8 results found
Weinstein M, Almulla Y, Vijay A, et al., 2021, Technoeconomic energy system data for modeling of India and the GCC countries
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>India has seen rapid increases in GDP, energy access, and population in recent decades, more than doubling its overall energy consumption since 2000. Meanwhile, India produces approximately 70% of its electricity from coal. With electricity demand only projected to grow in the coming years, the Government of India has pledged to install 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, meanwhile, have comparatively small populations with excellent renewable energy resources, particularly solar. The ability to trade power between these two regions could potentially provide India with a highly reliable carbon-free power source. At the same time, it can motivate the shift to low carbon economy in the GCC and add a new market for its solar power. The provided data in this article relate to the current makeup of the energy systems of both regions, renewable resource potentials, and projections of future demand. The data have been compiled from numerous sources, mainly government and international agencies.<jats:sup> </jats:sup>GCC countries are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates</jats:p>
Vijay A, Hawkes A, 2019, Demand side flexibility from residential heating to absorb surplus renewables in low carbon futures, Renewable Energy: An International Journal, Vol: 138, Pages: 598-609, ISSN: 0960-1481
Higher penetration of renewable sources of energy is essential for mitigating climate change. This introduces problems related to the balance of supply and demand. Instances in which the generation from intermittent and inflexible sources is in excess of system load are expected to increase in low carbon futures. Curtailment is likely to involve high constraint payments to renewable sources, and failing to curtail threatens the stability of the system. This work investigates a solution that makes use of residential heating systems to absorb the excess generation. Consumers are incentivised to increase consumption via a demand turn up mechanism that sets the electricity price to zero when excess generation occurs. The reduction in electricity price significantly weakens the economic case of dwelling-scale micro-cogeneration units. But technologies that use electricity are able to charge the thermal store when free electricity is available and discharge it when electricity prices are high. Such actions reduce the equivalent annual cost by 50 percent for a resistive heater and by 60 percent for a heat pump. Without disincentives, resistive heaters are likely to be chosen over heat pumps since they are easy to install, do not involve high upfront costs and can provide significant economic benefits.
Vijay A, Hawkes A, 2018, Impact of dynamic aspects on economics of fuel cell based micro co-generation in low carbon futures, Energy, Vol: 155, Pages: 874-886, ISSN: 0360-5442
This article evaluates the impact of a range of dynamic performance parameters on the techno-economics of fuel cell based micro co-generation. The main novelties in methodology are: (1) Analysis in the context of future power system decarbonisation, (2) Use of the Long Run Marginal Cost of electricity, (3) Combination of the above with dynamic aspects such as start-up cost, ramping limit, turn down ratio, minimum up time and minimum down time and (4) Identification of sensitive parameters for future research. To this end it combines a national level energy systems model with an individual heating system model. A case study of the United Kingdom is considered for the year 2035. Economic viability of fuel cell based micro co-generation hinges upon the use of an optimized control strategy. With such a control strategy, a hot start-up approach offers much greater economic potential than a cold start-up approach. The best case ratio of maximum allowable hot standby power to the nominal value is 4.2 while the ratio for cold start is only 1.1. Combinations involving low ramping limits less than 70 W/min and limited turn down ratios above 35% need to be avoided as they seriously hinder economic performance.
Vijay A, Hawkes A, 2017, The techno-economics of small-scale residential heating in low carbon futures, Energies, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073
Existing studies that consider the techno-economics of residential heating systems typically focus on their performance within present-day energy systems. However, the energy system within which these technologies operate will need to change radically if climate change mitigation is to be achieved. This article addresses this problem by modelling small-scale heating techno-economics in the context of significant electricity system decarbonisation. The current electricity market price regime based on short run marginal costs is seen to provide a very weak investment signal for electricity system investors, so an electricity price regime based on long run marginal energy costs is also considered, using a case study of the UK in 2035. The economic case for conventional boilers remains stronger in most dwelling types. The exception to this is for dwellings with high annual heat demand. Sensitivity studies demonstrate the impact of factors such as price of natural gas, carbon intensity of the central grid and thermodynamic performance. Fuel cell micro combined heat and power shows most potential under the long run electricity price regime, and heat pumps under the short run electricity price regime. This difference highlights the importance of future electricity market structure on consumer choice of heating systems in the future.
Vijay A, Fouquet N, Staffell IL, et al., 2017, The value of electricity and reserve services in low carbon electricity systems, Applied Energy, Vol: 201, Pages: 111-123, ISSN: 1872-9118
Decarbonising electricity systems is essential for mitigating climate change. Future systems will likely incorporate higher penetrations of intermittent renewable and inflexible nuclear power. This will significantly impact on system operations, particularly the requirements for flexibility in terms of reserves and the cost of such services. This paper estimates the interrelated changes in wholesale electricity and reserve prices using two novel methods. Firstly, it simulates the short run marginal cost of generation using a unit commitment model with post-processing to achieve realistic prices. It also introduces a new reserve price model, which mimics actual operation by first calculating the day ahead schedules and then letting deviations from schedule drive reserve prices. The UK is used as a case study to compare these models with traditional methods from the literature. The model gives good agreement with and historic prices in 2015. In a 2035 scenario, increased renewables penetration reduces mean electricity prices, and leads to price spikes due to expensive plants being brought online briefly to cope with net load variations. Contrary to views previously held in literature, a renewable intensive scenario does not lead to a higher reserve price than a fossil fuel intensive scenario. Demand response technology is shown to offer sizeable economic benefits when maintaining system balance. More broadly, this framework can be used to evaluate the economics of providing reserve services by aggregating decentralised energy resources such as heat pumps, micro-CHP and electric vehicles.
Vijay A, Hawkes AD, 2015, Modelling the value of decentralised energy resources in supply-demand balancing for low carbon electricity systems, Microgen IV
Vijay A, Ling KV, Fane AG, 2013, Reserve management and real time optimization for a solar powered Membrane Distillation Bio-Reactor water recycling plant via convex optimization, RENEWABLE ENERGY, Vol: 60, Pages: 489-497, ISSN: 0960-1481
Vijay A, Ling KV, Fane AG, 2010, Applications of Convex Optimization in Plant-wide Control of Membrane Distillation Bio-Reactor (MDBR) Water Recycling Plant, 11th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV 2010), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 246-251, ISSN: 2474-2953
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