274 results found
Salman D, Le Feuvre P, Hill O, et al., 2023, Movement Foundations. The perceived impact of a digital rehabilitation tool for returning to fitness following a period of illness, including Covid-19 infection: a qualitative study, BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, ISSN: 2055-7647
Digital interventions can increase physical activity (PA) levels in adults. However, the Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the complexities faced when guiding people to start, or return to, PA following illness or inactivity. A digital tool, Movement Foundations, was developed to provide remote guidance on building strength and capacity across functional movement patterns, with graduated progression based on user responses and input. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perceived impacts of using the tool. Nine participants aged over 35 years from the healthcare and academic healthcare sectors were recruited to use it and were subsequently interviewed. Thematic analysis identified three themes falling under the overarching concept of COM-B Plus (Capability, Opportunity and Motivation-Behaviour), encompassing: skills and capacity for movement; opportunities, motivations and barriers for movement; and a personalised, safe space in which to develop. Participants felt that the digital tool increased their capacity and confidence in movement and positively impacted their daily activities. External factors such as illness and stress clouded perceptions of the impacts of PA. Time, work pressures and needing equipment were still considered significant barriers to PA. Still, participants appreciated the flexibility and non-prescriptive nature of the tool and felt that it helped movement to become opportunistic and habitual. Increased capacity for PA and feeling the subsequent physical and mental effects positively influenced motivation. Structure and guidance, with graduated progress, were seen as protective. Guided self-reflection helped participants understand their capacity and limitations with regard to movement and promoted motivation. Although acquiring technical skills to guide movement may be important for those recovering from illness, participants found that a structure promoting individualised guidance, graduated progression and guided self-reflection were impo
Hohenschurz-Schmidt D, Draper-Rodi DJ, Vase PL, et al., 2023, Blinding and sham control methods in trials of physical, psychological, and self-management interventions for pain (article II): a meta-analysis relating methods to trial results, Pain, Vol: 164, Pages: 509-533, ISSN: 0304-3959
Sham interventions in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of physical, psychological, and self-management (PPS) therapies for pain are highly variable in design and thought to contribute to poor internal validity. It has, however, not been formally tested whether the extent to which sham controls resemble the treatment under investigation consistently affects trial outcomes, such as effect sizes, differential attrition, participant expectancy, and blinding effectiveness.Placebo or sham-controlled RCTs of PPS interventions of clinical pain populations were searched in twelve databases. The similarity of control interventions to the experimental treatment was rated across 25 features. Meta-regression analyses assessed putative links between employed control interventions, observed effect sizes in pain-related outcomes, attrition, and blinding success.The sample included 198 unique control interventions, dominated by manual therapy and chronic musculoskeletal pain research. Meta-analyses indicated small to moderate benefit of active treatments over control interventions, across subgroups of manual therapies, exercise, and rehabilitation, and psychological intervention trials. Multiple meta-regression modelling demonstrated that similarity between sham control and tested interventions predicted variability in pain-related outcomes, attrition, and blinding effectiveness. Influential were differences relating to the extent of intervention exposure, participant experience, and treatment environments.The results support the supposed link between blinding methods and effect sizes, based on a large and systematically sourced overview of methods. Challenges to effective blinding are, however, complex, and often difficult to discern from trial reports. Nonetheless, these insights have the potential to change trial design, conduct, and reporting and will inform guideline development.
McMenemy L, Behan F, Kaufmann J, et al., 2023, Association between combat-related traumatic injury and skeletal health: bone mineral density loss is localised and correlates with altered loading in amputees - The ADVANCE Study, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN: 0884-0431
Ding Z, Henson D, Sivapuratharasu B, et al., 2023, The effect of muscle atrophy in people with unilateral transtibial amputation for three activities: gait alone does not tell the whole story, Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN: 0021-9290
Panhelleux B, Shalhoub J, Silverman A, et al., 2022, A review of through-knee amputation, Vascular, Vol: 30, Pages: 1149-1159, ISSN: 0967-2109
Objectives: Through knee amputation (TKA) is an umbrella term for several different surgical techniques, which may affect clinical and functional outcomes. This makes it hard to evaluate the benefits and need for a TKA approach. This paper seeks to: (1) Determine the number of TKAs performed compared with other major lower limb amputations (MLLA) in England over the past decade; (2) identify the theoretical concepts behind TKA surgical approaches and their potential effect on functional and clinical outcomes; and (3) provide a platform for discussion and research on TKA and surgical outcomes.Methods: National Health Service Hospital Episodes Statistics were used to obtain recent numbers of MLLAs in England. EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched using a systematic approach with predefined criteria for relevant literature on TKA surgery.Results: In the past decade, 4.6% of MLLA in England were TKAs. Twenty-six articles presenting TKA surgical techniques met our criteria. These articles detailed three TKA surgical techniques; the classical approach, which keeps the femur intact and retains the patella; the Mazet technique, which shaves the femoral condyles into a box shape; and the Gritti-Stokes technique, which divides the femur proximal to the level of the condyles and attaches the patella at the distal cut femur.Conclusions: TKA has persisted as a surgical approach over the past decade, with three core approaches identified. Studies reporting clinical, functional, and biomechanical outcomes of TKA frequently fail to distinguish between the 3 distinct and differing approaches, making direct comparisons difficult. Future studies that compare TKA approaches to one another and to other amputation levels are needed.
Bicer M, Phillips ATM, Melis A, et al., 2022, Generative deep learning applied to biomechanics: A new augmentation technique for motion capture datasets, JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 144, ISSN: 0021-9290
- Author Web Link
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Chaudhari N, Strutton PH, Wickham AJ, et al., 2022, Heat stress associated with aerosol PPE and its impact, OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE-OXFORD, ISSN: 0962-7480
Rowland S, Fitzgerald EJ, Lungren M, et al., 2022, Digital health technology-specific risks for medical malpractice liability, npj Digital Medicine, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2398-6352
The global digital health market is worth approximately 300 billion USD1 and is predicted to grow by up to 25% this year. Consequently, medical professionals are increasingly required to use digital technologies such as telehealth platforms, AI-driven clinical decision-making tools, digitally enabled surgical tools, mHealth technologies, or electronic health care records (EHR), as part of care delivery. These technologies hold clear benefits for enabling more efficient, modern care delivery however there are significant challenges to implementation, including when and how to use them, how to enable an accurate medical diagnosis in a virtual environment, interpretation and relevance of novel data points from digital devices, the potential for automation bias, appropriate utilisation of and engagement with digital disease management platforms and continuity of care in a digital world. Several of these issues have become apparent through the pandemic due to the hasty deployment of novel technologies as ‘bolt-on’ solutions to address standalone challenges in healthcare delivery, without consideration of the broader healthcare architecture. The majority of practicing clinicians are not sufficiently trained in how to safely integrate digital health technologies into the clinical workflow before encountering such technologies in practice. The introduction of digital health technologies may therefore represent a risk for medical error and subsequent malpractice liability. Medical malpractice is frequently defined as a physician’s failure to comply with customary medical practice,2 however the application of this standard in the context of digital health is challenging. What are the accepted norms for history and examination during a telehealth consult? How should these be documented on electronic systems? When is it safe to offer digital first solutions for disease management? What is the custom for clinicians to ensure continuity of care? If there is a me
Clunie G, Belsi A, Roe J, et al., 2022, “Is there something wrong with your voice?” A qualitative study of the voice concerns of people with laryngotracheal stenosis, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, ISSN: 1368-2822
BackgroundAcquired laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a rare condition that causes breathlessness and dyspnoea. Patients have reconstructive airway surgery to improve their breathing difficulties, but both LTS and the surgery can cause voice difficulties. The existing evidence base for management of the voice difficulties for adults with LTS focuses on symptoms. There is limited information to provide clinical guidance for speech and language therapists (SLTs), and limited understanding of the impact of voice changes on adults with LTS. AimTo investigate the lived experience of adults with laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS), who have had reconstructive surgery; here focussing on voice concerns with the aim of guiding clinical care for SLTs.Methods & ProceduresA phenomenological, qualitative study design was used. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were completed with adults living with LTS who had had reconstructive surgery. Audio-recordings were transcribed and inductive thematic analysis was used by the research team to identify themes and sub-themes. Outcomes & ResultsA total of 24 participants (5 focus groups and 2 interviews) took part in the study before thematic saturation was identified in analysis. Three main themes were identified specific to the experience of living with LTS: the Medical, Physical and Emotional journey. All participants referenced voice difficulties as they related to each of these overall themes. Sub-themes directly related to voice included: experience of surgery, information provision, staff expertise/complacency, symptoms, symptom management, identity, support networks, impact on life and living with a chronic condition. Conclusions & ImplicationsIn this qualitative study participants have described the integral part voice difficulties play in their lived experience of LTS and reconstructive surgery. This is considered in the context of their clinical care and the need for individualised management and information prov
Clunie G, Anderson C, Hughes C, et al., 2022, “A major quality of life issue”: A survey-based analysis of the experiences of adults with laryngotracheal stenosis with mucus and cough, Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Vol: 131, Pages: 962-970, ISSN: 0003-4894
Objectives:To investigate how the symptoms of mucus and cough impact adults living with laryngotracheal stenosis, and to use this information to guide future research and treatment plans.Methods:A survey was developed with the support of patient advisors and distributed to people suffering with laryngotracheal stenosis. The survey comprised 15 closed and open questions relating to mucus and cough and included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Descriptive statistics, X2 and thematic analyses were completed.Results:In total, 641 participants completed the survey, with 83.62% (n = 536) reporting problems with mucus; 79% having daily issues of varying severity that led to difficulties with cough (46.18%) and breathing (20.90%). Mucus affected voice and swallowing to a lesser degree. Respondents described a range of triggers; they identified smoky air as the worst environmental trigger. Strategies to manage mucus varied widely with drinking water (72.26%), increasing liquid intake in general (49.35%) and avoiding or reducing dairy (45.32%) the most common approaches to control symptoms. The LCQ showed a median total score of 14 (interquartile range 11-17) indicative of cough negatively affecting quality of life. Thematic analysis of free text responses identified 4 key themes—the Mucus Cycle, Social impact, Psychological impact, and Physical impact.Conclusion:This study shows the relevance of research focusing on mucus and cough and its negative impact on quality of life, among adults with laryngotracheal stenosis. It demonstrates the inconsistent advice and management strategies provided by clinicians for this issue. Further research is required to identify clearer treatment options and pathways.
Chidambaram S, Maheswaran Y, Patel K, et al., 2022, Using Artificial Intelligence-Enhanced Sensing and Wearable Technology in Sports Medicine and Performance Optimisation, SENSORS, Vol: 22
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Sanz-Pena I, Arachchi S, Curtis-Woodcock N, et al., 2022, Obtaining patient torso geometry for the design of scoliosis braces. A study of the accuracy and repeatability of handheld 3D scanners, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, Vol: 46, Pages: e374-e382, ISSN: 0309-3646
Objective: Obtaining patient geometry is crucial in scoliosis brace design for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Advances in 3D scanning technologies provide the opportunity to obtain patient geometries quickly with fewer resources during the design process compared with the plaster-cast method. This study assesses the accuracy and repeatability of such technologies for this application.Methods: The accuracy and repeatability of three different handheld scanners and phone-photogrammetry was assessed using different mesh generation software. Twenty-four scans of a single subject's torso were analyzed for accuracy and repeatability based on anatomical landmark distances and surface deviation maps.Results: Mark II and Structure ST01 scanners showed maximum mean surface deviations of 1.74 ± 3.63 mm and 1.64 ± 3.06 mm, respectively. Deviations were lower for the Peel 1 scanner (maximum of −0.35 ± 2.8 mm) but higher with the use of phone-photogrammetry (maximum of −5.1 ± 4.8 mm). The mean absolute errors of anatomical landmark distance measurements from torso meshes obtained with the Peel 1, Mark II, and ST01 scanners were all within 9.3 mm (3.6%), whereas phone-photogrammetry errors were as high as 18 mm (7%).Conclusions: Low-cost Mark II and ST01 scanners are recommended for obtaining torso geometries because of their accuracy and repeatability. Subject’s breathing/movement affects the resultant geometry around the abdominal and anterolateral regions.
Saggu R, Barlow P, Butler J, et al., 2022, Considerations for mulitmodal prehabilitation in women with gynaecological cancers: a scoping review using realist principles, BMC Women's Health, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-35, ISSN: 1472-6874
Background: There is increasing recognition that prehabilitation is important as a means of preparing patients physically and psychologically for cancer treatment. However, little is understood about the role and optimal nature of prehabilitation for gynaecological cancer patients, who usually face extensive and life-changing surgery in addition to other treatments that impact significantly on physiological and psychosexual wellbeing. Review question: This scoping review was conducted to collate the research evidence on multimodal prehabilitation in gynaecological cancers and the related barriers and facilitators to engagement and delivery that should be considered when designing a prehabilitation intervention for this group of women. Methods: Seven medical databases and four grey literature repositories were searched from database inception to September 2021. All articles, reporting on multimodal prehabilitation in gynaecological cancers were included in the final review, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods. Qualitative on unimodal interventions were also included, as these were thought to be more likely to include information about barriers and facilitators which could also be relevant to multimodal interventions. A realist framework of context, mechanism and outcome was used to assist interpretation of findings. Results: In total, 24 studies were included in the final review. The studies included the following tumour groups: ovarian only (n=12), endometrial only (n=1), mixed ovarian, endometrial, vulvar (n=5) and non-specific gynaecological tumours (n=6). There was considerable variation across studies in terms of screening for prehabilitation, delivery of prehabilitation and outcome measures. Key mechanisms and contexts influencing engagement with prehabilitation can be summarised as: 1) The role of healthcare professionals and organisations 2) Patients’ perceptions of acceptability 3) Factors influencing patient motivation 4) Prehabilita
Hohenschurz-Schmidt D, Draper-Rodi DJ, Vase PL, et al., 2022, Blinding and sham control methods in trials of physical, psychological, and self-management interventions for pain (Article I): a systematic review and description of methods, Pain, Vol: Publish Ahead of Print, ISSN: 0304-3959
Blinding is challenging in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of physical, psychological, and self-management therapies (PPS) for pain, mainly due to their complex and participatory nature. To develop standards for the design, implementation, and reporting of control interventions in efficacy and mechanistic trials, a systematic overview of currently employed sham interventions and other blinding methods was required.Twelve databases were searched for placebo or sham controlled RCTs of PPS treatments in a clinical pain population. Screening and data extraction were performed in duplicate, and trial features, description of control methods and their similarity to the active intervention under investigation were extracted (protocol registration ID: CRD42020206590).The review included 198 unique control interventions, published between 2008 and December 2021. Most trials studied people with chronic pain, and more than half were manual therapy trials. The described control interventions ranged from clearly modelled based on the active treatment, to largely dissimilar control interventions. Similarity between control and active interventions was more frequent for certain aspects (e.g., duration and frequency of treatments) than others (e.g., physical treatment procedures and patient sensory experiences). We also provide an overview of additional, potentially useful methods to enhance blinding, as well as the reporting of processes involved in developing control interventions.A comprehensive picture of prevalent blinding methods is provided, including a detailed assessment of the resemblance between active and control interventions. These findings can inform future developments of control interventions in efficacy and mechanistic trials and best-practice recommendations.
Allott N, McGregor A, Banger M, 2022, Evaluating the diagnostic pathway for acute ACL injuries in trauma centres: A systematic review, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1471-2474
Objective: This review sought to evaluate the literature on the initial assessment and diagnostic pathway for patients with a suspected Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear.Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were systematically searched for eligible studies, PRISMA guidelines were followed. Studies were included if they used at least one assessment method to assess for ACL injury and participants were assessed at an acute trauma centre within 6-weeks of injury. Article quality was evaluated using the QUADAS-2 checklist. Results: A total of 353 studies were assessed for eligibility, 347 were excluded for the following reasons: injuries were not assessed in an acute trauma setting, injuries were not acute, participants had previous ACL injuries or chronic joint deformities affecting the knee, participants were under 18, or participants included animals or cadavers. A total of six studies were included in the review. Common assessment methods included: laxity tests, joint effusion, inability to continue activity, and a history of a ‘pop’ and ‘giving way’ at the time of injury. Diagnostic accuracy varied greatly between the assessment method and the assessing clinician. Gold standard diagnostics were MRI and arthroscopy. A weighted meta-mean calculated the time to reach diagnosis to be 68.60 days [CI 23.94, 113.24]. The mean number of appointments to reach diagnosis varied from 2-5. Delay to surgery or surgical consultation ranged from 61 to 328 days. Conclusion: Clinicians in the Emergency Department are not proficient in performing the assessment methods that are used for diagnosis in acute ACL injury. Reliance on specialist assessments or radiological methods inevitably increases the time to reach a diagnosis, which has repercussions on management options. There is an ever-growing demand to improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency; further exploration into , quantitative measures of instability would aid the assessment of peripheral joi
Hopkins M, Turner S, McGregor A, 2022, Mapping lower-limb prosthesis load distributions using a low-cost pressure measurement system, Frontiers in Medical Technology, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2673-3129
Background: In the UK 55,000 people live with a major limb amputation. The prosthetic socket is problematic for users in relation to comfort and acceptance of the prosthesis; and is associated with the development of cysts and sores.Objectives: We have developed a prototype low-cost system combining low-profile pressure sensitive sensors with an inertial measurement unit to assess loading distribution within prosthetic sockets. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of this prototype to assess in-socket loading profiles of a person with an amputation during walking, with a view to understanding socket design and fit.Methods: The device was evaluated on four transtibial participants of various age and activity levels. The pressure sensors were embedded in the subject's sockets and an inertial measurement unit was attached to the posterior side of the socket. Measurements were taken during level walking in a gait lab.Results: The sensors were able to dynamically collect data, informing loading profiles within the socket which were in line with expected distributions for patellar-tendon-bearing and total-surface-bearing sockets. The patellar tendon bearing subject displayed loading predominately at the patellar tendon, tibial and lateral gastrocnemius regions. The total-surface bearing subjects indicated even load distribution throughout the socket except in one participant who presented with a large socket-foot misalignment.Conclusions: The sensors provided objective data showing the pressure distributions inside the prosthetic socket. The sensors were able to measure the pressure in the socket with sufficient accuracy to distinguish pressure regions that matched expected loading patterns. The information may be useful to aid fitting of complex residual limbs and for those with reduced sensation in their residual limb, alongside the subjective feedback from prosthesis users.
Greenwood J, Hurley M, McGregor A, et al., 2022, A qualitative evaluation of participants experiences of living with back pain, lumbar fusion surgery, and post-operative rehabilitation, Pilot and Feasibility Studies, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2055-5784
BackgroundThe use of lumbar fusion surgery is increasing in developed economies. High levels of patient dissatisfaction are reported post-operatively. To address this need, we developed a theoretically informed rehabilitation programme for use following lumbar fusion surgery (the REFS programme). We conducted a mixed methods randomised controlled feasibility study (REFS v ‘usual care’). The numerical and feasibility outcomes are reported separately. The current qualitative study was ‘nested’ within the main feasibility study to explore participants’ experiences before and after lumbar fusion surgery including the impact of rehabilitation content. This facilitated a deeper understanding of potential mechanisms of action, for theoretical and programme refinement.MethodsA purposive sample (n = 10 ‘usual care’, n = 10 REFS) was identified from the main feasibility study cohort. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted post-operatively (median 8 months, range 5–11). Interview data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analysed thematically.ResultsThree themes were constructed: the breadth and severity of impact associated with a chronic lumbar disorder was summarised in theme 1, ‘Ever-decreasing circles; living with a chronic lumbar disorder’. Theme 2, ‘What have I done? Reflections on recovery from lumbar fusion surgery’, illustrated participants post-operative helplessness, which was associated with worsening mental health, problematic use of opioids, fear related to the instillation of metalware, and the important mitigating effect of informal social support. Theme 3 ‘Rehabilitation experiences’ identified critical rehabilitation programme content including exercise, a shared rehabilitation experience, the opportunity for vicarious learning, and professional expertise.ConclusionsTo enhance patient benefit future REFS programme iterations s
McGregor A, Clunie G, Hall H, et al., 2022, Patient and practitioner perspectives on the design of a simulated affective touch device to reduce procedural anxiety associated with radiotherapy: a qualitative study, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objective The aim of this study was to elicit the views of relevant stakeholders on the design of a device using simulated affective touch to reduce procedural anxiety surrounding radiotherapy and imaging. Design This qualitative study collected data from focus groups which were then analysed using inductive thematic analysis in line with Braun and Clarke’s methods. Participants and setting Twenty patients and carers were recruited, as well as ten healthcare practitioners involved in either delivering radiotherapy or imaging procedures. Results Patients, carers and healthcare practitioners agreed on some aspects of the device design, such as ensuring the device is warm and flexible in where it can be used on the body. However, patient and healthcare practitioner cohorts had at times differing viewpoints. For example, healthcare practitioners provided professional perspectives and required easy cleaning of the device. Meanwhile patients focused on anxiety relieving factors, such as the tactile sensation of the device being either a vibration or pulsation. There was no consensus on who should control the device. Conclusions The desired features of a simulated affective touch device have been investigated. Different priorities of patients and their carers and healthcare practitioners were evident. Any design must incorporate such features as to appease both groups. Areas where no consensus was reached could be further explored, alongside including further patient and public involvement in the form of a project advisory group.
Gimson E, Greca Dottori M, Clunie G, et al., 2022, Not as simple as “fear of the unknown”: a qualitative study exploring anxiety in the radiotherapy department, European Journal of Cancer Care, Vol: 31, ISSN: 0961-5423
Objective:Little is understood about the anxiety experienced by cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy or investigative imaging. Our aim was to identify sources of anxiety, the points along the cancer journey where anxiety occurred and methods to alleviate it.Methods:Six focus groups were conducted with cancer patients (n = 17), caregivers (n = 3) and healthcare practitioners (HCPs; n = 10) in the radiotherapy department. Patients described specific elements in the care pathway which induced anxiety, while HCPs focused on their perception of the patient experience. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data.Results:Three broad themes emerged: The Environment, The Individual and The Unknown. The physical environment of the hospital, inside the scanner for example, emerged as a key source of anxiety. The impact of cancer on patients' individual lives was significant, with many feeling isolated. The majority of participants described anxiety associated with the unknown. HCPs reported difficulty in identifying the anxious patient.Conclusions:Anxiety is experienced throughout the cancer pathway. Common sources include the physical environment and the uncertainty associated with having cancer. Identifying both anxiety-inducing factors, and the anxious patients themselves, is crucial to enable targeted interventions to alleviate anxiety.
Tukanova K, Banger M, Hanna G, et al., 2022, Assessment of changes in chest wall mechanics in esophageal cancer survivors using a 3D-motion capture system, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X
Turner S, Belsi A, McGregor AH, 2022, Issues faced by people with amputation(s) during lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation: a thematic analysis, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, Vol: 46, Pages: 61-67, ISSN: 0309-3646
Background: Successful rehabilitation is essential to improve the physical and mental outcomes of people with lower limb amputation(s). Individuals have different goals and expectations of successful rehabilitation and experience issues that affect their quality of life.Objectives: To determine factors affecting lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation from people with amputation(s), important for studies focusing on prosthetic and socket design and fitting because they provide context of need and user issues.Study design: Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews.Methods: Ten people with amputation(s) were self-selected from a survey identifying factors affecting lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation. The telephone interviews were semistructured exploring the biggest impactors on and frustrations with rehabilitation and the socket. A thematic analysis was completed by following the undermentioned steps: familiarization, coding, generating themes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and reporting.Results: Five distinct but interrelated themes were identified: External to Prosthesis, Body Impactors, Consequences of Ill-Fit, Prosthesis Irritants, and Work and Social Impact. Those living with amputation(s) mentioned prosthetic-related issues affecting their work and social life, including difficulties wearing their prosthesis all day, the socket's rigidity, and the ability to participate in hobbies.Conclusions: The study provides new insights into the issues experienced during prosthetic rehabilitation, highlighting impacts beyond just physical health consequences. The study provides an evidence base for areas of the rehabilitation journey which could be improved to improve the quality of life of people with amputation(s)
Turner S, Belsi A, McGregor AH, 2022, Issues faced by prosthetists and physiotherapists during lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation: a thematic analysis, Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2673-6861
Successful prosthetic rehabilitation is essential to improve the physical and mental outcomes of people with lower-limb amputation. Evaluation of prosthetic services from a prosthesis user perspective have been published and commissioned by the national bodies, however, the perspectives of clinicians working with service users during rehabilitation have not to date been sought. We sought to determine factors impacting lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation from a clinician’s perspective to inform studies focusing on prosthetic and socket design and fitting. Six clinician (2 prosthetists, 4 physiotherapists) interviewees were self-selected from a survey exploring issues and frustrations during lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation. Semi-structured interviews explored the impactors on and frustrations with rehabilitation and the prosthetic socket. A thematic analysis was subsequently conducted to identify themes in the responses. Five themes were identified: Service Disparity, Body Impactors, Consequences of Ill-Fit, Prosthesis Irritants, and Limitations of Practice. Each theme, though distinct, relates to the others either as a cause or consequence and should be viewed as such. Addressing the themes will have benefits beyond the issues addressed but also expand into the other themes. This study provides an insight into the clinician perspectives on lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation, which has not been formally documented to date.
Paszkiewicz FP, Wilson S, Oddsson M, et al., 2022, Microphone Mechanomyography Sensors for Movement Analysis and Identification, 7th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 118-125
Goss C, Culley FJ, Parthasarathy P, et al., 2022, A paragigm shift in assessment of scientific skills in undergraduate medical education, Advances in Medical Education and Practice, Vol: 13, Pages: 123-127, ISSN: 1179-7258
The General Medical Council’s publication ‘Outcomes for Graduates’ places emphasis on doctors being able to integrate biomedical science, research and scholarship with clinical practice. In response, a new paradigm of assessment was introduced for the intercalated Bachelor of Science program at Imperial College School of Medicine in 2019. This innovative approach involves authentic “active learning” assessments analogous to tasks encountered in a research environment and intends to test a wider range of applied scientific skills than traditional examinations. Written assessments include a “Letter to the Editor”, scientific abstract, and production of a lay summary. A clinical case study titled “Science in Context” presents a real or virtual patient, with evaluation of current and emerging evidence within that field. Another assessment emulates the academic publishing process: groups submit a literature review and engage in reciprocal peer review of another group’s work. A rebuttal letter accompanies the final submission, detailing how feedback was addressed. Scientific presentation skills are developed through tasks including a research proposal pitch, discussion of therapies or diagnostics, or review of a paper. A data management assignment develops skills in hypothesis generation, performing analysis, and drawing conclusions. Finally, students conduct an original research project which is assessed via a written report in the format of a research paper and an oral presentation involving critical analysis of their project. We aspire to train clinicians who apply scientific principles to critique the evidence base of medical practice and possess the skillset to conduct high-quality research underpinned by the principles of best clinical and academic practice. Assessment drives learning, and active learning has been demonstrated to enhance academic performance and reduce attainment gaps in science education.
Olsen J, Turner S, Chadwell A, et al., 2022, The Impact of Limited Prosthetic Socket Documentation: A Researcher Perspective., Front Rehabil Sci, Vol: 3
The majority of limb prostheses are socket mounted. For these devices, the socket is essential for adequate prosthetic suspension, comfort, and control. The socket is unique among prosthetic components as it is not usually mass-produced and must instead be custom-made for individual residual limbs by a prosthetist. The knowledge of what constitutes "good" socket fit is gained by expert prosthetists and technicians over years of experience, and rarely documented. The reliance on tacit knowledge makes it difficult to standardize the criteria for a well-fitting socket, leading to difficulties understanding the impact of socket fit. Despite its importance, the workflow for socket fitting is often overlooked in literature. Due to the customized nature of sockets, if information is provided in literature, generally only the type of socket and suspension mechanism is noted, with information regarding the fitting and manufacturing processes omitted. In this article, the concerns, issues and consequences arising from lack of upper and lower limb socket documentation are discussed from a researcher perspective, supported by healthcare professionals and socket fabrication specialists. Key changes are proposed to the way socket manufacturing and evaluation are documented to assist future research.
Tukanova K, Chidambaram S, Guidozzi N, et al., 2021, Physiotherapy regimens in esophagectomy and gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 29, ISSN: 1068-9265
BackgroundEsophageal and gastric cancer surgery are associated with considerable morbidity, specifically postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), potentially accentuated by underlying challenges with malnutrition and cachexia affecting respiratory muscle mass. Physiotherapy regimens aim to increase the respiratory muscle strength and may prevent postoperative morbidity.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the impact of physiotherapy regimens in patients treated with esophagectomy or gastrectomy.MethodsAn electronic database search was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Pedro databases. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the impact of physiotherapy on the functional capacity, incidence of PPCs and postoperative morbidity, in-hospital mortality rate, length of hospital stay (LOS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).ResultsSeven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven cohort studies assessing prehabilitation totaling 960 patients, and five RCTs and five cohort studies assessing peri- or postoperative physiotherapy with 703 total patients, were included. Prehabilitation resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia and morbidity (Clavien–Dindo score ≥ II). No difference was observed in functional exercise capacity and in-hospital mortality following prehabilitation. Meanwhile, peri- or postoperative rehabilitation resulted in a lower incidence of pneumonia, shorter LOS, and better HRQoL scores for dyspnea and physical functioning, while no differences were found for the QoL summary score, global health status, fatigue, and pain scores.ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggests that implementing an exercise intervention may be beneficial in both the preoperative and peri- or postoperative periods. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism through which exercise interventions improve clinical outcomes and which patient subgroup will gain the maximal benefit.
Tukanova K, Chidambaram S, Guidozzi N, et al., 2021, ASO author reflections: the role of physiotherapy regimens in esophagectomy and gastrectomy for cancer, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 29, Pages: 3168-3169, ISSN: 1068-9265
PASTDespite advancements in surgical management, esophageal and gastric cancer surgery is still associated with a significant morbidity. Traditionally, esophagectomy and gastrectomy via an open surgical approach has been the treatment of choice for esophageal and gastric cancer, respectively.1,2 Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols commonly include physiotherapy regimens or early mobilization intervention. These programs are well-established in colorectal cancer surgery and have shown to reduce postoperative complication rates and shortened the length of hospital stay (LOS).3Only a small number of studies have assessed the role of respiratory physiotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer surgery, while this patient group commonly present with pre-existing respiratory disease and is particularly at risk for malnutrition and loss of muscle mass.4 Although there is growing evidence of the benefits of physiotherapy implementation in decreasing the risk for postoperative morbidity, there is currently insufficient strong evidence for routine implementation of standardized respiratory physiotherapy in esophageal and gastric cancer surgery.PRESENTThis is the first meta-analysis assessing the effect of prehabilitation and peri- or postoperative physiotherapy regimens on postoperative mortality and morbidity in esophageal and gastric cancer surgery.5 A lower incidence of pneumonia was observed following both prehabilitation and peri- or postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, a lower incidence of postoperative morbidity was seen in patients undergoing prehabilitation, while peri- or postoperative rehabilitation resulted in a shorter LOS and better health-related quality-of-life scores for dyspnea and physical functioning. These results suggest that implementation of a physiotherapy regimen in both the pre- and peri- or postoperative setting may be beneficial. This meta-analysis is however limited by the lack of a standardized physiotherapy protocol for patients unde
Bates A, McGregor A, Alexander C, 2021, Prolonged standing behaviour in people with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1471-2474
Background: Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is a rare Heritable Disorder of Connective tissue characterised by generalised joint laxity and chronic widespread pain. Joint Hypermobility Syndrome has a large impact on patients’ day to day activities, and many complain of symptoms when standing for prolonged periods. This study investigates whether people with JHS exhibit the same behaviours to deal with the effects of prolonged standing as people with equal hypermobility and no pain, and people with normal flexibility and no pain.Methods: 23 people with JHS, 22 people with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), and 22 people with normal flexibility (NF) were asked to stand for a maximum of 15 minutes across two force-plates. Fidgets were counted and quantified using a cumulative sum algorithm and sway parameters of the quiet standing periods between fidgets were calculated. Results: Average standing time for participants with JHS was 7.35 minutes and none stood for the full 15 minutes. All participants with GJH and NF completed 15 minutes of standing. There were no differences in fidgeting behaviour between any groups. There was a difference in anteroposterior sway (p=.029) during the quiet standing periods.Conclusion: There is no evidence to suggest people with JHS exhibit different fidgeting behaviour. Increased anteroposterior-sway may suggest a muscle weakness and strengthening muscles around the ankle may reduce postural sway and potentially improve the ability to stand for prolonged periods.
Urbanczyk CA, Bonfiglio A, McGregor AH, et al., 2021, Comparing optical and electromagnetic tracking systems to facilitate compatibility in sports kinematics data., International Biomechanics, Vol: 8, Pages: 75-84, ISSN: 2333-5432
Electromagnetic (EM) tracking has been used to quantify biomechanical parameters of the lower limb and lumbar spine during ergometer rowing to improve performance and reduce injury. Optical motion capture (OMC) is potentially better suited to measure comprehensive whole-body dynamics in rowing. This study compared accuracy and precision of EM and OMC displacements by simultaneously recording kinematics during rowing trials at low, middle, and high rates on an instrumented ergometer (n=12). Trajectories calculated from OMC and EM sensors attached to the pelvis, lumbar spine, and right leg were highly correlated, but EM tracking lagged behind ergometer and OMC tracking by approximately 6%, yielding large RMS errors. When this phase-lag was corrected by least squares minimization, agreement between systems improved. Both systems demonstrated an ability to adequately track large dynamic compound movements in the sagittal plane but struggled at times to precisely track small displacements and narrow angular ranges in medial/lateral and superior/inferior directions. An OMC based tracking methodology can obtain equivalence with a previously validated EM system, for spine and lower limb metrics. Improvements in speed and consistency of data acquisition with OMC are beneficial for dynamic motion studies. Compatibility ensures continuity by maintaining the ability to compare to prior work.
Turner S, Jain S, Patel A, et al., 2021, Visual biofeedback tool for quantitative pressure monitoring in lower-limb prosthetic sockets, Prosthesis, Vol: 3, Pages: 394-405, ISSN: 2673-1592
Obtaining a good socket fit is an iterative process dependent on the skill and experience of the prosthetist creating it and requires individualisation based on the size and shape. There is no standard measurement system used to aid prosthetic socket creation despite the severe impacts on physical health and quality of life if one is ill fitting. Pressure sensors embedded in a prosthetic socket were used to collect data at the socket–residuum interface. To choose an interpolation method, the sensor array was simplified to a 2D grid with a border for extrapolation and tested using previously collected walking test pressure data. Four multivariable interpolation methods were evaluated to create a colour map of the pressure data. Radial basis function interpolation was chosen, as it produced a clear image with a graduated interpolation between data points, and was used to create a colour map across the surface of a 3D prosthetic socket model. For the model to be accessible to clinical audiences, a desktop application was created using PyQt to view the model. The application allowed for connection to the sensors via Bluetooth, with the pressure data updating on the 3D model in real time. Clinician feedback on the application showed the potential for a clinical product; however, further development informed by feedback from rehabilitation clinicians and prosthesis users is required.
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