Imperial College London

Professor M Ahmer Wadee

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Professor of Nonlinear Mechanics
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6050a.wadee Website

 
 
//

Assistant

 

Ms Ruth Bello +44 (0)20 7594 6040

 
//

Location

 

421Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

186 results found

Köllner A, Wadee MA, 2022, A novel discrete coordinate approach to modelling nonlinear structural instability problems with material damage, European Journal of Mechanics A: Solids, Vol: 96, ISSN: 0997-7538

Journal article

Afkhami S, Amraei M, Gardner L, Piili H, Wadee MA, Salminen A, Björk Tet al., 2022, Mechanical performance and design optimisation of metal honeycombs fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, Thin Walled Structures, Vol: 180, ISSN: 0263-8231

Honeycomb structures have a wide range of applications, from medical implants to industrial components. In addition, honeycombs play a critical role when passive protection is required due to their low density and high energy absorption capabilities. With the transition of additive manufacturing from a rapid prototyping approach to a manufacturing process, this technology has recently offered designers and manufacturers the ability to fabricate and modify lattice structures such as honeycombs. The current study presents the application of laser powder bed fusion, a common additive manufacturing process for producing industrial metal components, for fabricating metal honeycombs. In addition, this study examines three modified designs that can only be practically fabricated using additive manufacturing and compares them with conventional honeycombs. For this purpose, quasi-static and dynamic compression tests are conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of the honeycomb structures. The results show that the structures produced by additive manufacturing have acceptable performance compared to conventional honeycomb structures, and laser powder bed fusion can be considered to be a reliable manufacturing method for honeycomb production. Furthermore, the honeycombs produced according to the modified designs generally outperformed their counterparts made from the typical hexagonal cells. Ultimately, the use of triangular cells as a design modification is proposed toproduce honeycombs with promising performance characteristics in all of their principal axes and under various pressure scenarios, from quasi-static to dynamic loading rates. Finally, this study also investigates the applicability of a newly developed maraging steel for additive manufacturing of honeycombs. Microstructural analysis and quasi-static tensile tests have confirmed the material properties for this purpose.

Journal article

Zhang W, Gardner L, Wadee MA, Chen KS, Zhao WYet al., 2022, On the uniform torsional rigidity of square concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) sections, Structures, Vol: 43, Pages: 249-256, ISSN: 2352-0124

There are a number of scenarios in which structural members experience torsion, including under the direct application of torsional loading, when transverse loading is applied at an eccentricity to the shear centre and as a second order effect arising from lateral torsional instability. To date, the torsional rigidity of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) sections has yet to be fully explored; hence a study into the uniform torsional rigidity of square CFST sections is presented herein. First, the strain energy of square CFST sections is formulated, in which the longitudinal warping displacement is assumed to have an undetermined constant. The undetermined constant is then deduced by means of the principle of minimum strain energy, and thus an analytical expression for the uniform torsional rigidity of square CFST sections is obtained. The accuracy of the derived formula is verified against existing theoretical solutions for simplified scenarios, test data and the results of numerical simulations. Finally, the influence of the key parameters in the derived formula for the torsional rigidity of square CFST sections are analysed, and a simplified design formula is presented.

Journal article

Behzadi-Sofiani B, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2022, Testing, numerical analysis and design of stainless steel equal-leg angle section beams, Structures, Vol: 37, Pages: 977-1001, ISSN: 2352-0124

The stability and design of stainless steel equal-leg angle section members subjected to uniaxial bending are studied herein. An experimental investigation, comprising material testing, initial geometric imperfection measurements and physical tests on hot-rolled austenitic stainless steel equal-leg angle section beams is first presented. The test results are then used to validate shell finite element models developed within ABAQUS, which are in turn used to undertake numerical parametric studies that consider both hot-rolled and cold-formed equal-leg angle section beams in austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel with a wide range of slenderness values. Recent studies have shown that for angles under major-axis bending, both lateral-torsional and local buckling can arise, while under minor-axis bending, lateral-torsional buckling and Brazier-type flattening can occur. When designing for major-axis bending according to Eurocode 3, both local and lateral-torsional buckling are considered; it is shown herein that equal-leg angle sections under major-axis bending can be designed using a normalised slenderness based on the minimum of the local and lateral-torsional elastic buckling moments, while also considering their ratio. Under minor-axis bending, however, in comparison with the current provisions in Eurocode 3 that only require cross-section checks, it is shown that both safer and more accurate resistance predictions can be achieved when account is taken for lateral-torsional buckling and Brazier-type flattening. New design proposals for stainless steel equal-leg angle section beams, covering both major- and minor-axis bending, are therefore developed. The proposed design rules offer substantially more accurate and consistent resistance predictions compared to existing codified design rules. The reliability of the new design provisions, with a recommended partial safety factor γM1 = 1.1 , is verified following the procedure provided in EN 1990.

Journal article

Behzadi-Sofiani B, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2022, Testing, simulation and design of steel equal-leg angle section beams, Thin Walled Structures, Vol: 171, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0263-8231

The stability and design of steel equal-leg angle section members subjected to uniaxial bending are studied herein. An experimental investigation, comprising material testing, initial geometric imperfection measurements and physical tests on hot-rolled steel equal-leg angle section beams is first presented. The test results, in combination with existing experimental data on steel equal-leg angle section beams collected from the literature, are then used for the validation of numerical (shell finite element) models, developed within the commercial package ABAQUS. Next, a numerical parametric study is presented considering both hot-rolled and cold-formed steel angle section beams with a wide range of slenderness values. In major-axis bending, both lateral-torsionaland local buckling were observed, with the former characterised by lateral deflection and twist of the cross-section along the member length but no cross-section deformation and the latter by relative twist and transverse bending of the outstands. In minor-axis bending, lateral-torsional buckling and Brazier flattening were observed, with the latter characterised by splaying of the outstands. Note that, for equal-leg angles under minor-axis bending, lateral-torsional buckling is dominant when the cross-section tips are in compression, while Brazier flattening is more influential when the cross-section tips are in tension. When designing for major-axis bending according to Eurocode 3, both local and lateral-torsional buckling are considered; it is shown herein that equal-leg angle section beams under major-axis bending can be designed using a normalised slenderness based on the minimum of the local and lateral-torsional elastic buckling moments, while also considering the ratio of the local tothe lateral-torsional elastic buckling moments. For minor-axis bending, Eurocode 3 only requires cross-section checks; this is found to result in unsafe predictions in some cases. It is shown that both safer and more acc

Journal article

Long Y, Zeng L, Gardner L, Wadee MAet al., 2022, A new model for calculating the elastic local buckling stress of steel plates in square CFST columns, Thin Walled Structures, Vol: 171, ISSN: 0263-8231

Previous studies into the elastic local buckling response of the steel plates in concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) sections have considered the effect of concrete infill on the plate boundary conditions and on the buckling mode shape (i.e. one-way buckling only), but have not considered the influence of hoop stresses. This is addressed in the current paper, where a new model is proposed in which the unloaded plate edges are assumed to be elastically restrained and account is taken of the influence of hoop stresses. Tensile hoop stresses are shown to delay the occurrence of local buckling in the steel plates of square and rectangular CFST sections, though their beneficial influence reduces with increasing rotational edge restraint. The model is verified against existing experimental results, revealing better predictions of elastic local buckling stresses compared to previous approaches. The influence of the key parameters — tensile hoop stresses, varying boundary conditions and differing width-to-thickness (b/t) ratios is subsequently explored using the developed model, where it is shown that the b/t ratio remains the dominant factor in defining the elastic local buckling stress of steel plates in CFST sections. Finally, an alternative equivalent thickness approach to allow for the influence of the hoop stresses is proposed.

Journal article

Shen J, Groh RMJ, Wadee MA, Schenk M, Pirrera Aet al., 2022, Probing the stability landscape of prestressed stayed columns susceptible to mode interaction, Engineering Structures, Vol: 251, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0141-0296

Prestressed stayed columns are structural systems where the compressive load-carrying capacity is enhanced through pre-tensioned external cable stays. Recent theoretical studies using analytical and nonlinear finite element models have shown that, under certain configurations, this enhancement leads to a sequence of closely spaced bifurcation points beyond the critical one. This undesirable characteristic can give rise to dangerously unstable interactive post-buckling behaviour including ‘mode jumping’ and ‘snaking’ phenomena. Even though these highly nonlinear behaviours can be readily modelled using numerical methods, they cannot be verified robustly using traditional quasi-static testing techniques based on force or displacement control at a single point. The current work explores a novel testing concept for potential experimental implementation, from the theoretical and numerical point of view. The concept allows the stability landscape of prestressed stayed columns to be ascertained by controlling the shape of the structure at multiple points. By controlling the mode shape of the structure, it is possible to traverse limit points, path-follow otherwise unstable equilibria, pinpoint bifurcation points and branch-switch between different post-critical segments of the equilibrium manifold. To explore the feasibility of the new testing method, we have created a virtual instantiation of the experiment in the commercial finite element package Abaqus, coupled to a control algorithm that coordinates the movements of the different control points. A number of different stability phenomena that have previously been identified analytically and numerically are reproduced successfully in the virtual test environment. Moreover, a noise sensitivity study is conducted to assess the robustness of the experimental technique proposed herein. The present work lays the foundation for physically assessing the stability landscape of prestressed stayed columns i

Journal article

Behzadi Sofiani B, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2021, Stability and design of fixed-ended stainless steel equal-leg angle section compression members, Engineering Structures, Vol: 249, ISSN: 0141-0296

The stability and design of fixed-ended stainless steel equal-leg angle section members subjected to axial compression are studied herein. An experimental investigation, comprising material testing, initial geometric imperfection measurements and tests on hot-rolled austenitic stainless steel equal-leg angle section columns is first presented. The test results, in combination with existing experimental data on stainless steel equal-leg angle section columns collected from the literature, are then used for the validation of numerical (shell finite element) models, developed within the commercial package ABAQUS. Validation is performed by means of comparisons between the test and numerical results, considering ultimate loads, failure modes and the load–deformation responses, all of which are shown to be generally in good agreement. A numerical parametric study is then presented considering angle section columns in the three main families of stainless steel (austenitic, ferritic and duplex) with a wide range of slenderness values. The behaviour and normalised load-carrying capacity of the studied members is shown to be dependent on not only the column slenderness, but also the ratio of the elastic torsional-flexural buckling load to the elastic minor-axis flexural buckling load. Finally, a design approach recently proposed for carbon steel angle section columns is extended for application to stainless steel, and verified against the experimental and numerical results. The proposed approach offers substantially improved accuracy and consistency in strength predictions compared to the existing codified design rules. The reliability of the new design provisions, with a recommended partial safety factor ϒM1 = 1.1, is verified following the EN 1990 procedure.

Journal article

Bai L, Wadee MA, Köllner A, Yang Jet al., 2021, Variational modelling of local-global mode interaction in long rectangular hollow section struts with Ramberg-Osgood type material nonlinearity, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol: 209, ISSN: 0020-7403

A variational model describing the nonlinear mode interaction in thin-walled box-section struts under pure axial compression made from a nonlinear material obeying the Ramberg–Osgood law is presented. The formulation combines continuous displacement functions and generalized coordinates, leading to the derivation of a system of differential and integral equations that describe the static equilibrium response of the strut. Solving the system of equations using numerical continuation techniques reveals the strongly unstable post-buckling response arising from combined geometrical and material nonlinearities during the interactive buckling of the global and local buckling modes—the resulting behaviour being more unstable with decreasing material hardening. A finite element (FE) model is also devised and reveals very similar post-buckling behaviour as highlighted in the variational model. The results compare very well in terms of the mechanical destabilization and the post-buckling deformation, which verifies the analytical model.

Journal article

Lapira L, Wadee MA, Gardner L, 2021, Nonlinear analytical modelling of flat and hyperbolic paraboloidal panels under shear, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 477, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1364-5021

The hyperbolic paraboloid (hypar) form has been widely used in long-span roof structures and the subject of much research under out-of-plane loading. However, the behaviour of hypars under in-plane loading has been less keenly studied and there is no suitable guidance for their design in current codes of practice. A nonlinear analytical model treating the hypar as a deliberate imperfection applied to a flat plate is presented. A Rayleigh-Ritz formulation using appropriate shape functions is developed and the resulting equations are solved using numerical continuation techniques. The results are verified with nonlinear finite element models, showing good correlation across a range of thicknesses and degrees of initial curvature. Key moda lcontributions that influence the behaviour of the hypar are identified, providing insight into the nonlinear behaviour of hypars subject to in-plane shear. The main differences in behaviour between the flat plate and the hypar panel are shown to be most prevalent in the early stages of loading, where the influence of the initial geometry is at its greatest.

Journal article

Behzadi Sofiani B, Gardner L, Wadee MA, Dinis P, Camotim Det al., 2021, Behaviour and design of fixed-ended steel equal-leg angle section columns, Sheffield, UK, Eurosteel 2020

Conference paper

Kyvelou P, Slack H, Wadee MA, Buchanan C, Gardner Let al., 2021, Material testing and analysis of WAAM stainless steel, Sheffield, UK, Eurosteel 2020

Conference paper

Behzadi-Sofiani B, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2021, Fixed-ended stainless steel equal-leg angle section columns - behaviour and design, 8th international conference on coupled instabilities in metal structures (CIMS 2020)

Conference paper

Behzadi-Sofiani B, Gardner L, Wadee MA, Dinis P, Camotim Det al., 2021, Behaviour and design of fixed-ended steel equal-leg angle section columns, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol: 182, ISSN: 0143-974X

The mechanical behaviour and design of fixed-ended steel equal-leg angle section members subjected to axial compression are addressed in this study. First, the critical buckling behaviour is described. Experimental data on steel equal-leg angle section columns collected from the literature are then used for the validation of numerical (shell finite element) models, developed within the commercial package ABAQUS. Validation is performed by means of comparisons between test and numerical results, considering ultimate loads and failure modes, all of which are shown to be generally in good agreement. A numerical parametric study is then presented considering steel angle section columns with a wide range of slenderness values. The behaviour and load-carrying capacity of the columns is shown to be dependent on, not only the column slenderness, but also the ratio of the elastic torsional-flexural buckling load to the elastic minor-axis flexural buckling load. Finally, the collected experimental and generated numerical results are used to develop a new design approach, suitable for incorporation into future revisions of Eurocode 3, for fixed-ended steel equal-leg angle section columns, reflecting the observations made. The proposed approach offers improved accuracy and consistency in strength predictions compared to the existing codified design rules. The reliability of the new design approach, with a recommended partial safety factor γM1 = 1.0, is verified following the EN 1990 procedure.

Journal article

Wu K, Wadee MA, Gardner L, 2021, Prestressed stayed beam-columns: sensitivity to prestressing levels, pre-cambering and imperfections, Engineering Structures, Vol: 226, ISSN: 0141-0296

The behaviour and structural performance of imperfect beam-columns with crossarms and externally prestressed cable stays are studied numerically, where the combination of bending and compression is assumed to be derived from the system self-weight acting orthogonally to the applied axial load. Both doubly-symmetric and mono-symmetric systems are studied. Sensitivity of the structural response to varying prestressing levels, pre-cambering and initial imperfections is investigated. Different initial imperfection levels and combinations are considered to facilitate the exploration of interactive buckling. The optimum prestressing force in terms of ultimate resistance and two structural efficiency indicators is also studied. It is found that relatively small crossarm lengths, stay diameters and crossarm length ratios should be avoided. Moreover, mono-symmetric cases are more sensitive to the level of pre-cambering than their doubly-symmetric counterparts. Considering both load-carrying capacity and structural efficiency, doubly-symmetric cases perform best with zero pre-cambering, but mono-symmetric cases perform best with upward pre-cambering. As for the true optimum prestressing levels, these are recommended to be significantly above the linearly obtained optimum to maximize the structural efficiency.

Journal article

Kyvelou P, Slack H, Daskalaki Mountanou D, Wadee MA, Britton T, Buchanan C, Gardner Let al., 2020, Mechanical and microstructural testing of wire and arc additivelymanufactured sheet material, Materials and Design, Vol: 192, ISSN: 0264-1275

Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a method of 3D printing that enables large elements to be built, with reasonable printing times and costs. There are, however, uncertainties relating to the structural performance of WAAM material, including the basic mechanical properties, the degree of anisotropy, the influence of the as-built geometry and the variability in response. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, a comprehensive series of tensile tests on WAAM stainless steel was conducted; the results are presented herein. As-built and machined coupons were tested to investigate the influence of the geometrical irregularity on the stress-strain characteristics, while material anisotropy was explored by testing coupons produced at different angles to the printing orientation. Non-contact measurement techniques were employed to determine the geometric properties and deformation fields of the specimens, while sophisticated analysis methods were used for post processing the test data. The material response revealed a significant degree of anisotropy, explained by the existence of a strong crystallographic texture, uncovered by means of electron backscatter diffraction. Finally, the effective mechanical properties of the as-built material were shown to be strongly dependent on the geometric variability; simple geometric measures were therefore developed to characterise the key aspects of the observed behaviour.

Journal article

Wadee MA, Phillips ATM, Bekele A, 2020, Effects of disruptive inclusions in sandwich core lattices to enhance energy absorbency and structural isolation performance, Frontiers in Materials, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2296-8016

The energy absorption and structural isolation performance of axially-compressed sandwich structures constructed with stiff face plates separated with an auxetic lattice core metamaterial is studied. Advances in additive manufacturing increasingly allow bespoke, carefully designed, structures to be included within the core lattice to enhance mechanical performance. Currently, the internal structure of the lattice core is deliberately disrupted geometrically to engineer suitable post-buckling behaviour under quasi-static loading. The desirable properties of a high fundamental stiffness and a practically zero underlying stiffness in the post-buckling range ensure that energy may be absorbed within a limited displacement and that any transfer of strain to an attached structure is minimized as far as is feasible. It is demonstrated that such disruptions can be arranged to enhance the panel performance. The concept may be extended to promote cellular buckling where the internal lattice buckles with densification occurring at defined locations and in sequence to absorb energy while maintaining a low underlying mechanical stiffness.

Journal article

Wu K, Wadee MA, Gardner L, 2020, Interactive buckling in prestressed stayed beam-columns, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol: 174, ISSN: 0020-7403

The instability of beam-columns with crossarms and externally prestressed cable stays is studied analytically, where the combination of bending and compression is assumed to be derived from the system self-weight acting orthogonally to the applied axial load. A nonlinear analytical model for prestressed stayed beam-columns with doubly-symmetric and mono-symmetric configurations, based on the Rayleigh–Ritz method, is presented that captures modal interactions for perfect geometries explicitly for the first time. It is demonstrated that the theoretical compressive strength enhancements under certain configurations can only be obtained at the expense of triggering a sequence of destabilizing bifurcations. This can give rise to severely unstable interactive post-buckling behaviour including the so-called ‘mode jumping’ phenomenon. Moreover, for mono-symmetric stayed beam-columns, it is shown that the varying levels of prestress within the stays can lead to different buckling modes which all have their own characteristic post-buckling responses. The analytical model is verified using a nonlinear finite element model formulated within the commercial code ABAQUS and excellent comparisons are obtained.

Journal article

Wadee MA, Hadjipantelis N, Bazzano JB, Gardner L, Lozano-Galant JAet al., 2020, Stability of steel struts with externally anchored prestressed cables, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol: 164, ISSN: 0143-974X

Externally anchored prestressed cables can be employed to enhance the stability of steeltruss compression elements significantly. To demonstrate this concept, a system comprisinga tubular strut subjected to an external compressive load and a prestressed cable anchoredindependently of the strut is studied. Energy methods are utilized to define the elasticstability of the perfect and imperfect systems, after which the first yield and rigid–plasticresponses are explored. The influence of the key controlling parameters, including thelength of the strut, the axial stiffness of the cable and the initial prestressing force, on theelastic stability, the inelastic response and the ultimate strength of the system is demon-strated using analytical and finite element (FE) models. To illustrate the application of thestudied structural concept, FE modelling is employed to simulate the structural response ofa prestressed hangar roof truss. A nearly two-fold enhancement in the load-carrying capac-ity of the truss structure is shown to be achieved owing to the addition of the prestressedcable

Journal article

Wu K, Wadee MA, Gardner L, 2019, Stability and ultimate behaviour of prestressed stayed beam-columns, Engineering Structures, Vol: 201, ISSN: 0141-0296

The instability of beam-columns with crossarms and externally prestressed cable stays is studied analytically, where the combination of bending and compression is assumed to be derived from the system self-weight acting orthogonally to the applied axial load. Three principal zones of behaviour are identified with two of these each having two sub-zones that relate the critical buckling load to the initial prestressing force applied to the stay cables. The ultimate load-carrying capacity of the beam-columns is evaluated by conducting nonlinear finite element analysis within the commercial package ABAQUS. Results show that the analytically derived critical buckling loads generally provide safe predictions of the ultimate loads due to significant post-buckling strength. It is found that releasing the geometric double symmetry of the system can make for a significantly more efficient structure due to the effect of pre-cambering against the self-weight. The strength and efficiency of stayed beam-column systems opens up a range of potential applications, including lighter alternatives to conventional props to support wide excavations, which currently utilize very heavy steelwork.

Journal article

Shen J, Wadee MA, 2019, Local-global mode interaction in thin-walled inelastic rectangular hollow section struts part 2: assessment of existing design guidance and new recommendations, Thin-Walled Structures, Vol: 145, ISSN: 0263-8231

The second part of the study on the local–global mode interaction in thin-walled inelastic rectangular hollow section struts focuses on design guidance. Based on the validated finite element (FE) model from the companion paper, a framework for fully automating FE model generation, submission and post-processing for geometric and material nonlinear analysis with imperfections is first presented. The ultimate load data for specimens with different cross-section aspect ratios, cross-sectional slenderness, global slenderness and welding options are generated. The current design rules for thin-walled welded RHS struts are assessed using the numerical results and existing experimental results from the literature by means of structural reliability analysis in accordance with the methodology presented in Annex D of Eurocode EN1990. A modified Direct Strength Method (DSM) relationship is then proposed and it is demonstrated to provide superior ultimate load predictions than the current guidelines.

Journal article

Shen J, Wadee MA, 2019, Local-global mode interaction in thin-walled inelastic rectangular hollow section struts part 1: nonlinear finite element analysis, Thin-Walled Structures, Vol: 145, ISSN: 0263-8231

Mass efficient thin-walled rectangular hollow section (RHS) struts have been shown to be susceptible to local–global mode interaction and exhibit sensitivity to imperfections. Material nonlinearity may increase the imperfection sensitivity of such members further and affect the final failure mode. Nonlinear finite element (FE) models for welded inelastic thin-walled RHS struts with pre-defined local and global geometric imperfections alongside residual stresses are developed within the commercial package Abaqus and validated against two independent experimental studies. Based on the validated FE model, the effects of material nonlinearity and residual stresses from welding on the ultimate load, mechanical behaviour and the imperfection sensitivity of struts are investigated. A simplified method to determine the initial geometric imperfection amplitude introduced in the FE model with residual stresses explicitly modelled within the ECCS framework is proposed for the first time. The experimental and numerical results in conjunction with existing experimental results from the literature are employed in the companion paper for the assessment of the Effective Width Method and Direct Strength Method, which also forms the basis for a new set of design recommendations.

Journal article

Hadjipantelis N, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2019, Finite-element modeling of prestressed cold-formed steel beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol: 145, Pages: 04019100-1-04019100-19, ISSN: 0733-9445

The concept and structural benefits of prestressing cold-formed steel beams are explored in the present paper. In the proposed system, prestressing is applied by means of a high-strength steel cable located within the cross section of the beam at an eccentric location with respect to the strong geometric axis. The internal forces generated by the prestressing are opposite in sign to those induced under subsequent vertical loading. Hence, the development of detrimental compressive stresses within the top region of the cold-formed steel beam is delayed and thus the load-carrying capacity of the beam is enhanced. Owing to the precamber that is induced along the member during the prestressing stage, the overall deflections of the beam are also reduced significantly. In the present paper, finite-element (FE) modeling was employed to simulate the mechanical behavior of prestressed cold-formed steel beams during the prestressing and vertical loading stages. Following the validation of the FE modeling approach, a set of parametric studies was conducted, where the influence of the key controlling parameters on the structural benefits obtained from the prestressing process was investigated. The parametric results were utilized to determine how the benefits obtained from the addition of the prestressed cable can be maximized, demonstrating the significant enhancements in the performance of the cold-formed steel beam that can be achieved.

Journal article

Champneys AR, Dodwell TJ, Groh RMJ, Hunt GW, Neville RM, Pirrera A, Sakhaei AH, Schenk M, Wadee MAet al., 2019, Happy catastrophe: Recent progress in analysis and exploitation of elastic instability, Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-30, ISSN: 2297-4687

A synthesis of recent progress is presented on a topic that lies at the heart of both structural engineering and nonlinear science. The emphasis is on thin elastic structures that lose stability subcritically — without a nearby stable post-buckled state — a canonical example being a uniformly axially-loaded cylindrical shell. Such structures are hard to design and certify because imperfections or shocks trigger buckling at loads well below the threshold of linear stability. A resurgence of interest in structural instability phenomena suggests practical stability assessment require stochastic approaches and imperfection maps. This article surveys a different philosophy; the buckling process and ultimate post-buckled state are well described by the perfect problem. The significance of the Maxwell load is emphasised, where energy of the unbuckled and fully developed buckle patterns are equal, as is the energetic preference of localised states, stable and unstable versions of which connect in a snaking load-deflection path. The state of the art is presented on analytical, numerical and experimental methods. Pseudo15 arclength continuation (path-following) of a finite-element approximation computes families of complex localised states. Numerical implementation of a mountain-pass energy method then predicts the energy barrier through which the buckling process occurs. Recent developments also indicate how such procedures can be replicated experimentally; unstable states being accessed by careful control of constraints, and stability margins assessed by shock sensitivity experiments. Finally, the fact that subcritical instabilities can be robust, not being undone by reversal of the loading path, opens up potential for technological exploitation. Several examples at different length scales are discussed; a cable-stayed prestressed column, two examples of adaptive structures inspired by morphing aeroelastic surfaces, and a model for a functional auxetic material.

Journal article

Hadjipantelis N, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2019, Design of prestressed cold-formed steel beams, Thin-Walled Structures, Vol: 140, Pages: 565-578, ISSN: 0263-8231

Structural design rules for prestressed cold-formed steel beams, considering both the prestressing and imposed vertical loading stages, are presented herein. In the proposed approach, the cold-formed steel member is designed as a beam-column using linear interaction equations in conjunction with the Direct Strength Method (DSM), while the prestressed cable is designed by ensuring that its tensile capacity is not violated during the two loading stages. In the present paper, the design approach and the failure criteria, which define the permissible design zone for the prestressed system, are first introduced. The suitability of the design recommendations is then assessed by comparing a set of parametric finite element (FE) results for several combinations of prestress levels, beam geometries and cable sizes, with the corresponding design predictions. Finally, following reliability analysis, the implementation of the design recommendations is illustrated through a practical worked example.

Journal article

Hadjipantelis N, Kyvelou P, Gardner L, Wadee Met al., 2019, Numerical modelling of prestressed composite cold-formed steel flooring systems, Seventh International Conference in Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, Publisher: CRC Press

A novel and highly-efficient prestressed composite flooring system comprising cold-formed steel joists and wood-based floorboards is introduced herein. The prestressing is applied by means of a high-strength steel cable housed within the bottom hollow flange of the steel joist, while the composite action is mobilised by making simple alterations to the currently employed fastening arrangements between the joist and the board. Geometrically and materially nonlinear finite element models with initial geometric imperfections have been developed to simulate the behaviour of the proposed system during the prestressing and vertical loading stages. The structural performance of the prestressed system is compared with that of conventional non-prestressed systems, demonstrating that substantial benefits can be achieved both in terms of load-carrying capacity and serviceability performance. Subsequently, a parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of the steel section thickness on the ultimate moment capacity and bending stiffness of the system.

Conference paper

Hadjipantelis N, 2019, Prestressed cold-formed steel beams

Thesis dissertation

Shen J, Wadee MA, 2019, Sensitivity to local imperfections in inelastic thin-walled rectangular hollow section struts, Structures, Vol: 17, Pages: 43-57, ISSN: 2352-0124

Mass efficient inelastic thin-walled rectangular hollow section (RHS) struts practically always fail in a combination of local–global interactive buckling and material nonlinearity while also exhibiting high sensitivity to initial imperfections. Nonlinear finite element (FE) models for inelastic thin-walled RHS struts with pre-defined local and global geometric imperfections are developed within the commercial package Abaqus. Using a unified local imperfection measurement based on equal local bending energy, the effects of imperfect cross-section profiles, imperfection wavelength and the degree of localization in the longitudinal direction on the ultimate load and the nonlinear equilibrium path are investigated for four characteristic length struts at different material yielding stress levels. The corresponding most severe imperfection profiles are determined and are found to be qualitatively different to the linear eigenmodes in all cases. Moreover, it is found that the most severe purely periodic imperfections may be used to provide a safe approximation of the ultimate load when the corresponding amplitude is constrained to the manufacturing tolerance level. An extensive parametric study on the wavelength of the most severe periodic imperfection profile is conducted and a relationship for this is proposed in terms of the normalized local slenderness, which compares excellently with the FE results.

Journal article

Wadee MA, Phillips ATM, Bekele A, 2019, From buckliphobes to buckliphiles: Recent developments in exploiting positive virtues of instability, 7th International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (SEMC), Publisher: CRC PRESS-BALKEMA, Pages: 455-461

Conference paper

Hadjipantelis N, Gardner L, Wadee MA, 2018, Prestressed cold-formed steel beams – parametric studies and design recommendations, Hong Kong, China, Ninth International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, Publisher: Hong Kong Institute of Steel Construction Limited

Owing to their enhanced load-carrying and serviceability performances, prestressed coldformed steel beams can potentially open up new applications within the construction industry. In theproposed concept, an eccentric prestressing force is applied to cold-formed steel beams by means of acable that is housed within a bottom hollow flange. During prestressing, tensile stresses are inducedwithin the top region of the beam, thus delaying the occurrence of local instabilities under subsequentvertical loading. Consequently, the moment capacity of the beam is enhanced. Furthermore, owing tothe prestressing, a pre-camber is also induced along the member, thus decreasing the overall verticaldeflections significantly. Following discussion of the mechanical behaviour of the proposed beams,design recommendations are developed by employing interaction equations alongside the DirectStrength Method. Subsequently, finite element (FE) analysis is employed to investigate the effects of theprestress level and the section slenderness of the steel beam on the benefits obtained from theprestressing process. The parametric FE results are then utilised to assess the design recommendations.

Conference paper

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00172848&limit=30&person=true