2 results found
Smith AM, Depp C, Ryan BJ, et al., 2018, Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased glycolysis in prodromal and early Parkinson's blood cells, Movement Disorders, Vol: 33, Pages: 1580-1590, ISSN: 0885-3185
Background: Although primarily a neurodegenerative process, there is increasing awareness of peripheral disease mechanisms in Parkinson's disease. To investigate disease processes in accessible patient cells, we studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells in recently diagnosed PD patients and rapid eye movement‐sleep behavior disorder patients who have a greatly increased risk of developing PD. We hypothesized that peripheral blood mononuclear cells may recapitulate cellular pathology found in the PD brain and investigated these cells for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and studied from PD patients, rapid eye movement‐sleep behavior disorder patients and age‐ and sex‐matched control individuals from the well‐characterized Oxford Discovery cohort. All participants underwent thorough clinical assessment.Results: Initial characterization showed that PD patients had elevated levels of CD14 + monocytes and monocytes expressing C‐C motif chemokine receptor 2. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress were increased in PD patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with elevated levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species specifically in patient monocytes. This was combined with reduced levels of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in blood cells from PD patients and, importantly, also in rapid eye movement‐sleep behavior disorder patients. This mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with a concomitant increase in glycolysis in both PD and rapid eye movement‐sleep behavior disorder patient blood cells independent of glucose uptake or monocyte activation.Conclusions: This work demonstrates functional bioenergetic deficits in PD and rapid eye movement‐sleep behavior disorder patient blood cells during the early stages of human disease. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Socie
Rustenhoven J, Smith AM, Smyth LC, et al., 2018, PU.1 regulates Alzheimer's disease-associated genes in primary human microglia, Molecular Neurodegeneration, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1750-1326
BackgroundMicroglia play critical roles in the brain during homeostasis and pathological conditions. Understanding the molecular events underpinning microglial functions and activation states will further enable us to target these cells for the treatment of neurological disorders. The transcription factor PU.1 is critical in the development of myeloid cells and a major regulator of microglial gene expression. In the brain, PU.1 is specifically expressed in microglia and recent evidence from genome-wide association studies suggests that reductions in PU.1 contribute to a delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), possibly through limiting neuroinflammatory responses.MethodsTo investigate how PU.1 contributes to immune activation in human microglia, microarray analysis was performed on primary human mixed glial cultures subjected to siRNA-mediated knockdown of PU.1. Microarray hits were confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in both mixed glial cultures and isolated microglia following PU.1 knockdown. To identify attenuators of PU.1 expression in microglia, high throughput drug screening was undertaken using a compound library containing FDA-approved drugs. NanoString and immunohistochemistry was utilised to investigate the expression of PU.1 itself and PU.1-regulated mediators in primary human brain tissue derived from neurologically normal and clinically and pathologically confirmed cases of AD.ResultsBioinformatic analysis of gene expression upon PU.1 silencing in mixed glial cultures revealed a network of modified AD-associated microglial genes involved in the innate and adaptive immune systems, particularly those involved in antigen presentation and phagocytosis. These gene changes were confirmed using isolated microglial cultures. Utilising high throughput screening of FDA-approved compounds in mixed glial cultures we identified the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as an effective attenuator of PU.1 expression in human microglia. Further char
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.