 to triangulate between these measures-borrowing strength from predictive covariates and across age, time, and geography-and generated internally consistent estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality for three distinct genotypes of sickle cell disease: homozygous sickle cell disease and severe sickle cell β-thalassaemia, sickle-haemoglobin C disease, and mild sickle cell β-thalassaemia. Summing the three models yielded final estimates of incidence at birth, prevalence by age and sex, and total sickle cell disease mortality, the latter of which was compared directly against cause-specific mortality estimates to evaluate differences in mortality burden assessment and implications for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). FINDINGS
Shin YH, Hwang J, Kwon R, et al., 2023, Global, regional, and national burden of allergic disorders and their risk factors in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019., Allergy, Vol: 78, Pages: 2232-2254
BACKGROUND: Asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) are chronic allergic conditions, along with allergic rhinitis and food allergy and cause high morbidity and mortality both in children and adults. This study aims to evaluate the global, regional, national, and temporal trends of the burden of asthma and AD from 1990 to 2019 and analyze their associations with geographic, demographic, social, and clinical factors. METHODS: Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019, we assessed the age-standardized prevalence, incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of both asthma and AD from 1990 to 2019, stratified by geographic region, age, sex, and socio-demographic index (SDI). DALYs were calculated as the sum of years lived with disability and years of life lost to premature mortality. Additionally, the disease burden of asthma attributable to high body mass index, occupational asthmagens, and smoking was described. RESULTS: In 2019, there were a total of 262 million [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 224-309 million] cases of asthma and 171 million [95% UI: 165-178 million] total cases of AD globally; age-standardized prevalence rates were 3416 [95% UI: 2899-4066] and 2277 [95% UI: 2192-2369] per 100,000 population for asthma and AD, respectively, a 24.1% [95% UI: -27.2 to -20.8] decrease for asthma and a 4.3% [95% UI: 3.8-4.8] decrease for AD compared to baseline in 1990. Both asthma and AD had similar trends according to age, with age-specific prevalence rates peaking at age 5-9 years and rising again in adulthood. The prevalence and incidence of asthma and AD were both higher for individuals with higher SDI; however, mortality and DALYs rates of individuals with asthma had a reverse trend, with higher mortality and DALYs rates in those in the lower SDI quintiles. Of the three risk factors, high body mass index contributed to the highest DALYs and deaths due to asthma, accounting for a total of 3.65 mil
Wasan T, Hayhoe B, Cicek M, et al., 2023, The effects of community interventions on unplanned healthcare use in patients with multimorbidity: a systematic review, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0141-0768
OBJECTIVES: To summarise the impact of community-based interventions for multimorbid patients on unplanned healthcare use. The prevalence of multimorbidity (co-existence of multiple chronic conditions) is rapidly increasing and affects one-third of the global population. Patients with multimorbidity have complex healthcare needs and greater unplanned healthcare usage. Community-based interventions allow for continued care of patients outside hospitals, but few studies have explored the effects of these interventions on unplanned healthcare usage. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and Cochrane Library online databases were searched. Studies were screened and underwent risk of bias assessment. Data were synthesised using narrative synthesis. SETTING: Community-based interventions. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with multimorbidity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Unplanned healthcare usage. RESULTS: Thirteen studies, including a total of 6148 participants, were included. All included studies came from high-income settings and had elderly populations. All studies measured emergency department attendances as their primary outcome. Risk of bias was generally low. Most community interventions were multifaceted with emphasis on education, self-monitoring of symptoms and regular follow-ups. Four studies looked at improved care coordination, advance care planning and palliative care. All 13 studies found a decrease in emergency department visits post-intervention with risk reduction ranging from 0 (95% confidencec interval [CI]: -0.37 to 0.37) to 0.735 (95% CI: 0.688-0.785). CONCLUSIONS: Community-based interventions have potential to reduce emergency department visits in patients with multimorbidity. Identification of specific successful components of interventions was challenging given the overlaps between interventions. Policymakers should recognise the importance of community interventions and aim to integrate aspects of these into existing healthcare
GBD 2021 Diabetes Collaborators, 2023, Global, regional, and national burden of diabetes from 1990 to 2021, with projections of prevalence to 2050: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021., The Lancet, Vol: 402, Pages: 203-234, ISSN: 0140-6736
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and affects people regardless of country, age group, or sex. Using the most recent evidentiary and analytical framework from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD), we produced location-specific, age-specific, and sex-specific estimates of diabetes prevalence and burden from 1990 to 2021, the proportion of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in 2021, the proportion of the type 2 diabetes burden attributable to selected risk factors, and projections of diabetes prevalence through 2050. METHODS: Estimates of diabetes prevalence and burden were computed in 204 countries and territories, across 25 age groups, for males and females separately and combined; these estimates comprised lost years of healthy life, measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; defined as the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]). We used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach to estimate deaths due to diabetes, incorporating 25 666 location-years of data from vital registration and verbal autopsy reports in separate total (including both type 1 and type 2 diabetes) and type-specific models. Other forms of diabetes, including gestational and monogenic diabetes, were not explicitly modelled. Total and type 1 diabetes prevalence was estimated by use of a Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, to analyse 1527 location-years of data from the scientific literature, survey microdata, and insurance claims; type 2 diabetes estimates were computed by subtracting type 1 diabetes from total estimates. Mortality and prevalence estimates, along with standard life expectancy and disability weights, were used to calculate YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs. When appropriate, we extrapolated estimates to a hypothetical population with a standardised age structure to allow comparison in populations with different age structures. We used the com
El-Osta A, Riboli Sasco E, Barbanti E, et al., 2023, Tools for measuring individual self-care capability: a scoping review, BMC Public Health, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-31, ISSN: 1471-2458
BackgroundOur ability to self-care can play a crucial role in the prevention, management and rehabilitation of diverse conditions, including chronic non-communicable diseases. Various tools have been developed to support the measurement of self-care capabilities of healthy individuals, those experiencing everyday self-limiting conditions, or one or more multiple long-term conditions. We sought to characterise the various non-mono-disease specific self-care measurement tools for adults as such a review was lacking.ObjectiveThe aim of the review was to identify and characterise the various non-mono-disease specific self-care measurement tools for adults. Secondary objectives were to characterise these tools in terms of their content, structure and psychometric properties.DesignScoping review with content assessment.MethodsThe search was conducted in Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases using a variety of MeSH terms and keywords covering 1 January 1950 to 30 November 2022. Inclusion criteria included tools assessing health literacy, capability and/or performance of general health self-care practices and targeting adults. We excluded tools targeting self-care in the context of disease management only or indicated to a specific medical setting or theme. We used the Seven Pillars of Self-Care framework to inform the qualitative content assessment of each tool.ResultsWe screened 26,304 reports to identify 38 relevant tools which were described in 42 primary reference studies. Descriptive analysis highlighted a temporal shift in the overall emphasis from rehabilitation-focused to prevention-focused tools. The intended method of administration also transitioned from observe-and-interview style methods to the utilisation of self-reporting tools. Only five tools incorporated questions relevant to the seven pillars of self-care.ConclusionsVarious tools exist to measure individual self-care capability, but few consider assessing capability against all seven pillars of s
Lai HTM, Chang K, Sharabiani MTA, et al., 2023, Twenty-year trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors among people with type 2 diabetes by dementia status in England: a retrospective cohort study, European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 38, Pages: 733-744, ISSN: 0393-2990
To assess 20-year retrospective trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors preceding dementia diagnosis among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We identified 227,145 people with T2D aged > 42 years between 1999 and 2018. Annual mean levels of eight routinely measured cardio-metabolic factors were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Multivariable multilevel piecewise and non-piecewise growth curve models assessed retrospective trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors by dementia status from up to 19 years preceding dementia diagnosis (dementia) or last contact with healthcare (no dementia). 23,546 patients developed dementia; mean (SD) follow-up was 10.0 (5.8) years. In the dementia group, mean systolic blood pressure increased 16-19 years before dementia diagnosis compared with patients without dementia, but declined more steeply from 16 years before diagnosis, while diastolic blood pressure generally declined at similar rates. Mean body mass index followed a steeper non-linear decline from 11 years before diagnosis in the dementia group. Mean blood lipid levels (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL) and glycaemic measures (fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c) were generally higher in the dementia group compared with those without dementia and followed similar patterns of change. However, absolute group differences were small. Differences in levels of cardio-metabolic factors were observed up to two decades prior to dementia diagnosis. Our findings suggest that a long follow-up is crucial to minimise reverse causation arising from changes in cardio-metabolic factors during preclinical dementia. Future investigations which address associations between cardiometabolic factors and dementia should account for potential non-linear relationships and consider the timeframe when measurements are taken.
Woodcock T, Greenfield G, Lalvani A, et al., 2023, Patient outcomes following emergency admission to hospital for COVID-19 compared with influenza: retrospective cohort study, Thorax, Vol: 78, Pages: 706-712, ISSN: 0040-6376
Background We examine differences in posthospitalisation outcomes, and health system resource use, for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 during the UK’s first pandemic wave in 2020, and influenza during 2018 and 2019.Methods This retrospective cohort study used routinely collected primary and secondary care data. Outcomes, measured for 90 days follow-up after discharge were length of stay in hospital, mortality, emergency readmission and primary care activity.Results The study included 5132 patients admitted to hospital as an emergency, with COVID-19 and influenza cohorts comprising 3799 and 1333 patients respectively. Patients in the COVID-19 cohort were more likely to stay in hospital longer than 10 days (OR 3.91, 95% CI 3.14 to 4.65); and more likely to die in hospital (OR 11.85, 95% CI 8.58 to 16.86) and within 90 days of discharge (OR 7.92, 95% CI 6.20 to 10.25). For those who survived, rates of emergency readmission within 90 days were comparable between COVID-19 and influenza cohorts (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.29), while primary care activity was greater among the COVID-19 cohort (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.37).Conclusions Patients admitted for COVID-19 were more likely to die, more likely to stay in hospital for over 10 days and interact more with primary care after discharge, than patients admitted for influenza. However, readmission rates were similar for both groups. These findings, while situated in the context of the first wave of COVID-19, with the associated pressures on the health system, can inform health service planning for subsequent waves of COVID-19, and show that patients with COVID-19 interact more with healthcare services as well as having poorer outcomes than those with influenza.
Toumpakari Z, Valerino-Perea S, Willis K, et al., 2023, Exploring views of members of the public and policymakers on the acceptability of population level dietary and active-travel policies: a qualitative study., Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, Vol: 20
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on what shapes the acceptability of population level dietary and active-travel policies in England. This information would be useful in the decision-making process about which policies should be implemented and how to increase their effectiveness and sustainability. To fill this gap, we explored public and policymakers' views about factors that influence public acceptability of dietary and active-travel policies and how to increase public acceptability for these policies. METHODS: We conducted online, semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the public and 20 policymakers in England. A purposive sampling frame was used to recruit members of the public via a recruitment agency, based on age, sex, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Policymakers were recruited from existing contacts within our research collaborations and via snowball sampling. We explored different dietary and active-travel policies that varied in their scope and focus. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic reflexive analysis with both inductive and deductive coding. RESULTS: We identified four themes that informed public acceptability of dietary and active-travel policies: (1) perceived policy effectiveness, i.e., policies that included believable mechanisms of action, addressed valued co-benefits and barriers to engage in the behaviour; (2) perceived policy fairness, i.e., policies that provided everyone with an opportunity to benefit (mentioned only by the public), equally considered the needs of various population subgroups and rewarded 'healthy' behaviours rather than only penalising 'unhealthy' behaviours; (3) communication of policies, i.e., policies that were visible and had consistent and positive messages from the media (mentioned only by policymakers) and (4) how to improve policy support, with the main suggestion being an integrated strategy addressing multiple aspects of these behaviours, inclusive policies that conside
Palladino R, Marrie RA, Majeed A, et al., 2023, Management of vascular risk in people with multiple sclerosis at the time of diagnosis in England: a population-based study, Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Vol: 29, Pages: 671-679, ISSN: 1352-4585
BACKGROUND: Vascular management in People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) is important given the higher vascular burden than the general population, associated with increased disability and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We assessed differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension; and the use of antidiabetic, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications at the time of the MS diagnosis. METHODS: This is a population-based study including PwMS and matched controls between 1987 and 2018 in England. RESULTS: We identified 12,251 PwMS and 72,572 matched controls. PwMS had a 30% increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19, 1.42). Among those with type 2 diabetes, PwMS had a 56% lower prevalence of antidiabetic usage (95% CI = 0.33, 0.58). Prevalence of hypertension was 6% greater in PwMS (95% CI = 1.05, 1.06), but in those with hypertension, usage of antihypertensive was 66% lower in PwMS (95% CI = 0.28, 0.42) than controls. Treatment with lipid-lowering medications was 63% lower in PwMS (95% CI = 0.54, 0.74). PwMS had a 0.4-mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure (95% CI = -0.60, -0.13). 3.8% of PwMS were frail. CONCLUSION: At the time of diagnosis, PwMS have an increased prevalence of vascular risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes though paradoxically, there is poorer treatment. Clinical guidelines supporting appropriate vascular assessment and management in PwMS should be developed.
Shemtob L, Parekh R, Majeed A GP, 2023, Changes to the GP contract do not add up, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 381, Pages: 770-770, ISSN: 0959-535X
Majeed A, 2023, The covid-19 pandemic three years on., BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 381, Pages: 769-769, ISSN: 0959-535X
Gaitatzis A, Majeed A, 2023, Multimorbidity in people with epilepsy, Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy, Vol: 107, Pages: 136-145, ISSN: 1059-1311
Multimorbidity is an emerging priority in healthcare due to associations with the ageing population, frailty, polypharmacy, health and social care demands. It affects 60-70% of adults and 80% of children with epilepsy. Neurodevelopmental conditions are commonly seen in children with epilepsy, while cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative conditions often afflict older people with epilepsy. Mental health problems are common across the lifespan. Genetic, environmental, social and lifestyle factors contribute to multimorbidity and its consequences. Multimorbid people with epilepsy (PWE) are at higher risk of depression and suicide, premature death, suffer lower health-related quality of life, and require more hospital admissions and health care costs. The best management of multimorbid PWE requires a paradigm shift from the traditional single disease-single comorbidity approach and a refocus on a person-centred approach. Improvements in health care must be informed by assessing the burden of multimorbidity associated with epilepsy, delineating disease clusters, and measuring the effects on health outcomes.
Majeed A, 2023, Author's reply to Sundar., BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 380, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0959-535X
Shemtob L, Beaney T, Norton J, et al., 2023, How can we improve the quality of data collected in general practice?, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 380, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 0959-535X
Pinder R, Bury F, Sathyamoorthy G, et al., 2023, Differential attainment in specialty training recruitment in the United Kingdom: an observational analysis of the impact of psychometric testing assessment in Public Health postgraduate selection, BMJ Open, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives To determine how current psychometric testing approaches used in selection of postgraduate training in UK Public Health are associated with socioeconomic and sociocultural background of applicants (including ethnicity).Design Observational study using contemporaneous data collected during recruitment and psychometric test scores.Setting Assessment centre of UK national Public Health recruitment for postgraduate Public Health training. The assessment centre element of selection comprises three psychometric assessments: Rust Advanced Numerical Reasoning, Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Assessment II and Public Health situational judgement test.Participants 629 applicants completed the assessment centre in 2021. 219 (34.8%) were UK medical graduates, 73 (11.6%) were international medical graduates and 337 (53.6%) were from backgrounds other than medicine.Main outcome measure Multivariable-adjusted progression statistics in the form of adjusted OR (aOR), accounting for age, sex, ethnicity, professional background and surrogate measures of familial socioeconomic and sociocultural status.Results 357 (56.8%) candidates passed all three psychometric tests. Candidate characteristics negatively associated with progression were black ethnicity (aOR 0.19, 0.08 to 0.44), Asian ethnicity (aOR 0.35, 0.16 to 0.71) and coming from a non-UK medical graduate background (aOR 0.05, 0.03 to 0.12); similar differential attainment was observed in each of the psychometric tests. Even within the UK-trained medical cohort, candidates from white British backgrounds were more likely to progress than those from ethnic minorities (89.2% vs 75.0%, p=0.003).Conclusion Although perceived to mitigate the risks of conscious and unconscious bias in selection to medical postgraduate training, these psychometric tests demonstrate unexplained variation that suggests differential attainment. Other specialties should enhance their data collection to evaluate the impact of differential attainment
Sekhon Inderjit Singh HK, Lal N, Majeed A, et al., 2023, A systematic review of ethnic disparities in the uptake of colorectal cancer screening, Perspectives in Public Health, Vol: 143, Pages: 105-120, ISSN: 1466-4240
AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces mortality, but variation exists in uptake. Ethnicity is suggested to play a role; however, there is no high-level evidence to support this. We aim to clarify the impact of Ethnicity on CRC screening uptake and our barriers to its understanding. METHODS: A systematic review to identify studies reporting on the participation of ethnic minorities in CRC screening worldwide was performed. MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar databases up until 31 May 2019 were searched. Compliance with screening according to ethnic groups and screening modality was evaluated compared to the 'White' control group. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included in the review reporting on 2,084,213 patients. Substantial variation in categorisation of ethnicities (40 sub-categories), screening modality studied and confounding factors accounted for was observed. 8/15 studies for 'Blacks', 10/13 for 'Hispanics', 2/2 for 'Asians' and 1/1 for 'South East Asians' suggest a less likely or significantly decreased compliance with screening for all screening modalities (p < .05) compared to 'Whites'. Interestingly 'Japanese', 'Vietnamese' and 'Filipino' groups consistently show no difference in the uptake of CRC screening compared to the 'White' majority. CONCLUSION: This is the only systematic review on this topic. It highlights the inconsistency in screening uptake behaviour in different ethnic minority groups and identifies barriers like variation in ethnicity categorisation, screening modality and study design utilised to understanding the intricacies of this relationship. Further collaboration and action needs to be undertaken internationally to clarify and improve inequity in the uptake of screening.
Global Burden of Disease 2021 Health Financing Collaborator Network, 2023, Global investments in pandemic preparedness and COVID-19: development assistance and domestic spending on health between 1990 and 2026, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 11, Pages: e385-e413, ISSN: 2214-109X
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted gaps in health surveillance systems, disease prevention, and treatment globally. Among the many factors that might have led to these gaps is the issue of the financing of national health systems, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), as well as a robust global system for pandemic preparedness. We aimed to provide a comparative assessment of global health spending at the onset of the pandemic; characterise the amount of development assistance for pandemic preparedness and response disbursed in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic; and examine expectations for future health spending and put into context the expected need for investment in pandemic preparedness. METHODS: In this analysis of global health spending between 1990 and 2021, and prediction from 2021 to 2026, we estimated four sources of health spending: development assistance for health (DAH), government spending, out-of-pocket spending, and prepaid private spending across 204 countries and territories. We used the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Creditor Reporting System (CRS) and the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database (GHED) to estimate spending. We estimated development assistance for general health, COVID-19 response, and pandemic preparedness and response using a keyword search. Health spending estimates were combined with estimates of resources needed for pandemic prevention and preparedness to analyse future health spending patterns, relative to need. FINDINGS: In 2019, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, US$9·2 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 9·1-9·3) was spent on health worldwide. We found great disparities in the amount of resources devoted to health, with high-income countries spending $7·3 trillion (95% UI 7·2-7·4) in 2019; 293·7 times the $24·8 billion (95% UI 24·3-25·3) spent by low-income countries in 20
Shemtob L, Asanati K, Pahl N, et al., 2023, What needs to be done to address staffing shortages in health and social care?, British Journal of General Practice, Vol: 73, Pages: 102-103, ISSN: 0960-1643
England’s NHS does not have an adequate workforce strategy. Staffing shortages in health and adult social care are limiting the delivery of services. Adult social care, which is more organisationally heterogeneous than the NHS, also has a staffing crisis. There are over 250 000 vacant posts across both sectors.1,2 The two systems are symbiotic, and their staffing issues must be addressed together. As the main gateway for patient access to the rest of the NHS, general practice teams hold responsibility for providing care for patients in the community. General practice is hit by the staffing deficit twice over, soaking up additional demand caused by shortfalls in secondary care and social care while grappling with its own staffing crisis. What is the relationship between staff levels, financial cost, and staff and patient welfare across the NHS and social care, and what are the potential solutions?
Cornforth F, Webber L, Kerr G, et al., 2023, Impact of COVID-19 vaccination on COVID-19 hospital admissions in England during 2021: an observational study., Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol: 116, Pages: 167-176, ISSN: 0141-0768
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on hospital admissions in England in 2021. DESIGN: Observational study of emergency admissions for COVID-19 by vaccination status in people 16 years and over in England. SETTING: Hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 48.1 million people registered with an English GP, aged ≥16 years with a recent NHS contact. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Emergency hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 between 1 January and 31 December 2021. Monthly admission rates were directly standardised for age, sex, risk category and vaccination dose to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) over time, between vaccine doses, age groups and risk groups. RESULTS: A total of 192,047 hospital admissions were included. The unvaccinated admission rate was higher in December 2021 (6.1 admissions per 100,000 person-days; 95% CI: 5.9 to 6.3) than January 2021 (4.9; 95% CI: 4.9 to 5.0). Vaccinated admission rates were ≤1 per 100,000 from February to December. Doses 1 and 2 VE waned over time, particularly in older and clinically vulnerable groups (although this may reflect that they were vaccinated earlier). Dose 3 VE remained above 93%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 hospitalisations were consistently highest in the unvaccinated. Despite high case rates at the end of 2021, overall admission rates remained stable, driven by low admission rates among vaccinated people. There is population-level waning in VE, recovering after subsequent doses, potentially more marked in older and at-risk groups. The findings support JCVI (Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation) guidance for an ongoing booster programme, especially in older people and higher clinical risk groups.
Majeed A, 2023, Let's look dispassionately at the arguments for and against user fees for NHS primary care in England, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 380, Pages: 303-303, ISSN: 0959-535X
Woodcock T, Novov V, Skirrow H, et al., 2023, Health and socio-demographic characteristics associated with uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination amongst pregnant women: retrospective cohort study, British Journal of General Practice, Vol: 73, Pages: e148-e155, ISSN: 0960-1643
Pregnant women are at increased risk from influenza, yet maternal influenza vaccination levels remain suboptimal. This study aimed to estimate associations between socio-demographic and health characteristics and seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among pregnant women and understand trends over time to inform interventions to improve vaccine coverage. A retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records of women in North West London with at least one pregnancy overlapping with an influenza season between September 2010 and February 2020. We used a multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model to identify associations between characteristics of interest and primary outcome of influenza vaccination. 451,954 pregnancies, among 260,744 women, were included. In 85,376 (18.9%) pregnancies women were vaccinated against seasonal influenza. Uptake increased from 8.4% in 2010/11 to 26.3% in 2018/19, dropping again to 21.1% in 2019/20. Uptake was lowest among women: aged 15-19 years (12%) or over 40 years (15%; OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.24); of Black ethnicity (14.1%; OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.57), or unknown ethnicity (9.9%; OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.46), lived in more deprived areas (OR least vs most deprived 1.16, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.21), or with no known risk factors for severe influenza. Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in pregnant women increased in the past decade, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, but remained suboptimal. We recommend approaches to reducing health inequalities should focus on women of Black ethnicity, younger and older women, and women living in areas of greater socio-economic deprivation.
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