Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Musculoskeletal Biodynamics



+44 (0)20 7594 2972a.mcgregor




Room 202ABuilding E - Sir Michael UrenWhite City Campus





Publication Type

261 results found

Saggu R, Barlow P, Butler J, Ghaem-Maghami S, Hughes C, Lagergren P, McGregor A, Shaw C, Wells Met al., 2022, Considerations for mulitmodal prehabilitation in women with gynaecological cancers: a scoping review using realist principles, BMC Women's Health, ISSN: 1472-6874

Background: There is increasing recognition that prehabilitation is important as a means of preparing patients physically and psychologically for cancer treatment. However, little is understood about the role and optimal nature of prehabilitation for gynaecological cancer patients, who usually face extensive and life-changing surgery in addition to other treatments that impact significantly on physiological and psychosexual wellbeing. Review question: This scoping review was conducted to collate the research evidence on multimodal prehabilitation in gynaecological cancers and the related barriers and facilitators to engagement and delivery that should be considered when designing a prehabilitation intervention for this group of women. Methods: Seven medical databases and four grey literature repositories were searched from database inception to September 2021. All articles, reporting on multimodal prehabilitation in gynaecological cancers were included in the final review, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed-methods. Qualitative on unimodal interventions were also included, as these were thought to be more likely to include information about barriers and facilitators which could also be relevant to multimodal interventions. A realist framework of context, mechanism and outcome was used to assist interpretation of findings. Results: In total, 24 studies were included in the final review. The studies included the following tumour groups: ovarian only (n=12), endometrial only (n=1), mixed ovarian, endometrial, vulvar (n=5) and non-specific gynaecological tumours (n=6). There was considerable variation across studies in terms of screening for prehabilitation, delivery of prehabilitation and outcome measures. Key mechanisms and contexts influencing engagement with prehabilitation can be summarised as: 1) The role of healthcare professionals and organisations 2) Patients’ perceptions of acceptability 3) Factors influencing patient motivation 4) Prehabilita

Journal article

Allott N, McGregor A, Banger M, 2022, Evaluating the diagnostic pathway for acute ACL injuries in trauma centres: A systematic review, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1471-2474

Objective: This review sought to evaluate the literature on the initial assessment and diagnostic pathway for patients with a suspected Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear.Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were systematically searched for eligible studies, PRISMA guidelines were followed. Studies were included if they used at least one assessment method to assess for ACL injury and participants were assessed at an acute trauma centre within 6-weeks of injury. Article quality was evaluated using the QUADAS-2 checklist. Results: A total of 353 studies were assessed for eligibility, 347 were excluded for the following reasons: injuries were not assessed in an acute trauma setting, injuries were not acute, participants had previous ACL injuries or chronic joint deformities affecting the knee, participants were under 18, or participants included animals or cadavers. A total of six studies were included in the review. Common assessment methods included: laxity tests, joint effusion, inability to continue activity, and a history of a ‘pop’ and ‘giving way’ at the time of injury. Diagnostic accuracy varied greatly between the assessment method and the assessing clinician. Gold standard diagnostics were MRI and arthroscopy. A weighted meta-mean calculated the time to reach diagnosis to be 68.60 days [CI 23.94, 113.24]. The mean number of appointments to reach diagnosis varied from 2-5. Delay to surgery or surgical consultation ranged from 61 to 328 days. Conclusion: Clinicians in the Emergency Department are not proficient in performing the assessment methods that are used for diagnosis in acute ACL injury. Reliance on specialist assessments or radiological methods inevitably increases the time to reach a diagnosis, which has repercussions on management options. There is an ever-growing demand to improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency; further exploration into , quantitative measures of instability would aid the assessment of peripheral joi

Journal article

Hopkins M, Turner S, McGregor A, 2022, Mapping lower-limb prosthesis load distributions using a low-cost pressure measurement system, Frontiers in Medical Technology, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2673-3129

Background: In the UK 55,000 people live with a major limb amputation. The prosthetic socket is problematic for users in relation to comfort and acceptance of the prosthesis; and is associated with the development of cysts and sores.Objectives: We have developed a prototype low-cost system combining low-profile pressure sensitive sensors with an inertial measurement unit to assess loading distribution within prosthetic sockets. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of this prototype to assess in-socket loading profiles of a person with an amputation during walking, with a view to understanding socket design and fit.Methods: The device was evaluated on four transtibial participants of various age and activity levels. The pressure sensors were embedded in the subject's sockets and an inertial measurement unit was attached to the posterior side of the socket. Measurements were taken during level walking in a gait lab.Results: The sensors were able to dynamically collect data, informing loading profiles within the socket which were in line with expected distributions for patellar-tendon-bearing and total-surface-bearing sockets. The patellar tendon bearing subject displayed loading predominately at the patellar tendon, tibial and lateral gastrocnemius regions. The total-surface bearing subjects indicated even load distribution throughout the socket except in one participant who presented with a large socket-foot misalignment.Conclusions: The sensors provided objective data showing the pressure distributions inside the prosthetic socket. The sensors were able to measure the pressure in the socket with sufficient accuracy to distinguish pressure regions that matched expected loading patterns. The information may be useful to aid fitting of complex residual limbs and for those with reduced sensation in their residual limb, alongside the subjective feedback from prosthesis users.

Journal article

Greenwood J, Hurley M, McGregor A, McCourt O, Jones Fet al., 2022, A qualitative evaluation of participants experiences of living with back pain, lumbar fusion surgery, and post-operative rehabilitation, Pilot and Feasibility Studies, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2055-5784

BackgroundThe use of lumbar fusion surgery is increasing in developed economies. High levels of patient dissatisfaction are reported post-operatively. To address this need, we developed a theoretically informed rehabilitation programme for use following lumbar fusion surgery (the REFS programme). We conducted a mixed methods randomised controlled feasibility study (REFS v ‘usual care’). The numerical and feasibility outcomes are reported separately. The current qualitative study was ‘nested’ within the main feasibility study to explore participants’ experiences before and after lumbar fusion surgery including the impact of rehabilitation content. This facilitated a deeper understanding of potential mechanisms of action, for theoretical and programme refinement.MethodsA purposive sample (n = 10 ‘usual care’, n = 10 REFS) was identified from the main feasibility study cohort. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted post-operatively (median 8 months, range 5–11). Interview data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analysed thematically.ResultsThree themes were constructed: the breadth and severity of impact associated with a chronic lumbar disorder was summarised in theme 1, ‘Ever-decreasing circles; living with a chronic lumbar disorder’. Theme 2, ‘What have I done? Reflections on recovery from lumbar fusion surgery’, illustrated participants post-operative helplessness, which was associated with worsening mental health, problematic use of opioids, fear related to the instillation of metalware, and the important mitigating effect of informal social support. Theme 3 ‘Rehabilitation experiences’ identified critical rehabilitation programme content including exercise, a shared rehabilitation experience, the opportunity for vicarious learning, and professional expertise.ConclusionsTo enhance patient benefit future REFS programme iterations s

Journal article

Sanz-Pena I, Arachchi S, Curtis-Woodcock N, Silva P, McGregor A, Newell Net al., 2022, Obtaining patient torso geometry for the design of scoliosis braces. A study of the accuracy and repeatability of handheld 3D scanners, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, ISSN: 0309-3646

Objective: Obtaining patient geometry is crucial in scoliosis brace design for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Advances in 3D scanning technologies provide the opportunity to obtain patient geometries quickly with fewer resources during the design process compared with the plaster-cast method. This study assesses the accuracy and repeatability of such technologies for this application.Methods: The accuracy and repeatability of three different handheld scanners and phone-photogrammetry was assessed using different mesh generation software. Twenty-four scans of a single subject's torso were analyzed for accuracy and repeatability based on anatomical landmark distances and surface deviation maps.Results: Mark II and Structure ST01 scanners showed maximum mean surface deviations of 1.74 ± 3.63 mm and 1.64 ± 3.06 mm, respectively. Deviations were lower for the Peel 1 scanner (maximum of −0.35 ± 2.8 mm) but higher with the use of phone-photogrammetry (maximum of −5.1 ± 4.8 mm). The mean absolute errors of anatomical landmark distance measurements from torso meshes obtained with the Peel 1, Mark II, and ST01 scanners were all within 9.3 mm (3.6%), whereas phone-photogrammetry errors were as high as 18 mm (7%).Conclusions: Low-cost Mark II and ST01 scanners are recommended for obtaining torso geometries because of their accuracy and repeatability. Subject’s breathing/movement affects the resultant geometry around the abdominal and anterolateral regions.

Journal article

McGregor A, Clunie G, Hall H, Dhuga Yet al., 2022, Patient and practitioner perspectives on the design of a simulated affective touch device to reduce procedural anxiety associated with radiotherapy: a qualitative study, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective The aim of this study was to elicit the views of relevant stakeholders on the design of a device using simulated affective touch to reduce procedural anxiety surrounding radiotherapy and imaging. Design This qualitative study collected data from focus groups which were then analysed using inductive thematic analysis in line with Braun and Clarke’s methods. Participants and setting Twenty patients and carers were recruited, as well as ten healthcare practitioners involved in either delivering radiotherapy or imaging procedures. Results Patients, carers and healthcare practitioners agreed on some aspects of the device design, such as ensuring the device is warm and flexible in where it can be used on the body. However, patient and healthcare practitioner cohorts had at times differing viewpoints. For example, healthcare practitioners provided professional perspectives and required easy cleaning of the device. Meanwhile patients focused on anxiety relieving factors, such as the tactile sensation of the device being either a vibration or pulsation. There was no consensus on who should control the device. Conclusions The desired features of a simulated affective touch device have been investigated. Different priorities of patients and their carers and healthcare practitioners were evident. Any design must incorporate such features as to appease both groups. Areas where no consensus was reached could be further explored, alongside including further patient and public involvement in the form of a project advisory group.

Journal article

Gimson E, Greca Dottori M, Clunie G, Yan Zheng C, Wiseman T, Joyce E, McGregor A, McNair Het al., 2022, Not as simple as “fear of the unknown”: a qualitative study exploring anxiety in the radiotherapy department, European Journal of Cancer Care, Vol: 31, ISSN: 0961-5423

Objective:Little is understood about the anxiety experienced by cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy or investigative imaging. Our aim was to identify sources of anxiety, the points along the cancer journey where anxiety occurred and methods to alleviate it.Methods:Six focus groups were conducted with cancer patients (n = 17), caregivers (n = 3) and healthcare practitioners (HCPs; n = 10) in the radiotherapy department. Patients described specific elements in the care pathway which induced anxiety, while HCPs focused on their perception of the patient experience. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data.Results:Three broad themes emerged: The Environment, The Individual and The Unknown. The physical environment of the hospital, inside the scanner for example, emerged as a key source of anxiety. The impact of cancer on patients' individual lives was significant, with many feeling isolated. The majority of participants described anxiety associated with the unknown. HCPs reported difficulty in identifying the anxious patient.Conclusions:Anxiety is experienced throughout the cancer pathway. Common sources include the physical environment and the uncertainty associated with having cancer. Identifying both anxiety-inducing factors, and the anxious patients themselves, is crucial to enable targeted interventions to alleviate anxiety.

Journal article

Tukanova K, Banger M, Hanna G, McGregor A, Markar Set al., 2022, Assessment of changes in chest wall mechanics in esophageal cancer survivors using a 3D-motion capture system, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X

Conference paper

Turner S, Belsi A, McGregor AH, 2022, Issues faced by people with amputation(s) during lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation: a thematic analysis, Prosthetics and Orthotics International, Vol: 46, Pages: 61-67, ISSN: 0309-3646

Background: Successful rehabilitation is essential to improve the physical and mental outcomes of people with lower limb amputation(s). Individuals have different goals and expectations of successful rehabilitation and experience issues that affect their quality of life.Objectives: To determine factors affecting lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation from people with amputation(s), important for studies focusing on prosthetic and socket design and fitting because they provide context of need and user issues.Study design: Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews.Methods: Ten people with amputation(s) were self-selected from a survey identifying factors affecting lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation. The telephone interviews were semistructured exploring the biggest impactors on and frustrations with rehabilitation and the socket. A thematic analysis was completed by following the undermentioned steps: familiarization, coding, generating themes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and reporting.Results: Five distinct but interrelated themes were identified: External to Prosthesis, Body Impactors, Consequences of Ill-Fit, Prosthesis Irritants, and Work and Social Impact. Those living with amputation(s) mentioned prosthetic-related issues affecting their work and social life, including difficulties wearing their prosthesis all day, the socket's rigidity, and the ability to participate in hobbies.Conclusions: The study provides new insights into the issues experienced during prosthetic rehabilitation, highlighting impacts beyond just physical health consequences. The study provides an evidence base for areas of the rehabilitation journey which could be improved to improve the quality of life of people with amputation(s)

Journal article

Turner S, Belsi A, McGregor AH, 2022, Issues faced by prosthetists and physiotherapists during lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation: a thematic analysis, Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2673-6861

Successful prosthetic rehabilitation is essential to improve the physical and mental outcomes of people with lower-limb amputation. Evaluation of prosthetic services from a prosthesis user perspective have been published and commissioned by the national bodies, however, the perspectives of clinicians working with service users during rehabilitation have not to date been sought. We sought to determine factors impacting lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation from a clinician’s perspective to inform studies focusing on prosthetic and socket design and fitting. Six clinician (2 prosthetists, 4 physiotherapists) interviewees were self-selected from a survey exploring issues and frustrations during lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation. Semi-structured interviews explored the impactors on and frustrations with rehabilitation and the prosthetic socket. A thematic analysis was subsequently conducted to identify themes in the responses. Five themes were identified: Service Disparity, Body Impactors, Consequences of Ill-Fit, Prosthesis Irritants, and Limitations of Practice. Each theme, though distinct, relates to the others either as a cause or consequence and should be viewed as such. Addressing the themes will have benefits beyond the issues addressed but also expand into the other themes. This study provides an insight into the clinician perspectives on lower-limb prosthetic rehabilitation, which has not been formally documented to date.

Journal article

Goss C, Culley FJ, Parthasarathy P, MacLeod K, McGregor AH, Sam AHet al., 2022, A paragigm shift in assessment of scientific skills in undergraduate medical education, Advances in Medical Education and Practice, Vol: 13, Pages: 123-127, ISSN: 1179-7258

The General Medical Council’s publication ‘Outcomes for Graduates’ places emphasis on doctors being able to integrate biomedical science, research and scholarship with clinical practice. In response, a new paradigm of assessment was introduced for the intercalated Bachelor of Science program at Imperial College School of Medicine in 2019. This innovative approach involves authentic “active learning” assessments analogous to tasks encountered in a research environment and intends to test a wider range of applied scientific skills than traditional examinations. Written assessments include a “Letter to the Editor”, scientific abstract, and production of a lay summary. A clinical case study titled “Science in Context” presents a real or virtual patient, with evaluation of current and emerging evidence within that field. Another assessment emulates the academic publishing process: groups submit a literature review and engage in reciprocal peer review of another group’s work. A rebuttal letter accompanies the final submission, detailing how feedback was addressed. Scientific presentation skills are developed through tasks including a research proposal pitch, discussion of therapies or diagnostics, or review of a paper. A data management assignment develops skills in hypothesis generation, performing analysis, and drawing conclusions. Finally, students conduct an original research project which is assessed via a written report in the format of a research paper and an oral presentation involving critical analysis of their project. We aspire to train clinicians who apply scientific principles to critique the evidence base of medical practice and possess the skillset to conduct high-quality research underpinned by the principles of best clinical and academic practice. Assessment drives learning, and active learning has been demonstrated to enhance academic performance and reduce attainment gaps in science education.

Journal article

Tukanova K, Chidambaram S, Guidozzi N, Hanna G, McGregor A, Markar Set al., 2021, Physiotherapy regimens in esophagectomy and gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 29, ISSN: 1068-9265

BackgroundEsophageal and gastric cancer surgery are associated with considerable morbidity, specifically postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), potentially accentuated by underlying challenges with malnutrition and cachexia affecting respiratory muscle mass. Physiotherapy regimens aim to increase the respiratory muscle strength and may prevent postoperative morbidity.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the impact of physiotherapy regimens in patients treated with esophagectomy or gastrectomy.MethodsAn electronic database search was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Pedro databases. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the impact of physiotherapy on the functional capacity, incidence of PPCs and postoperative morbidity, in-hospital mortality rate, length of hospital stay (LOS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).ResultsSeven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven cohort studies assessing prehabilitation totaling 960 patients, and five RCTs and five cohort studies assessing peri- or postoperative physiotherapy with 703 total patients, were included. Prehabilitation resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia and morbidity (Clavien–Dindo score ≥ II). No difference was observed in functional exercise capacity and in-hospital mortality following prehabilitation. Meanwhile, peri- or postoperative rehabilitation resulted in a lower incidence of pneumonia, shorter LOS, and better HRQoL scores for dyspnea and physical functioning, while no differences were found for the QoL summary score, global health status, fatigue, and pain scores.ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggests that implementing an exercise intervention may be beneficial in both the preoperative and peri- or postoperative periods. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism through which exercise interventions improve clinical outcomes and which patient subgroup will gain the maximal benefit.

Journal article

Tukanova K, Chidambaram S, Guidozzi N, Hanna GB, McGregor AH, Markar SRet al., 2021, ASO author reflections: the role of physiotherapy regimens in esophagectomy and gastrectomy for cancer, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 29, Pages: 3168-3169, ISSN: 1068-9265

PASTDespite advancements in surgical management, esophageal and gastric cancer surgery is still associated with a significant morbidity. Traditionally, esophagectomy and gastrectomy via an open surgical approach has been the treatment of choice for esophageal and gastric cancer, respectively.1,2 Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols commonly include physiotherapy regimens or early mobilization intervention. These programs are well-established in colorectal cancer surgery and have shown to reduce postoperative complication rates and shortened the length of hospital stay (LOS).3Only a small number of studies have assessed the role of respiratory physiotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer surgery, while this patient group commonly present with pre-existing respiratory disease and is particularly at risk for malnutrition and loss of muscle mass.4 Although there is growing evidence of the benefits of physiotherapy implementation in decreasing the risk for postoperative morbidity, there is currently insufficient strong evidence for routine implementation of standardized respiratory physiotherapy in esophageal and gastric cancer surgery.PRESENTThis is the first meta-analysis assessing the effect of prehabilitation and peri- or postoperative physiotherapy regimens on postoperative mortality and morbidity in esophageal and gastric cancer surgery.5 A lower incidence of pneumonia was observed following both prehabilitation and peri- or postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, a lower incidence of postoperative morbidity was seen in patients undergoing prehabilitation, while peri- or postoperative rehabilitation resulted in a shorter LOS and better health-related quality-of-life scores for dyspnea and physical functioning. These results suggest that implementation of a physiotherapy regimen in both the pre- and peri- or postoperative setting may be beneficial. This meta-analysis is however limited by the lack of a standardized physiotherapy protocol for patients unde

Journal article

Bates A, McGregor A, Alexander C, 2021, Prolonged standing behaviour in people with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1471-2474

Background: Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is a rare Heritable Disorder of Connective tissue characterised by generalised joint laxity and chronic widespread pain. Joint Hypermobility Syndrome has a large impact on patients’ day to day activities, and many complain of symptoms when standing for prolonged periods. This study investigates whether people with JHS exhibit the same behaviours to deal with the effects of prolonged standing as people with equal hypermobility and no pain, and people with normal flexibility and no pain.Methods: 23 people with JHS, 22 people with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), and 22 people with normal flexibility (NF) were asked to stand for a maximum of 15 minutes across two force-plates. Fidgets were counted and quantified using a cumulative sum algorithm and sway parameters of the quiet standing periods between fidgets were calculated. Results: Average standing time for participants with JHS was 7.35 minutes and none stood for the full 15 minutes. All participants with GJH and NF completed 15 minutes of standing. There were no differences in fidgeting behaviour between any groups. There was a difference in anteroposterior sway (p=.029) during the quiet standing periods.Conclusion: There is no evidence to suggest people with JHS exhibit different fidgeting behaviour. Increased anteroposterior-sway may suggest a muscle weakness and strengthening muscles around the ankle may reduce postural sway and potentially improve the ability to stand for prolonged periods.

Journal article

Urbanczyk CA, Bonfiglio A, McGregor AH, Bull AMJet al., 2021, Comparing optical and electromagnetic tracking systems to facilitate compatibility in sports kinematics data., International Biomechanics, Vol: 8, Pages: 75-84, ISSN: 2333-5432

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking has been used to quantify biomechanical parameters of the lower limb and lumbar spine during ergometer rowing to improve performance and reduce injury. Optical motion capture (OMC) is potentially better suited to measure comprehensive whole-body dynamics in rowing. This study compared accuracy and precision of EM and OMC displacements by simultaneously recording kinematics during rowing trials at low, middle, and high rates on an instrumented ergometer (n=12). Trajectories calculated from OMC and EM sensors attached to the pelvis, lumbar spine, and right leg were highly correlated, but EM tracking lagged behind ergometer and OMC tracking by approximately 6%, yielding large RMS errors. When this phase-lag was corrected by least squares minimization, agreement between systems improved. Both systems demonstrated an ability to adequately track large dynamic compound movements in the sagittal plane but struggled at times to precisely track small displacements and narrow angular ranges in medial/lateral and superior/inferior directions. An OMC based tracking methodology can obtain equivalence with a previously validated EM system, for spine and lower limb metrics. Improvements in speed and consistency of data acquisition with OMC are beneficial for dynamic motion studies. Compatibility ensures continuity by maintaining the ability to compare to prior work.

Journal article

Panhelleux B, Shalhoub J, Silverman A, McGregor Aet al., 2021, A review of through-knee amputation, Vascular, ISSN: 0967-2109

Objectives: Through knee amputation (TKA) is an umbrella term for several different surgical techniques, which may affect clinical and functional outcomes. This makes it hard to evaluate the benefits and need for a TKA approach. This paper seeks to: (1) Determine the number of TKAs performed compared with other major lower limb amputations (MLLA) in England over the past decade; (2) identify the theoretical concepts behind TKA surgical approaches and their potential effect on functional and clinical outcomes; and (3) provide a platform for discussion and research on TKA and surgical outcomes.Methods: National Health Service Hospital Episodes Statistics were used to obtain recent numbers of MLLAs in England. EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched using a systematic approach with predefined criteria for relevant literature on TKA surgery.Results: In the past decade, 4.6% of MLLA in England were TKAs. Twenty-six articles presenting TKA surgical techniques met our criteria. These articles detailed three TKA surgical techniques; the classical approach, which keeps the femur intact and retains the patella; the Mazet technique, which shaves the femoral condyles into a box shape; and the Gritti-Stokes technique, which divides the femur proximal to the level of the condyles and attaches the patella at the distal cut femur.Conclusions: TKA has persisted as a surgical approach over the past decade, with three core approaches identified. Studies reporting clinical, functional, and biomechanical outcomes of TKA frequently fail to distinguish between the 3 distinct and differing approaches, making direct comparisons difficult. Future studies that compare TKA approaches to one another and to other amputation levels are needed.

Journal article

Turner S, Jain S, Patel A, Hopkins M, McGregor Aet al., 2021, Visual biofeedback tool for quantitative pressure monitoring in lower-limb prosthetic sockets, Prosthesis, Vol: 3, Pages: 394-405, ISSN: 2673-1592

Obtaining a good socket fit is an iterative process dependent on the skill and experience of the prosthetist creating it and requires individualisation based on the size and shape. There is no standard measurement system used to aid prosthetic socket creation despite the severe impacts on physical health and quality of life if one is ill fitting. Pressure sensors embedded in a prosthetic socket were used to collect data at the socket–residuum interface. To choose an interpolation method, the sensor array was simplified to a 2D grid with a border for extrapolation and tested using previously collected walking test pressure data. Four multivariable interpolation methods were evaluated to create a colour map of the pressure data. Radial basis function interpolation was chosen, as it produced a clear image with a graduated interpolation between data points, and was used to create a colour map across the surface of a 3D prosthetic socket model. For the model to be accessible to clinical audiences, a desktop application was created using PyQt to view the model. The application allowed for connection to the sensors via Bluetooth, with the pressure data updating on the 3D model in real time. Clinician feedback on the application showed the potential for a clinical product; however, further development informed by feedback from rehabilitation clinicians and prosthesis users is required.

Journal article

Wedatilake T, Palmer A, Fernquest S, Redgrave A, Arnold L, Kluzek S, McGregor A, Teh J, Newton J, Glyn-Jones Set al., 2021, Association between hip joint impingement and lumbar disc disease in elite rowers, BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2055-7647

Objectives Lumbar disc disease is a known cause of back pain. Increasingly it is thought that cam morphology of the hip may have a causal role in development of lumbar disc disease. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the hip and investigate the association of cam morphology with lumbar disc disease observed on MRI in elite rowers.Methods Cross-sectional observational study of 20 elite rowers (12 male, 8 female, mean age 24.45, SD 2.1). Assessment included clinical examination, questionnaires, 3T MRI scans of the hips and lumbar spine. Alpha angle of the hips and Pfirrmann score of lumbar discs were measured.Results 85% of rowers had a cam morphology in at least one hip. Alpha angle was greatest at the 1 o’clock position ((bone 70.9 (SD 16.9), cartilage 71.4 (16.3)). 95% of the group were noted to have labral tears, but only 50% of the group had history of groin pain. 85% of rowers had at least one disc with a Pfirrmann score of 3 or more and 95% had a history of back pain. A positive correlation was observed between the alpha angle and radiological degenerative disc disease (correlation coefficient=3.13, p=0.012). A negative correlation was observed between hip joint internal rotation and radiological degenerative disc disease (correlation coefficient=−2.60, p=0.018).Conclusions Rowers have a high prevalence of labral tears, cam morphology and lumbar disc disease. There is a possible association between cam morphology and radiological lumbar degenerative disc disease, however, further investigation is required.

Journal article

Udeh-Momoh C, Watermeyer T, Sindi S, Giannakopoulou P, Robb C, Ahmadi Abhari S, Zheng B, Waheed A, McKeand E, Salman D, Beaney T, Loots C, Price G, Atchison C, Car J, Majeed A, McGregor A, Kivipelto M, Ward H, Middleton Let al., 2021, Health, lifestyle and psycho-social determinants of poor sleep quality during the Early Phase of the COVID-19 pandemic: a focus on UK older adults deemed clinically extremely vulnerable, Frontiers in Public Health, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2296-2565

Background: Several studies have assessed the impact of COVID-19-relatedlockdownson sleep quality across global populations. However, no study to date has specifically assessed at-riskpopulations, particularly those at highest risk of complications from coronavirus infection deemed “clinically-extremely-vulnerable-(COVID-19CEV)” [as defined by Public Health England, 2020].Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 5,558 adults aged ≥50 years (of whom 523 met criteria for COVID-19CEV) during the first pandemic wave that resulted in a nationwide-lockdown (April-June 2020) with assessments of sleep quality (an adapted sleep scale that captured multiple sleep indices before and during the lockdown), health/medical, lifestyle, psychosocial and socio demographic factors. We examined associations between these variablesand sleep quality;and explored interactions of COVID-19CEV status with significant predictors of poor sleep,to identify potential moderating factors. Results: 37% of participants reported poor sleep quality which was associated with younger age, female sex and multimorbidity. Significant associations with poor sleep included health/medical factors: COVID-19 CEV status, higher BMI, arthritis, pulmonary disease, and mental health disorders; and the following lifestyle and psychosocial factors: living alone, higher alcohol consumption, an unhealthy diet and higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. Moderators of the negative relationship between COVID-19 CEV status and good sleep quality were marital status, loneliness, anxiety and diet. Within this subgroup, less anxious and less lonely males, as well as females with healthier diets, reported better sleep. Conclusions: Sleep quality in older adults was compromised during the sudden unprecedented nation-wide lockdown due to distinct modifiable factors. An important contribution of our study is the assessment of a &ldquo

Journal article

Braeuninger-Weimer K, Anjarwalla N, McGregor A, Roberts L, Sell P, Pincus Tet al., 2021, Improving consultations for persistent musculoskeletal low back pain in orthopaedic spine settings: an intervention development, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1471-2474

BackgroundThere is a need to improve consultations between patients with persistent musculoskeletal low back pain and orthopaedic spine clinicians when surgery is not indicated. Poor communication and lack of education about self- management in these consultations have been shown to be associated with increased distress and higher subsequent health care seeking.AimTo develop a standardised intervention to improve spine care consultations for patients for whom surgery is not beneficial.MethodThe intervention was developed in six stages. The first three stages included: interviews with patients, an interactive workshop with clinicians from a mix of disciplines, and interviews with spine clinicians about their perspective of the recommendations, their perceived difficulties and potential improvements. Information from these stages was synthesised by an expert panel, creating a draft intervention structure and content. The main features of the intervention and the materials developed were then reviewed by patients and spine clinicians. Finally, the research team incorporated the recommended amendments to produce the intervention.ResultsIn total, 36 patients and 79 clinicians contributed to the development of the intervention. The final intervention includes three components: a pre-consultation letter with information suggesting that surgery is one possible intervention amongst many, introducing the staff, and alerting patients to bring with them a potted history of interventions tried previously. The intervention includes short online training sessions to improve clinicians’ communication skills, during the consultation, in reference to listening skills, validation of patients’ pain, and use of appropriate language. Clinicians are also supplied with a list of evidence-based sources for advice and further information to share with patients. Finally, post consultation, a follow up letter includes a short summary of the patients’ clinical journey, the res

Journal article

Clunie G, Anderson C, Hughes C, Savage M, Roe J, Sandhu G, McGregor A, Alexander Cet al., 2021, “A major quality of life issue”: A survey-based analysis of the experiences of adults with laryngotracheal stenosis with mucus and cough, Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, ISSN: 0003-4894

Objectives:To investigate how the symptoms of mucus and cough impact adults living with laryngotracheal stenosis, and to use this information to guide future research and treatment plans.Methods:A survey was developed with the support of patient advisors and distributed to people suffering with laryngotracheal stenosis. The survey comprised 15 closed and open questions relating to mucus and cough and included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Descriptive statistics, X2 and thematic analyses were completed.Results:In total, 641 participants completed the survey, with 83.62% (n = 536) reporting problems with mucus; 79% having daily issues of varying severity that led to difficulties with cough (46.18%) and breathing (20.90%). Mucus affected voice and swallowing to a lesser degree. Respondents described a range of triggers; they identified smoky air as the worst environmental trigger. Strategies to manage mucus varied widely with drinking water (72.26%), increasing liquid intake in general (49.35%) and avoiding or reducing dairy (45.32%) the most common approaches to control symptoms. The LCQ showed a median total score of 14 (interquartile range 11-17) indicative of cough negatively affecting quality of life. Thematic analysis of free text responses identified 4 key themes—the Mucus Cycle, Social impact, Psychological impact, and Physical impact.Conclusion:This study shows the relevance of research focusing on mucus and cough and its negative impact on quality of life, among adults with laryngotracheal stenosis. It demonstrates the inconsistent advice and management strategies provided by clinicians for this issue. Further research is required to identify clearer treatment options and pathways.

Journal article

Cowell I, McGregor A, O'Sullivan P, O'Sullivan K, Poyton R, Schoeb V, Murtagh Get al., 2021, Physiotherapists' approaches to patients' concerns in back pain consultations following a psychologically informed training program, Qualitative Health Research, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1049-7323

Guidelines advocate a combined physical and psychological approach to managing non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP), referred to as psychologically informed practice (PIP). PIP is underpinned by patient-centered principles and skilled communication. Evidence suggests that a physiotherapist-focused style of communication prevails in physiotherapy. There is a recognized need for observational research to identify specific communication practices in physiotherapy interactions. This observational study explored the interactional negotiation of agenda setting following a PIP training intervention, by identifying and describing how physiotherapists solicit and respond to the agenda of concerns that patients with NSCLBP bring to primary care initial encounters. The research setting was primary care. Nineteen initial physiotherapy consultations were video-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using conversation analysis, a qualitative observational method. These data revealed a patient-focused style of communication where trained physiotherapists demonstrated a collaborative and responsive style of verbal and nonverbal communication to solicit, explore, and validate patients’ concerns.

Journal article

Mullins E, Sharma S, McGregor A, 2021, Postnatal exercise interventions: a systematic review of adherence and effect, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective to evaluate adherence to and effect of postnatal physical activity (PA) interventions.Design systematic review of PA intervention randomised controlled trials in postnatal women. The initial search was carried out in September 2018, and updated in January 2021.Data sources Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases, hand-searching references of included studies. The 25 identified studies included 1466 postnatal women in community and secondary care settings.Eligibility criteria studies were included if the PA interventions were commenced and assessed in the postnatal year. Data extraction and synthesis data was extracted using a pre-specified extraction template and assessed independently by two reviewers using Cochrane ROB 1 tool.Results 1413 records were screened for potential study inclusion, full-text review was performed on 146 articles, 25 studies were included. The primary outcome was adherence to PA intervention. The secondary outcomes were the effect of the PA interventions on the studies’ specified primary outcome. We compared effect on primary outcome for supervised and unsupervised exercise interventions. Studies were small, median N= 66 (20-130). PA interventions were highly variable, targets for PA per week ranged from 60 -275 minutes per week. LTFU was higher (14.5% vs 10%) and adherence to intervention was lower (73.6% vs. 86%) for unsupervised vs. supervised studies.Conclusions studies of PA interventions inconsistently reported adherence and LTFU. Where multiple studies evaluated PA as an outcome, they had inconsistent effects, with generally low study quality and high risk of bias. Agreement for effect between studies was evident for PA improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue. Three studies showed no adverse effect of physical activity on breast feeding. High-quality research reporting adherence and LTFU is needed into how and when to deliver postnatal PA interventions to benefi

Journal article

Braeuninger-Weimer KL, Anjarwalla N, McGregor AH, Roberts L, Sell P, Pincus Tet al., 2021, Taking patients to the ice cream shop but telling them that they cannot have ice cream: a qualitative study of orthopaedic spine clinicians' perceptions of persistent low back pain consultations., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of orthopaedic clinicians about consultations for people with persistent musculoskeletal low back pain (PMLBP) in which surgery is not recommended. Surgery is not recommended for the majority of PMLBP consulting in secondary care settings. SETTING: Secondary care sector in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 orthopaedic team clinicians from 17 different hospitals in the UK and Ireland. Interviews explored clinicians' perceptions of the challenges in consultations where surgery is not indicated. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two meta-themes, Difficulties and Enablers, each consisting of several subthemes were identified. Difficulties included challenges around the choice of appropriate terminology and labels for PMLBP, managing patients' expectations, working with mentally vulnerable patients and explaining imaging findings. Enablers included early management of expectations, use of routine imaging, triaging, access to direct referral elsewhere, including other non-surgical practitioners in the team, training to improve communication skills and understanding of psychological issues. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight clinicians' perceived need for concordance in messages delivered across the care pathway and training of orthopaedic clinicians to deliver effective reassurance and address patients' needs in circumstances where surgery is not indicated.

Journal article

Henson DP, Edgar C, Ding Z, Sivapuratharasu B, Le Feuvre P, Finnegan ME, Quest R, McGregor AH, Bull AMJet al., 2021, Understanding lower limb muscle volume adaptations to amputation., Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 0021-9290

Amputation of a major limb, and the subsequent return to movement with a prosthesis, requires the development of compensatory strategies to account for the loss. Such strategies, over time, lead to regional muscle atrophy and hypertrophy through chronic under or overuse of muscles compared to uninjured individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify the lower limb muscle parameters of persons with transtibial and transfemoral amputations using high resolution MRI to ascertain muscle volume and to determine regression equations for predicting muscle volume using femur- and tibia-length, pelvic-width, height, and mass. Twelve persons with limb loss participated in this study and their data were compared to six matched control subjects. Subjects with unilateral transtibial amputation showed whole-limb muscle volume loss in the residual-limb, whereas minor volume changes in the intact limb were found, providing evidence for a compensation strategy that is dominated by the intact-limb. Subjects with bilateral-transfemoral amputations showed significant muscle volume increases in the short adductor muscles with an insertion not affected by the amputation, the hip flexors, and the gluteus medius, and significant volume decreases in the longer adductor muscles, rectus femoris, and hamstrings. This study presents a benchmark measure of muscle volume discrepancies in persons with limb-loss, and can be used to understand the compensation strategies of persons with limb-loss and the impact on muscle volume, thus enabling the development of optimised intervention protocols, conditioning therapies, surgical techniques, and prosthetic devices that promote and enhance functional capability within the population of persons with limb loss.

Journal article

Salman D, Beaney T, Robb C, Loots CADJ, Giannakopoulou P, Udeh-Momoh C, Ahmadi Abhari S, Majeed F, Middleton LT, McGregor AHet al., 2021, The impact of social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical activity levels of adults aged 50-92 years: a baseline survey of the CHARIOT COVID-19 Rapid Response prospective cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives: Physical inactivity is more common in older adults, is associated with social isolation and loneliness, and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. We examined the effect of social restrictions to reduce COVID-19 transmission in the UK (lockdown), on physical activity (PA) levels of older adults, and the social predictors of any change.Design: Baseline analysis of a survey-based prospective cohort study Setting: Adults enrolled in the Cognitive Health in Ageing Register for Investigational and Observational Trials (CHARIOT) cohort from General Practitioner (GP) practices in North West London were invited to participate from April to July 2020.Participants: 6,219 cognitively healthy adults aged 50 to 92 years completed the survey.Main outcome measures: Self-reported PA before and after the introduction of lockdown, as measured by Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) minutes. Associations of PA with demographic, lifestyle and social factors, mood and frailty.Results: Mean PA was significantly lower following the introduction of lockdown, from 3,519 MET minutes/week to 3,185 MET minutes/week (p<0.001). After adjustment for confounders and pre-lockdown PA, lower levels of PA after the introduction of lockdown were found in those who were over 85 years old (640 [95% CI: 246 to 1034] MET minutes/week less); were divorced or single (240 [95% CI: 120 to 360] MET minutes/week less); living alone (277 [95% CI: 152 to 402] MET minutes/week less); reported feeling lonely often (306 [95% CI: 60 to 552] MET minutes/week less); and showed symptoms of depression (1007 [95% CI: 1401 to 612] MET minutes/week less) compared to those aged 50-64 years, married, co-habiting, and not reporting loneliness or depression, respectively. Conclusions and Implications: Markers of social isolation, loneliness and depression were associated with lower PA following the introduction of lockdown in the UK. Targeted interventions to increase PA in these groups should be consid

Journal article

Bates A, McGregor A, Alexander C, 2021, Comparing sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of gait and stair climbing between hypermobile and non-hypermobile people; a cross-sectional study, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1471-2474

Background: Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) presents with a range of symptoms including widespread joint hypermobility and chronic arthralgia. The study objective was to investigate whether impairments in JHS are due to hypermobility or another factor of JHS by identifying impairments in gait and stair-climbing tasks; an activity that is demanding and so may better show differences between the cohorts.Methods: 68 adults participated; 23 JHS, 23 Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), and 22 Normal Flexibility (NF). Inclusion criteria for JHS participants were a positive classification using the Brighton Criteria, for GJH a Beighton Score ≥4, and for NF a Beighton Score <4 with no hypermobile knees. Participants were recorded with a 10-camera Vicon system whilst they performed gait and stair-climbing. Temporal-spatial, and sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic outcome measures were calculated and input to statistical analyses by statistical parametric mapping (SPM).Results: During the gait activity JHS had significantly greater stride time and significantly lower velocity than NF, and significantly greater stride time, lower velocity, and lower stride length than GJH. SPM analysis showed no significant differences between groups in gait kinematics. There were significant differences between groups for gait moments and powers; people with JHS tended to have lower moments and generate less power at the ankle, and favour power generation at the knee. A similar strategy was present in stair ascent. During stair descent people with JHS showed significantly more hip flexion than people with NF.Conclusions: As there was only one significant difference between GJH and NF we conclude that impairments cannot be attributed to hypermobility alone, but rather other factor(s) of JHS. The results show that both gait and stair-climbing is impaired in JHS. Stair-climbing results indicate that JHS are using a knee-strategy and avoiding use of the ankle, which may be a factor f

Journal article

Wilson F, Thornton JS, Wilkie K, Hartvigsen J, Vinther A, Ackerman KE, Caneiro JP, Trease L, Nugent F, Gissane C, McDonnell S-J, McGregor A, Newlands C, Ardern CLet al., 2021, 2021 consensus statement for preventing and managing low back pain in elite and subelite adult rowers, British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 55, Pages: 893-899, ISSN: 0306-3674

PURPOSE: To synthesise evidence on low back pain (LBP) in adult rowers and to create a consensus statement to inform clinical practice. METHODS: There were four synthesis steps that informed the consensus statement. In step one, seven expert clinicians and researchers established the scope of the consensus statement and conducted a survey of experienced and expert clinicians to explore current practice. In step two, working groups examined current evidence relating to key scope questions and summarised key issues. In step three, we synthesised evidence for each group and used a modified Delphi process to aid in the creation of the overall consensus statements. Finally, in step four, we combined information from step three with the findings of the clinician survey (and with athlete and coach input) to produce recommendations for clinical practice. RESULTS: The scope of the consensus statement included epidemiology; biomechanics; management; the athlete's voice and clinical expertise. Prevention and management of LBP in rowers should include education on risk factors, rowing biomechanics and training load. If treatment is needed, non-invasive management, including early unloading from aggravating activities, effective pain control and exercise therapy should be considered. Fitness should be maintained with load management and progression to full training and competition. The role of surgery is unclear. Management should be athlete focused and a culture of openness within the team encouraged. CONCLUSION: Recommendations are based on current evidence and consensus and aligned with international LBP guidelines in non-athletic populations, but with advice aimed specifically at rowers. We recommend that research in relation to all aspects of prevention and management of LBP in rowers be intensified.

Journal article

Formstone L, Huo W, Wilson S, McGregor A, Bentley P, Vaidyanathan Ret al., 2021, Quantification of motor function post-stroke using wearable inertial and ,echanomyographic Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol: 29, Pages: 1158-1167, ISSN: 1534-4320

Subjective clinical rating scales represent the goldstandard diagnosis of motor function following stroke, however in practice they suffer from well-recognised limitations including variance between assessors, low inter-rater reliability and low resolution. Automated systems have been proposed for empirical quantification but have significantly impacted clinical practice. We address translational challenges in this arena through: (1) implementation of a novel sensor suite fusing inertial measurement and mechanomyography (MMG) to quantify hand and wrist motor function; and (2) introduction of a new range of signal features extracted from the suite to supplement predicted clinical scores. The wearable sensors, signal features, and sensor fusion algorithms have been combined to produce classified ratings from the Fugl-Meyer clinical assessment rating scale. Furthermore, we have designed the system to augment clinical rating with several sensor-derived supplementary features encompassing critical aspects of motor dysfunction (e.g. joint angle, muscle activity, etc.). Performance is validated through a large-scale study on a poststroke cohort of 64 patients. Fugl-Meyer Assessment tasks were classified with 75% accuracy for gross motor tasks and 62% for hand/wrist motor tasks. Of greater import, supplementary features demonstrated concurrent validity with Fugl-Meyer ratings, evidencing their utility as new measures of motor function suited to automated assessment. Finally, the supplementary features also provide continuous measures of sub-components of motor function, offering the potential to complement low accuracy but well-validated clinical rating scales when high-quality motor outcome measures are required. We believe this work provides a basis for widespread clinical adoption of inertial-MMG sensor use for post-stroke clinical motor assessment.Index Terms—Stroke, Fugl-Meyer assessment, automated upper-limb assessment, wearables, machine learning, mechanomyogra

Journal article

Favier C, McGregor A, Phillips A, 2021, Maintaining bone health in the lumbar spine: routine activities alone are not enough, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2296-4185

Public health organisations typically recommend a minimum amount of moderate intensity activities such as walking or cycling for two and a half hours a week, combined with some more demanding physical activity on at least 2 days a week to maintain a healthy musculoskeletal condition. For populations at risk of bone loss in the lumbar spine, these guidelines are particularly relevant. However, an understanding of how these different activities are influential in maintaining vertebral bone health is lacking. A predictive structural finite element modelling approach using a strain-driven algorithm was developed to study mechanical stimulus and bone adaptation in the lumbar spine under various physiological loading conditions. These loading conditions were obtained with a previously developed full-body musculoskeletal model for a range of daily living activities representative of a healthy lifestyle. Activities of interest for the simulations include moderate intensity activities involving limited spine movements in all directions such as, walking, stair ascent and descent, sitting down and standing up, and more demanding activities with large spine movements during reaching and lifting tasks. For a combination of moderate and more demanding activities, the finite element model predicted a trabecular and cortical bone architecture representative of a healthy vertebra. When more demanding activities were removed from the simulations, areas at risk of bone degradation were observed at all lumbar levels in the anterior part of the vertebral body, the transverse processes and the spinous process. Moderate intensity activities alone were found to be insufficient in providing a mechanical stimulus to prevent bone degradation. More demanding physical activities are essential to maintain bone health in the lumbar spine.

Journal article

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