124 results found
Schofield SJ, Woods A, Szram J, et al., 2019, COPD and breathlessness in older workers predict economic inactivity; A prospective cohort study, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 200, Pages: 1228-1233, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: There is an aspiration to retain increasing numbers of older workers in employment and strategies to achieve this need to make provision for the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases with age. There is a consistent body of cross-sectional evidence that suggests that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are more likely to have adverse employment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We report the findings of the first longitudinal study of this issue. METHODS: We recruited full-time employed men and women in their 50's and followed them for a period of 18 months; we examined, after adjustment for potential confounders, the associations between breathlessness and airway obstruction at baseline and loss of employment in the intervening period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among participants responding to the follow up questionnaire (1656/1773 (93%)), the majority (78.5%) continued in full-time employment, but 10.6% were in part-time employment and 10.9% were no longer in paid employment. The adjusted risk of loss of employment was significantly increased for those with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR 2.89, 95% ci 1.80-4.65) or breathlessness (3.07, 2.16-4.37) at baseline. There was no evident modification by sex or by manual/non-manual work. CONCLUSIONS: Airway obstruction and breathlessness are independently associated with premature loss from the workforce in older workers; these observations provide strong support to the available cross-sectional evidence and suggest that interventions to help those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who wish to remain in work need to be tested.
Cullinan P, McGavin CR, Kreiss K, et al., 2013, Obliterative bronchiolitis in fibreglass workers: a new occupational disease?, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 70, Pages: 357-359, ISSN: 1351-0711
Harris JM, Johnston IDA, Rudd R, et al., 2010, Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study, THORAX, Vol: 65, Pages: 70-76, ISSN: 0040-6376
Brant A, Upchurch S, van Tongeren M, et al., 2009, Detergent protease exposure and respiratory disease: case-referent analysis of a retrospective cohort, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 66, Pages: 754-758, ISSN: 1351-0711
Torrent M, Sunyer J, Garcia R, et al., 2007, Early-life allergen exposure and atopy, asthma, and wheeze up to 6 years of age., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, Vol: 176, Pages: 446-453, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Although it is widely assumed that the incidence of childhood respiratory allergies to common aeroallergens is directly related to allergen exposure in early life, few longitudinal studies have investigated this issue, and available data are scarce and mainly limited to high-risk groups. OBJECTIVES: To assess, in a prospective manner and in a general population, the role of early life exposures to Der p1 and Fel d1 on the inception of sensitization and asthma. METHODS: Pregnant women and their children were recruited for the Asthma Multicentre Infant Cohort Study. Overall, 1,611 newborns were initially enrolled in three cohorts in the United Kingdom and Spain. Der p1 and Fel d1 allergens were measured in household dust samples at 3 months of age for 1,474 (91.5%) participants, and skin prick tests were performed at 6 years of age on 1,182 (80.2%) participants. Wheeze and diagnosed asthma were reported in yearly questionnaires. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Exposure to Der p1 early in life was not related to a positive specific prick test or to asthma or persistent wheeze at 6 years of age. Fel d1 showed an association with all these outcomes (third vs. first tertile; odds ratio, 4.43 for positive specific prick test and 2.6 for diagnosed asthma). CONCLUSIONS: Dose-response relationships between allergen exposure and sensitization or asthma may be allergen specific and nonlinear; a minimum threshold level is needed to induce sensitization, but no dose-response relationship exists above this level. The effect of a particular allergen seems to be similar on atopy and asthma inception.
Torrent M, Sunyer J, Garcia R, et al., 2007, Early-life allergen exposure and atopy, asthma, and wheeze up to 6 years of age, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 176, Pages: 446-453, ISSN: 1073-449X
Harris JM, Mills P, White C, et al., 2007, Recorded infections and antibiotics in early life: associations with allergy in UK children and their parents, THORAX, Vol: 62, Pages: 631-637, ISSN: 0040-6376
Sozanska B, MacNeill SJ, Kajderowicz-Kowalik M, et al., 2007, Atopy and asthma in rural Poland: a paradigm for the emergence of childhood respiratory allergies in Europe, ALLERGY, Vol: 62, Pages: 394-400, ISSN: 0105-4538
Copley SJ, Lee YCG, Hansell DM, et al., 2007, Asbestos-induced and smoking-related disease: Apportioning pulmonary function deficit by using thin-section CT, RADIOLOGY, Vol: 242, Pages: 258-266, ISSN: 0033-8419
Boyton RJ, Reynolds C, Wahid FN, et al., 2006, IFN gamma and CXCR-1 gene polymorphisms in idiopathic bronchiectasis, TISSUE ANTIGENS, Vol: 68, Pages: 325-330, ISSN: 0001-2815
Zekveld C, Bibakis I, Bibaki-Liakou V, et al., 2006, The effects of farming and birth order on asthma and allergies, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 28, Pages: 82-88, ISSN: 0903-1936
Jones MG, Floyd A, Nouri-Aria KT, et al., 2006, Is occupational asthma to diisocyanates a non-IgE-mediated disease?, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 117, Pages: 663-669, ISSN: 0091-6749
Brant A, Nightingale S, Berriman J, et al., 2005, Supermarket baker's asthma: how accurate is routine health surveillance?, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 62, Pages: 395-399, ISSN: 1351-0711
Bibakis I, Zekveld C, Dimitroulis I, et al., 2005, Childhood atopy and allergic disease and skin test responses to environmental mycobacteria in rural Crete: a cross-sectional survey, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 624-629, ISSN: 0954-7894
Cullinan P, MacNeill SJ, Harris JM, et al., 2004, Early allergen exposure, skin prick responses, and atopic wheeze at age 5 in English children: a cohort study, THORAX, Vol: 59, Pages: 855-861, ISSN: 0040-6376
Cullinan P, Harris J, Mills P, et al., 2004, Early prescriptions of antibiotics and the risk of allergic disease in adults: a cohort study, THORAX, Vol: 59, Pages: 11-15, ISSN: 0040-6376
Cullinan P, Harris JM, Taylor AJN, et al., 2003, Can early infection explain the sibling effect in adult atopy?, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 22, Pages: 956-961, ISSN: 0903-1936
Gautrin D, Newman-Taylor AJ, Nordman H, et al., 2003, Controversies in epidemiology of occupational asthma, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 22, Pages: 551-559, ISSN: 0903-1936
Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Putcha V, Gordon S, et al., 2003, Exposure-response relations among laboratory animal workers exposed to rats, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 60, Pages: 104-108, ISSN: 1351-0711
Barnes M, Cullinan P, Athanasaki P, et al., 2001, Crete: does farming explain urban and rural differences in atopy?, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 1822-1828, ISSN: 0954-7894
Floyd AE, Nouri-Aria KT, Jacobson MR, et al., 2001, Allergen, but not isocyanate-induced, C epsilon RNA expression after challenge, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 1149-1149, ISSN: 0954-7894
BACKGROUND: The fur is an important source of allergens in many mammal species, but this source has not been extensively studied in rats. Rat room dust contains high-molecular-weight allergens that have been found to cross-react with fur and its presumed salivary contaminants. The role of rat fur and saliva as a source of respiratory allergens merits further investigation. The objective was to describe the allergens present in the fur and saliva of male rats. METHODS: Allergen extracts were prepared from the saliva and fur of the pelts from adult male rats. Immunoblotting was used to describe the allergens present in rat fur and saliva with serum from 76 and 25 individuals, respectively. RESULTS: There was considerable variation between the individuals in the binding of IgE to the separated fur and saliva allergens. Immunoblot analysis identified 23 allergens in rat fur. "Major" allergens were found at the "origin", and at 55, 51, 19, and 17 kDa, and "intermediate" allergens at 74, 67 (probably albumin), and 21.5 (diffuse) kDa. Seventeen salivary allergens were described with "major" allergens at 21.5, 19.5, 19, 18, and 17.5 kDa. Many subjects had IgE to the 67 kDa (56%) and 43 kDa (64%) allergens but the density of staining was weak. CONCLUSION: Rat fur and saliva are the sources of many allergens. Fur contained five "major" allergens and was a complex source of allergens of relatively high molecular weight (>22 kDa). The most important salivary allergens have molecular weights of less than 22 kDa. Fur is the most probable source of the high-molecular-weight allergens found in rat room dust.
Harris JM, Cullinan P, Williams HC, et al., 2001, Environmental associations with eczema in early life, BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Vol: 144, Pages: 795-802, ISSN: 0007-0963
Cullinan P, Cook A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, et al., 2001, Allergen and dust exposure as determinants of work-related symptoms and sensitization in a cohort of flour-exposed workers; a case-control analysis, ANNALS OF OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE, Vol: 45, Pages: 97-103, ISSN: 0003-4878
Nicholson PJ, Newman Taylor AJ, Oliver P, et al., 2001, Current best practice for the health surveillance of enzyme workers in the soap and detergent industry., Occup Med (Lond), Vol: 51, Pages: 81-92, ISSN: 0962-7480
This study defines current best practice for the health surveillance of workers who are potentially exposed to enzymes in the manufacture of enzymatic detergent products. It is recommended that health surveillance is performed 6-monthly for the first 2 years and annually thereafter. The health surveillance programme should include a respiratory questionnaire to detect symptoms, assessment of lung function to detect pre-symptomatic changes and an immunological test to detect specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to enzymes. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease respiratory questionnaire should be used since it has been validated extensively for detecting asthma. Operators should observe the American Thoracic Society performance criteria for spirometers and standardized procedures for conducting spirometry. Since current airborne monitoring techniques for enzymes do not detect short-duration peak exposures, the incidence of employee sensitizations remains the most reliable measure of the integrity of environmental control. The Pepys skin prick test has been validated as a sensitive, specific and practical test for detecting specific IgE to many inhalant allergens including enzymes. For newly sensitized workers, a multi-cause investigation should be conducted to identify potential sources of exposure. Group results of immunological test results assist in the evaluation of workplace control measures, and should be used to monitor the effectiveness of hygiene and engineering programmes and to help prioritize areas for improvement. Positive responses to a questionnaire or abnormal spirometry should be assessed further. Occupational asthma should be excluded in any case of adult-onset asthma that starts or deteriorates during working life. This is particularly important because an accurate diagnosis of occupational asthma with early avoidance of exposure to its cause can result in remission of symptoms and restoration of lung function.
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