18 results found
Kia A, 2023, Freeze-thaw durability of air-entrained high-strength clogging resistant permeable pavements, Construction and Building Materials, Vol: 400, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0950-0618
Permeable concrete pavements are designed to absorb rainfall, however they suffer from a number of challenges, which prevent their widespread adoption. Current permeable pavements are prone to clogging by sediments and have both low strength and durability. A clogging resistant permeable pavement (CRP, also known as Kiacrete) has been developed that has improved permeability, clogging resistance, strength and freeze–thaw durability. This paper reports on the performance of CRPs of the same open porosity made with different pore sizes, pore wall thicknesses and target entraining air content when exposed to 56 freeze–thaw cycles. The tests involved exposing samples to temperature varying from -20 °C to +20 °C and measuring changes in mass, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and compressive and flexural strength. The samples made with the Kiacrete tiles, which is the in-situ delivery method, were also vacuum impregnated and imaged using a stereomicroscope to determine the effect of target entrained air content and freeze–thaw cycles on microcracking. The results show that CRP is highly resistant to freeze–thaw degradation and no further addition of air entraining agent is required. The microcracks that occur do not have any notable impact on the overall durability performance. This study presents the first high strength clogging resistant permeable pavement that is highly durable under frost action, without requiring air entrainment inclusion, enabling permeable concrete pavements to be adopted in cold climates.
Ghalandari T, Kia A, Taborda DMG, et al., 2023, Thermal performance optimisation of Pavement Solar Collectors using response surface methodology, Renewable Energy, Vol: 210, Pages: 656-670, ISSN: 0960-1481
Recent studies have highlighted the factors influencing the thermal performance of Pavement Solar Collectors (PSC), such as thermophysical properties of materials, geometrical specifications, and operational conditions. The present study introduces a new approach to investigating the impact of various parameters on the long-term performance of PSCs.The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to optimise the experimental design by reducing the number of simulations resulting from the combination of several design parameters and ample design space. Hence, the proposed PSC system design aims to: i) assess the heat extraction capacity; ii) investigate the ability to diminish the asphalt surface temperature (STR); and iii) determine the reduction in asphalt layers’ rutting potential (RTR), through a coupled RSM and Finite Element (FE) simulation framework.The proposed statistical prediction regression models for heat harvesting capacity, STR, and RTR, adequately represent the experimental data with predicted R2 values above 0.95. The pipe spacing, flow rate, and inlet supply temperature show a high sensitivity to the objective functions, while other parameters display a less sensitive response. Finally, a multi-objective optimisation framework using the NSGA-II is proposed to seek a Pareto front solution in the design space, considering different (or equal) weights for the objective functions.
Kia A, 2023, Permeable concrete pavements for a climate change resilient built environment, Adapting the Built Environment for Climate Change, Editors: Pacheco-Torgal, Granqvist
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2022, Freeze–thaw durability of conventional and novel permeable pavement replacement, Journal of Transportation Engineering Part B-Pavements, Vol: 148, ISSN: 2573-5438
Permeable concrete pavements are becoming more common as a stormwater management system to mitigate urban flooding. However, they have several well-defined drawbacks including low permeability, high clogging potential, and low strength and durability, notably in cold climates exposed to freezing and thawing. A new generation of high-strength clogging-resistant permeable pavement replacement (CRP) has been developed, through extensive laboratory work, to address these shortcomings and advance the field of permeable pavements. This paper reports on new advances in permeable pavement systems and the performance of a range of conventional permeable concrete and the developed novel CRP (both prepared using Portland cement) of varying porosity exposed to freeze–thaw cycles. This will allow performance evaluations of both systems in a cold climate. The tests involved exposing samples to temperatures varying from −20°C to +20°C and measuring changes in mass, area, compressive strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity after each cycle. These new results show that CRP is highly resistant to degradation caused by freeze–thaw cycles compared to conventional permeable concrete, reducing maintenance requirements and improving service life. This study presents the first high-strength clogging-resistant permeable pavement replacement that is durable under frost action, these findings will support and enable wider use of permeable pavements in cold regions.
Kia A, Cheeseman C, Wong H, 2022, High Strength Porous Cement-Based Materials, US20220010500A1
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2021, Freeze-Thaw Durability Of Clogging Resistant Permeable Concrete, 12th International Conference on Concrete Pavements, Publisher: International Society for Concrete Pavements
<jats:p>Permeable concrete pavements are one of the most promising flood mitigation strategies. However, they have a number of limitations including low strength, low resistance to clogging and freeze/thaw degradation, limiting their application particularly in cold climates. Through extensive laboratory work, a novel high-strength clogging resistant permeable pavement (CRP) has been developed to address these shortcomings. In this paper, we investigated the freeze-thaw durability performance of a range of conventional permeable concrete and novel CRP. Samples were exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles (-20 to +20C) and their mass, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and compressive strength were evaluated over time. The results show that CRP is highly resistant to freeze-thaw cycles while conventional permeable concrete degrades rapidly. This study demonstrates that CRP is durable under frost action and therefore has the potential to be deployed in harsh wintry conditions.</jats:p>
Kia A, Delens J, Wong H, et al., 2021, Structural and hydrological design of permeable concrete pavements, Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol: 15, ISSN: 2214-5095
Permeable pavements are used to mitigate urban flooding. However, conventional concrete permeable pavements have low compressive strength and are prone to clogging, which degrades performance and reduces service life. A new type of permeable pavement, high-strength clogging resistant permeable pavement (CRP), has recently been developed that overcomes many limitations of conventional permeable pavements. This paper presents a new design methodology for CRP that takes into account both structural and hydrological considerations. This is used in 12 case studies which compare CRP with conventional permeable pavements. The results highlight several advantages of CRP and demonstrate that CRP with low porosity (∼5%) can cope with severe rainfall run-off volumes. The suitability of using CRP in both light and heavy load bearing applications is demonstrated. The research also shows that the use of CRP allows considerable reductions in pavement depth compared to conventional permeable pavements with reduced material costs.
Kia A, Wong H, Cheeseman C, 2019, High-strength clogging resistant permeable pavement, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol: 22, Pages: 271-282, ISSN: 1029-8436
Permeable pavement is utilised in order to alleviate flooding in towns, cities and other urban areas, but it is prone to clogging, has relatively low strength and requires regular maintenance. We have developed a novel permeable pavement with low tortuosity pore structure that can be cast on-site that is not only resistant to clogging, but also has high permeability and strength. This high strength clogging resistant permeable pavement (CRP) was prepared by introducing straight pore channels of varying size and number into self-compacting mortar. Samples with porosity ranging from 2 to 32% were tested. In all cases, permeability and compressive strength were substantially higher than conventional permeable concrete. More significantly, CRP can be engineered with low porosity (5%), high strength (> 50 MPa) and high permeability (> 2 cm/s), but does not clog despite extensive cyclic exposure to flow containing sand and clay. A simple method to model the permeability of CRP from the pore structure is described. We report for the first time a high strength clogging resistant permeable pavement capable of retaining sufficient porosity and permeability for storm-water infiltration without requiring frequent maintenance. This innovative system will help alleviate urban flooding and contribute towards a more sustainable urbanisation.
Kia A, 2019, Control of clogging in permeable concrete pavements
Kia A, Wong H, Cheeseman C, 2018, High strength porous cement-based materials, P120039GB
Kia A, Cheeseman CR, Wong H, 2018, Control of clogging in conventional permeable concrete and development of a new high strength clogging resistant permeable concrete pavement, 38th Cement and Concrete Science Conference
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman C, 2018, Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol: 220, Pages: 44-53, ISSN: 0301-4797
Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction.
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2018, Development of clogging resistant permeable concrete, 13th International Symposium on Concrete Roads
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2018, Development of clogging resistant permeable concrete, Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Research and Innovations for Design of Sustainable and Durable Concrete Pavements
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2018, Examining the clogging potential of permeable concrete and development of a high strength clogging resistant system, 4th Young Researcher’s Forum
Kia A, Wong H, Cheeseman CR, 2017, CLOGGING POTENTIAL OF PERMEABLE CONCRETE, 37th Cement and Concrete Science Conference
Permeable concrete is used to reduce local flooding in urban areas. However, it is prone to cloggingby particulate matter and requires regular maintenance. This paper reports on the performance ofpermeable concrete exposed to different clogging test methods to further understand this complexphenomena. New methods were developed to study the clogging effect and to define a cloggingpotential. The tests involve applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles throughthe sample and measuring the change in flow rate. Clogging depends on the applied solution andexposure method used. Significant permeability reductions were observed in all samples,particularly when simultaneously exposed to sand and clay. This is because flocculated clayadhered to surface of sand particles and this caused increased clogging.
Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2017, Clogging in permeable concrete: a review, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol: 193, Pages: 221-233, ISSN: 0301-4797
Permeable concrete (or “pervious concrete” in North America) is used to reduce local flooding in urban areas and is an important sustainable urban drainage system. However, permeable concrete exhibits reduction in permeability due to clogging by particulates, which severely limits service life. This paper reviews the clogging mechanism and current mitigating strategies in order to inform future research needs. The pore structure of permeable concrete and characteristics of flowing particulates influence clogging, which occurs when particles build-up and block connected porosity. Permeable concrete requires regular maintenance by vacuum sweeping and pressure washing, but the effectiveness and viability of these methods is questionable. The potential for clogging is related to the tortuosity of the connected porosity, with greater tortuosity resulting in increased potential for clogging. Research is required to develop permeable concrete that can be poured on-site, which produces a pore structure with significantly reduced tortuosity.
Kia A, Cheeseman C, Wong H, 2016, Development of clog resistant pervious concrete for alleviating localised urban flooding, 3rd Young Researcher’s Forum Conference on Innovation in Construction Materials
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