100 results found
Richter M, Lombardi P, Arendarski B, et al., 2021, A Vision for Energy Decarbonization: Planning Sustainable Tertiary Sites as Net-Zero Energy Systems, Energies, Vol: 14, Pages: 5577-5577
<jats:p>The power system is changing towards a decarbonized one. The Kyoto protocol and the Paris climate agreement have prompted many nations to approve energy policies based on volatile renewable energy sources (RESs). However, the integration into the grid of the power generated by RESs as well as the electrification of the heating, gas and transportation sectors is becoming a huge challenge. Planning industrial and tertiary sites as net-zero energy systems (NZESs) might contribute to advance the solutions of fully integrating volatile RESs into the power system. This study aims to point out the importance of planning large energy consumer sites such as NZESs, and to depict a holistic modeling approach for this. The methodology is based on a multi-layer approach, which focuses on on-site power generation by RESs, on the improvement of energy efficiency, and on the increase of system flexibility. A qualitative case study has been conducted. It considers the planning of a Net-Zero Energy Data Center located in Germany. Results point out that new interdisciplinary and in particular social analysis methods are necessary. They might be used for accelerating the decision making process during the planning of RES-based on-site power generation systems. Besides, for computation and cooling systems, new technologies that are continuously emerging in the market should be taken into account. If well designed, they contribute to significantly decrease the whole energy demand of data center. Finally, optimal sizing of energy storage systems (electric and thermal) as well as an expedient choice of performance indicators to evaluate technology options are identified as the key factor for decreasing the external energy demand of tertiary sites, such as data center.</jats:p>
Hassaan MA, El Nemr A, Elkatory MR, et al., 2021, Synthesis, characterization, and synergistic effects of modified biochar in combination with alpha-Fe2O3 NPs on biogas production from red algae pterocladia capillacea, Sustainability, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 2071-1050
This study is the first work that evaluated the effectiveness of unmodified (SD) and modified biochar with ammonium hydroxide (SD-NH2) derived from sawdust waste biomass as an additive for biogas production from red algae Pterocladia capillacea either individually or in combination with hematite α-Fe2O3 NPs. Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller, Fourier transform infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, and a particle size analyzer were used to characterize the generated biochars and the synthesized α-Fe2O3. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements confirmed the formation of amino groups on the modified biochar surface. The kinetic research demonstrated that both the modified Gompertz and logistic function models fit the experimental data satisfactorily except for 150 SD-NH2 alone or in combination with α-Fe2O3 at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The data suggested that adding unmodified biochar at doses of 50 and 100 mg significantly increased biogas yield compared to untreated algae. The maximum biogas generation (219 mL/g VS) was obtained when 100 mg of unmodified biochar was mixed with 10 mg of α-Fe2O3 in the inoculum.
El Nemr A, Hassaan MA, Elkatory MR, et al., 2021, Efficiency of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles with Different Pretreatments for Enhancing Biogas Yield of Macroalgae Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, MOLECULES, Vol: 26
Todaro L, Liuzzi S, Pantaleo AM, et al., 2021, Thermo-modified native black poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood as an insulation material, IFOREST-BIOGEOSCIENCES AND FORESTRY, Vol: 14, Pages: 268-273, ISSN: 1971-7458
Fermo P, Artinano B, De Gennaro G, et al., 2021, Improving indoor air quality through an air purifier able to reduce aerosol particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs): Experimental results, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 197, ISSN: 0013-9351
Palmitessa OD, Pantaleo MA, Santamaria P, 2021, Applications and Development of LEDs as Supplementary Lighting for Tomato at Different Latitudes, AGRONOMY-BASEL, Vol: 11
Hassaan MA, El Nemr A, Elkatory MR, et al., 2021, Enhancement of Biogas Production from Macroalgae Ulva latuca via Ozonation Pretreatment, ENERGIES, Vol: 14
Calise F, Cappiello FL, Vicidomini M, et al., 2021, Energy and economic assessment of energy efficiency options for energy districts: case studies in Italy and Egypt, Energies, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 1996-1073
In this research, a technoeconomic comparison of energy efficiency options for energy districts located in different climatic areas (Naples, Italy and Fayoum, Egypt) is presented. A dynamic simulation model based on TRNSYS is developed to evaluate the different energy efficiency options, which includes different buildings of conceived districts. The TRNSYS model is integrated with the plug-in Google SketchUp TRNSYS3d to estimate the thermal load of the buildings and the temporal variation. The model considers the unsteady state energy balance and includes all the features of the building’s envelope. For the considered climatic zones and for the different energy efficiency measures, primary energy savings, pay back periods and reduced CO2 emissions are evaluated. The proposed energy efficiency options include a district heating system for hot water supply, air-to-air conventional heat pumps for both cooling and space heating of the buildings and the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal systems. The energy actions are compared to baseline scenarios, where the hot water and space heating demand is satisfied by conventional natural gas boilers, the cooling demand is met by conventional air-to-air vapor compression heat pumps and the electric energy demand is satisfied by the power grid. The simulation results provide valuable guidance for selecting the optimal designs and system configurations, as well as suggest guidelines to policymakers to define decarbonization targets in different scenarios. The scenario of Fayoum offers a savings of 67% in primary energy, but the associated payback period extends to 23 years due to the lower cost of energy in comparison to Naples.
Aunedi M, Pantaleo AM, Kuriyan K, et al., 2020, Modelling of national and local interactions between heat and electricity networks in low-carbon energy systems, Applied Energy, Vol: 276, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 0306-2619
Decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector is critical for achieving long-term energy and climate change objectives. Closer integration between heating/cooling and electricity systems can provide additional flexibility required to support the integration of variable renewables and other low-carbon energy sources. This paper proposes a framework for identifying cost-efficient solutions for supplying district heating systems within both operation and investment timescales, while considering local and national-level interactions between heat and electricity infrastructures. The proposed optimisation model minimises the levelised cost of a portfolio of heating technologies, and in particular Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and polygeneration systems, centralised heat pumps (HPs), centralised boilers and thermal energy storage (TES). A number of illustrative case studies are presented, quantifying the impact of renewable penetration, electricity price volatility, local grid constraints and local emission targets on optimal planning and operation of heat production assets. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the cost-optimal TES capacity could increase by 41–134% in order to manage a constraint in the local electricity grid, while in systems with higher RES penetration reflected in higher electricity price volatility it may be optimal to increase the TES capacity by 50–66% compared to constant prices, allowing centralised electric HP technologies to divert excess electricity produced by intermittent renewable generators to the heating sector. This confirms the importance of reflecting the whole-system value of heating technologies in the underlying cost-benefit analysis of heat networks.
Hassaan MA, Pantaleo A, Santoro F, et al., 2020, Techno-Economic Analysis of ZnO Nanoparticles Pretreatments for Biogas Production from Barley Straw, ENERGIES, Vol: 13
Cremi MR, Pantaleo AM, van Dam KH, et al., 2020, Optimal design and operation of an urban energy system applied to the Fiera Del Levante exhibition centre, Applied Energy, Vol: 275, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 0306-2619
To move from centralised fossil fuel-based energy systems, synergies between distributed renewable generation, storage and demand-side strategies can be exploited to lower environmental impact and costs. This paper proposes an optimisation model for the techno-economic assessment of energy management strategies with a short-term investment horizon aimed at business managers and decision-makers in the commercial sector. The main novelty is the selection of a combination of on-site technologies and peak shaving strategies to minimise energy costs under time-of-use electricity tariffs, and the adaptation of a general methodology for a specific socio-technical context under seasonal loads. The “Fiera del Levante” exhibition centre in the city of Bari is selected due to the high seasonality of its electricity demand. The optimal solution uses a combined system with photovoltaics, diesel-fired and gas-fired combined-heat-and-power, including part-load operation and electric storage. The cost minimisation scenario reports up to 20% cost savings and 35% carbon emission savings with a 1MWp photovoltaic plant, compared to the baseline. This presents a five-year return on investment of 75%, and levelized cost of energy of €0.14 kWh−1. When coupled with a lithium-ion battery, solar energy brings up to 60% carbon emission savings through load shifting strategies, though this reduces the five-year return on investment by 9%. This hybrid setup is not financially competitive in the Italian retail market, but a hypothetical 25% rise of the grid import prices would make it economically viable. The proposed model is flexible and can be adapted to commercial end-users, providing decision-support in urban energy systems under local conditions.
Wang K, Pantaleo AM, Herrando M, et al., 2020, Spectral-splitting hybrid PV-thermal (PVT) systems for combined heat and power provision to dairy farms, Renewable Energy, Vol: 159, Pages: 1047-1065, ISSN: 0960-1481
Dairy farming is one of the most energy- and emission-intensive industrial sectors, and offers noteworthy opportunities for displacing conventional fossil-fuel consumption both in terms of cost saving and decarbonisation. In this paper, a solar-combined heat and power (S–CHP) system is proposed for dairy-farm applications based on spectral-splitting parabolic-trough hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors, which is capable of providing simultaneous electricity, steam and hot water for processing milk products. A transient numerical model is developed and validated against experimental data to predict the dynamic thermal and electrical characteristics and to assess the thermoeconomic performance of the S–CHP system. A dairy farm in Bari (Italy), with annual thermal and electrical demands of 6000 MWh and 3500 MWh respectively, is considered as a case study for assessing the energetic and economic potential of the proposed S–CHP system. Hourly simulations are performed over a year using real-time local weather and measured demand-data inputs. The results show that the optical characteristic of the spectrum splitter has a significant influence on the system’s thermoeconomic performance. This is therefore optimised to reflect the solar region between 550 nm and 1000 nm to PV cells for electricity generation and (low-temperature) hot-water production, while directing the rest to solar receivers for (higher-temperature) steam generation. Based on a 10000-m2 installed area, it is found that 52% of the demand for steam generation and 40% of the hot water demand can be satisfied by the PVT S–CHP system, along with a net electrical output amounting to 14% of the farm’s demand. Economic analyses show that the proposed system is economically viable if the investment cost of the spectrum splitter is lower than 75% of the cost of the parabolic trough concentrator (i.e., <1950 €/m2 spectrum splitter) in this application. The influenc
Olympios AV, Pantaleo AM, Sapin P, et al., 2020, On the value of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and heat pumps in centralised and distributed heating systems: Lessons from multi-fidelity modelling approaches, Applied Energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0306-2619
This paper presents a multi-scale framework for the design and comparison of centralised and distributed heat generation solutions. An extensive analysis of commercially available products on the UK market is conducted to gather information on the performance and cost of a range of gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) systems, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) and ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs). Data-driven models with associated uncertainty bounds are derived from the collected data, which capture cost and performance variations with scale (i.e., size and rating) and operating conditions. In addition, a comprehensive thermoeconomic (thermodynamic and component-costing) heat pump model, validated against manufacturer data, is developed to capture design-related performance and cost variations, thus reducing technology-related model uncertainties. The novelty of this paper lies in the use of multi-fidelity approaches for the comparison of the economic and environmental potential of important heat-generation solutions: (i) centralised gas-fired CHP systems associated with district heating network; (ii) gas-fired CHP systems or GSHPs providing heat to differentiated energy communities; and (iii) small-scale micro-CHP systems, ASHPs or GSHPs, installed at the household level. The pathways are evaluated for the case of the Isle of Dogs district in London, UK. A centralised CHP system appears as the most profitable option, achieving annual savings of £13 M compared to the use of decentralised boilers and a levelised cost of heat equal to 31 £/MWhth. However, if the carbon intensity of the electrical grid continues to reduce at current rates, CHP systems will only provide minimal carbon savings compared to boilers (<6%), with heat pumps achieving significant heat decarbonisation (55–62%). Differentiating between high- and low-performance and cost heat pump designs shows that the former, although 25% more expensive, have significantly lower annualised
Sokolnikova P, Lombardi P, Arendarski B, et al., 2020, Net-zero multi-energy systems for Siberian rural communities: A methodology to size thermal and electric storage units, RENEWABLE ENERGY, Vol: 155, Pages: 979-989, ISSN: 0960-1481
Olympios A, Hoisenpoori P, Mersch M, et al., 2020, Optimal design of low-temperature heat-pumping technologies and implications to the whole energy system, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems.
This paper presents a methodology for identifying optimal designs for air-source heat pumps suitable for domestic heating applications from the whole-energy system perspective, accounting explicitly for a trade-off between cost and efficiency, as well as for the influence of the outside air temperature during off-design operation. The work combines dedicated brazed-plate and plate-fin heat-exchanger models with compressor efficiency maps, as well as equipment costing techniques, in order to develop a comprehensive technoeconomic model of a low-temperature air-source heat pump with a single-stage-compressor, based on the vapour-compression cycle. The cost and performance predictions are validated against manufacturer data and a non-linear thermodynamic optimisation model is developed to obtain optimal component sizes for a set of competing working fluids and design conditions. The cost and off-design performance of different configurations are integrated into a whole-energy system capacity-expansion and unit-dispatch model of the UK power and heat system. The aim is to assess the system value of proposed designs, as well as the implications of their deployment on the power generation mix and total transition cost of electrifying domestic heat in the UK as a pathway towards meeting a national net-zero emission target by 2050. Refrigerant R152a appears to have the best design and off-design performance, especially compared to the commonly used R410a. The size of the heat exchangers has a major effect on heat pump performance and cost. From a wholesystem perspective, high-performance heat pumps enable a ~20 GW (~10%) reduction in the required installed power generation capacity compared to smaller-heat-exchanger, low-performance heat pumps, which in turn requires lower and more realistic power-grid expansion rates. However, it is shown that the improved performance as a result of larger heat exchangers does not compensate overall for the increased technology cost, with
Al Kindi A, Markides C, Pantaleo A, et al., 2020, Optimal system configuration and operation strategies of flexible hybrid nuclear-solar power plants, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Publisher: ECOS
Nuclear power plants are commonly used for baseload power supply due to their high reliability, low variable costs, as well as relatively low thermal efficiencies and limited load-following capabilities; especially, in the case of light water reactors. At the same time, concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is gaining attention, but is still considered an intermittent source of power with a limited availability factor. In an effort to propose a very different performance characteristic for both technologies, a hybrid power system combining nuclear and CSP plants and integrated with a thermal energy storage system is considered in this paper. The integration of the technologies is achieved by adding an indirect solar superheater and a solar reheater to a small modular nuclear reactor (NuScale). The work includes modelling of the integrated hybrid system, thermodynamic performance analysis and operational optimization aimed at maximizing the profitability of such a hybrid power plant in Oman. The results show that the hybrid system has the potential to deliver more efficient and flexible power (operating between 55% and 100% of nominal load) with the nuclear reactor operated continuously at its full rated power. The hybridization concept can potentially produce a competitive levelized cost of electricity, especially with the integration of thermal energy storage. The study concludes that the installation of such a system in Oman is not yet economically viable unless electricity tariffs increase by 70% to UK levels.
Hamedani SR, Villarini M, Colantoni A, et al., 2020, Environmental and Economic Analysis of an Anaerobic Co-Digestion Power Plant Integrated with a Compost Plant, ENERGIES, Vol: 13
Pantaleo A, Villarini M, Colantoni A, et al., 2020, Techno-Economic Modeling of Biomass Pellet Routes: Feasibility in Italy, ENERGIES, Vol: 13
Pantaleo AM, Camporeale S, Sorrentino A, et al., 2020, Hybrid solar-biomass combined Brayton/organic Rankine-cycle plants integrated with thermal storage: Techno-economic feasibility in select Mediterranean areas, Renewable Energy, Vol: 147, Pages: 2913-2931, ISSN: 1879-0682
This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis and techno-economic assessment of a novel hybrid solar-biomass power-generation system configuration composed of an externally fired gas-turbine (EFGT) fuelled by biomass (wood chips) and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. The main novelty is related to the heat recovery from the exhaust gases of the EFGT via thermal energy storage (TES), and integration of heat from a parabolic-trough collectors (PTCs) field with molten salts as a heat-transfer fluid (HTF). The presence of a TES between the topping and bottoming cycles facilitates the flexible operation of the system, allows the system to compensate for solar energy input fluctuations, and increases capacity factor and dispatchability. A TES with two molten salt tanks (one cold at 200 °C and one hot at 370 °C) is chosen. The selected bottoming ORC is a superheated recuperative cycle suitable for heat conversion in the operating temperature range of the TES. The whole system is modelled by means of a Python-based software code, and three locations in the Mediterranean area are assumed in order to perform energy-yield analyses: Marseille in France, Priolo Gargallo in Italy and Rabat in Morocco. In each case, the thermal storage that minimizes the levelized cost of energy (LCE) is selected on the basis of the estimated solar radiation and CSP size. The results of the thermodynamic simulations, capital and operational costs assessments and subsidies (feed-in tariffs for biomass and solar electricity available in the Italian framework), allow estimating the global energy conversion efficiency and the investment profitability in the three locations. Sensitivity analyses of the biomass costs, size of PTCs, feed-in tariff and share of cogenerated heat delivered to the load are also performed. The results show that the high investment costs of the CSP section in the proposed size range and hybridization configuration allow investment profitability only in the
Clairand J-M, Briceno-Leon M, Escriva-Escriva G, et al., 2020, Review of Energy Efficiency Technologies in the Food Industry: Trends, Barriers, and Opportunities, IEEE ACCESS, Vol: 8, Pages: 48015-48029, ISSN: 2169-3536
Hassaan MA, Pantaleo A, Tedone L, et al., 2019, Enhancement of biogas production via green ZnO nanoparticles: experimental results of selected herbaceous crops, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 208, Pages: 242-255, ISSN: 0098-6445
Herrando M, Pantaleo AM, Wang K, et al., 2019, Solar combined cooling, heating and power systems based on hybrid PVT, PV or solar-thermal collectors for building applications, Renewable Energy, Vol: 143, Pages: 637-647, ISSN: 0960-1481
A modelling methodology is developed and used to investigate the technoeconomic performance of solar combined cooling, heating and power (S-CCHP) systems based on hybrid PVT collectors. The building energy demands are inputs to a transient system model, which couples PVT solar-collectors via thermal-store to commercial absorption chillers. The real energy demands of the University Campus of Bari, investment costs, relevant electricity and gas prices are used to estimate payback-times. The results are compared to: evacuated tube collectors (ETCs) for heating and cooling provision; and a PV-system for electricity provision. A 1.68-MWp S-CCHP system can cover 20.9%, 55.1% and 16.3% of the space-heating, cooling and electrical demands of the Campus, respectively, with roof-space availability being a major limiting factor. The payback-time is 16.7 years, 2.7-times higher than that of a PV-system. The lack of electricity generation by the ETC-based system limits its profitability, and leads to 2.3-times longer payback-time. The environmental benefits arising from the system’s operation are evaluated. The S-CCHP system can displace 911 tonsCO2/year (16% and 1.4× times more than the PV-system and the ETC-based system, respectively). The influence of utility prices on the systems’ economics is analysed. It is found that the sensitivity to these prices is significant.
Romanos P, Pantaleo A, Markides C, 2019, Energy management and enhanced flexibility of power stations via thermal energy storage and secondary power cycles, 11th International Conference on Applied Energy
The operation of power plants must meet a series of requirements in order to enable the increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy and the consequent intensifying demand for flexible generation. It is proposed here that during off-peak demand, steam can be extracted from Rankine-cycle power stations for the charging of thermal storage tanks that contain suitable phase-change materials (PCMs); during peak demand time, these thermal energy storage (TES) tanks can act as the heat sources of secondary thermal power plants in order to generate power, for example as evaporators of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants that are suitable for power generation at reduced temperatures and smaller scales. This type of solution offers greater flexibility than TES-only solutions that store thermal energy and then release this back to the base power station, in that it allows both derating andover-generation compared to the base power-station. The approach is here applied to a case study of a 670-MW rated nuclear power station, since nuclear power stations are generally suitable for baseload generation and the proposed system configuration could increase the operational flexibility of such plants.
Wang K, Herrando M, Pantaleo AM, et al., 2019, Technoeconomic assessments of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal vs. conventional solar-energy systems: Case studies in heat and power provision to sports centres, Applied Energy, Vol: 254, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0306-2619
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the energetic, economic and environmental potentials of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) and conventional solar energy systems for combined heat and power provision. A solar combined heat and power (S-CHP) system based on PVT collectors, a solar-power system based on PV panels, a solar-thermal system based on evacuated tube collectors (ETCs), and a S-CHP system based on a combination of side-by-side PV panels and ETCs (PV-ETC) are assessed and compared. A conventional CHP system based on a natural-gas-fired internal combustion engine (ICE) prime mover is also analysed as a competing fossil-fuel based solution. Annual simulations are conducted for the provision of electricity, along with space heating, swimming pool heating and hot water to the University Sports Centre of Bari, Italy. The results show that, based on a total installation area of 4000 m2 in all cases, the PVT S-CHP system outperforms the other systems in terms of total energy output, with annual electrical and thermal energy yields reaching 82.3% and 51.3% of the centre’s demands, respectively. The PV system is the most profitable solar solution, with the shortest payback time (9.4 years) and lowest levelised cost of energy (0.089 €/kWh). Conversely, the ETC solar-thermal system is not economically viable for the sports centre application, and increasing the ETC area share in the combined PV-ETC S-CHP system is unfavourable due to the low natural gas price. Although the PVT S-CHP system has the highest investment cost, the high annual revenue from the avoided energy bills elevates its economic performance to a level between those of the conventional PV and ETC-based S-CHP systems, with a payback time of 13.7 years and a levelised cost of energy of 0.109 €/kWh. However, at 445 tCO2/year, the CO2 emission reduction potential of the PVT S-CHP system is considerably higher (by 40–75%) than those of the all other solar systems (254&ndash
Pantaleo A, Simpson M, Rotolo G, et al., 2019, Thermoeconomic optimisation of small-scale organic Rankine cycle systems based on screw vs. piston expander maps in waste heat recovery applications, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 200, ISSN: 0196-8904
The high cost of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems is a key barrier to their implementation in waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. In particular, the choice ofexpansion device has a significant influence on this cost, strongly affecting the economic viabilityof an installation. In this work, numerical simulations and optimisation strategies are used to compare the performance and profitability of small-scale ORC systems using reciprocating-piston orsingle/two-stage screw expanders whenre covering heat from the exhaust gases of a 185-kWinternal combustion engine operating in baseload mode. The study goes beyond previous work by directly comparingthese small-scaleexpanders fora broad range of working fluids, and by exploring the sensitivity of project viability to key parameters such as electricity price and onsite heat demand.For the piston expander, a lumped-massmodel and optimisation based on artificial neural networks are used to generate performance maps, while performance and cost correlations from the literature are used for the screw expanders. The thermodynamic analysisshows that two-stage screw expanders typically deliver more power than either single-stage screw or piston expanders due to their higher conversion efficiencyat the required pressure ratios. The best fluids areacetone and ethanol, as these provide a compromise between the exergy losses in the condenser and in the evaporatorin this application. The maximum net power output isfound to be 17.7kW, from an ORC engine operating withacetone anda two-stage screw expander. On the other hand, the thermoeconomic optimisation shows that reciprocating-piston expandersshow a potential for lowerspecific costs, and sincesuchan expander technology is not mature, especially at these scales, this finding motivates further consideration of this component. A minimum specific investment cost of 1630€/kW is observed for an ORC engine with a pisto
Moposita K, Noboa-Lopez X, Clairand JM, et al., 2019, Design Considerations of a Monitoring System of a Farm for Energy Efficiency Purposes
The monitoring of industry processes can optimize the use of resources and improve its efficiency. In dairy farms, several parameters from the processes must be monitored. This paper proposes the design of a monitoring system for a farm that produces dairy products and jams. Several similar studies are analysed. Based on this, and on the farm characteristics, a novel design is developed. The principal benefits of the system are also exposed.
Wang K, Pantaleo AM, Mugnozza GS, et al., 2019, Technoeconomic assessment of solar combined heat and power systems based on hybrid PVT collectors in greenhouse applications, 10th International Conference On Indoor Air Quality (IAQVEC), Publisher: IOP Publishing, Pages: 072026-072026
This paper presents a technoeconomic analysis of a solar combined heat and power (S-CHP) system based on hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors for distributed cogeneration in a greenhouse tomato-farm in Bari, Italy. The thermal and electrical demands of the greenhouse of interest are currently fulfilled by a gas-fired CHP system that features an internal combustion engine (ICE) prime mover, and partially by an auxiliary gas boiler and electricity from the grid. A PVT-water S-CHP system is designed and sized based on a transient model, with hourly weather data and measured demand data given as inputs. Annual simulations are performed to predict the transient behaviour of the S-CHP system and to assess the system’s energy outputs. The economic profitability of such solution is also evaluated by considering the investment costs and cost savings due to the reduced on-site energy consumption. The results show that, with an installation area of 30,000 m , the PVT S-CHP system is able to cover up to 73% of the annual thermal demand of the greenhouse, while delivering a net electrical output 2.6 times that of the annual electrical demand. This performance is similar to that achieved by the equivalent ICE-CHP system (92% and 2 times, respectively). Furthermore, the total annual cost saving of the PVT S-CHP system is more than 6 times higher than that of the ICE system, due to the much lower fuel cost of the PVT system. Similarly, the potential CO2 emission reduction associated with the PVT system is considerably higher, at 3010 tCO2/year saved (vs. 86 tCO2/year). The payback time of the PVT system is not significantly longer than that of the ICE system (10.4 years vs. 8.4 years), but its levelized cost of energy is much lower (0.076 €/kWh vs. 0.132 €/kWh) due to the higher annual cost savings. These results indicate that such PVT S-CHP systems have an excellent technoeconomic potential in the proposed greenhouse applications and could be competitive ov
Aunedi M, Kuriyan K, Pantaleo AM, et al., 2019, Multi-scale modelling of interactions between heat and electricity networks in low-carbon energy systems, 14th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES Conference, Publisher: SDEWES
Decarbonisation of the heating and cooling sector is critical for achieving long-term energy and climate change objectives. Closer integration between heating/cooling and electricity systems can provide additional flexibility required to support the integration of variable renewables and other low-carbon energy sources. This paper proposes a framework for identifying cost-efficient solutions for supplying district heating systems within both operation and investment timescales, while considering local and national-level interactions between heat and electricity infrastructures. The proposed approach cost-optimises the portfolio of heating technologies, including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and polygeneration systems, large-scale heat pumps (HPs), gas boilers and thermal energy storage (TES). It is implemented as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimisation model that minimises net cost of heat supply, taking into account investment and operation cost of heat supply and storage options as well as the impact of local and wider interactions with the electricity system.
Al Kindi A, Markides C, Wang K, et al., 2019, Thermodynamic assessment of steam-accumulation thermal energy storage in concentrating solar Power plants, International Conference on Applied Energy 2019
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants are usually coupled with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in order to increase the generation capacity and reduce energy output fluctuations and the levelized cost of the energy. In Direct Steam Generation (DSG) CSP plants, a popular TES option relies on steam accumulation. This conventional option, however, is constrained by temperature and pressure limits, and delivers saturated or slightly superheated steam at low pressure during discharge, which is undesirable for part-load turbine operation. However, steam accumulation can be integrated with sensible-heat storage in concrete to provide high-temperature superheated steam at higher pressures. The conventional steam accumulation option and the integrated concrete-steam option are presented, analysed and compared in this paper. The comparison shows that the integrated option provides more storage capacity by utilizing most of the available thermal power in the solar receiver. Further, the integrated option delivers higher power output with enhanced thermal efficiency for longer periods when the power plant is solely operating using the stored thermal energy. An application to the 50 MW Khi Solar One CSP plant, based on solar tower and in operation in South Africa, is proposed.
Olympios A, Pantaleo AM, Sapin P, et al., 2019, Centralised vs distributed energy systems options: District heating for the Isle of Dogs in London, ICAE2019: The 11th International Conference on Applied Energy
This work focuses on a multi-scale framework for the design and comparison of low-carbon heat generation solutions to serve the residential and commercial thermal energy demand of high energy density urban areas. The adopted methodology assesses the cost and performance of four configurations integrated in a district heating network: (i) centralised cogeneration with gas turbine and bottoming steam turbine with flexible heat-to-electricity ratio; (ii) centralised cogeneration with gas-fired internal combustion engine; (iii) distributed building-integrated ground-source heat pumps for domestic hot water only; and (iv) distributed building-integrated ground-source heat pumps for both domestic hot water and space heating. Cost and performance data were obtained by conducting relevant market research and developing a simplified heat pump thermodynamic model. The different configurations are evaluated utilizing whole-year space heating and hot water demand profiles for the Isle of Dogs area in East London, UK. Scale effects are included by considering various technology size scenarios and the results indicate that a 50 MW centralised internal combustion cogeneration system appears to be the most profitable option, while the competitiveness of building-integrated heat pumps is dependent on their size.
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