250 results found
Dintakurti SH, Kamath S, Mahon C, et al., 2023, Pulmonary hypertension: the hallmark of acute COVID-19 microvascular angiopathy?, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 2312-0541
Bhamani A, Horst C, Bojang F, et al., 2023, The SUMMIT Study: Utilising a written 'Next Steps' information booklet to prepare participants for potential lung cancer screening results and follow-up, LUNG CANCER, Vol: 176, Pages: 75-81, ISSN: 0169-5002
Williams PJ, Philip KEJ, Gill NK, et al., 2023, Immediate, remote smoking cessation intervention in participants undergoing a targeted lung health check: quit smoking lung health intervention trial, a randomized controlled trial, Chest, Vol: 163, Pages: 455-463, ISSN: 0012-3692
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening programs provide an opportunity to support people who smoke to quit, but the most appropriate model for delivery remains to be determined. Immediate face-to-face smoking cessation support for people undergoing screening can increase quit rates, but it is not known whether remote delivery of immediate smoking cessation counselling and pharmacotherapy in this context also is effective. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does an immediate telephone smoking cessation intervention increase quit rates compared with usual care among a population enrolled in a targeted lung health check (TLHC)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In a single-masked randomized controlled trial, people 55 to 75 years of age who smoke and attended a TLHC were allocated by day of attendance to receive either immediate telephone smoking cessation intervention (TSI) support (starting immediately and lasting for 6 weeks) with appropriate pharmacotherapy or usual care (UC; very brief advice to quit and signposting to smoking cessation services). The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 3 months. Differences between groups were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Three hundred fifteen people taking part in the screening program who reported current smoking with a mean ± SD age of 63 ± 5.4 years, 48% of whom were women, were randomized to TSI (n = 152) or UC (n = 163). The two groups were well matched at baseline. Self-reported quit rates were higher in the intervention arm, 21.1% vs 8.9% (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.44-5.61; P = .002). Controlling for participant demographics, neither baseline smoking characteristics nor the discovery of abnormalities on low-dose CT imaging modified the effect of the intervention. INTERPRETATION: Immediate provision of an intensive telephone-based smoking cessation intervention, delivered within a targeted lung screening context, is associated with incr
Dickson JL, Hall H, Horst C, et al., 2023, Uptake of invitations to a lung health check offering low-dose CT lung cancer screening among an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population at risk of lung cancer in the UK (SUMMIT): a prospective, longitudinal cohort study., Lancet Public Health, Vol: 8, Pages: e130-e140
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT reduces lung cancer mortality, but screening requires equitable uptake from candidates at high risk of lung cancer across ethnic and socioeconomic groups that are under-represented in clinical studies. We aimed to assess the uptake of invitations to a lung health check offering low-dose CT lung cancer screening in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse cohort at high risk of lung cancer. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, longitudinal cohort study (SUMMIT), individuals aged 55-77 years with a history of smoking in the past 20 years were identified via National Health Service England primary care records at practices in northeast and north-central London, UK, using electronic searches. Eligible individuals were invited by letter to a lung health check offering lung cancer screening at one of four hospital sites, with non-responders re-invited after 4 months. Individuals were excluded if they had dementia or metastatic cancer, were receiving palliative care or were housebound, or declined research participation. The proportion of individuals invited who responded to the lung health check invitation by telephone was used to measure uptake. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate associations between uptake of a lung health check invitation and re-invitation of non-responders, adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, smoking, and deprivation score. This study was registered prospectively with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03934866. FINDINGS: Between March 20 and Dec 12, 2019, the records of 2 333 488 individuals from 251 primary care practices across northeast and north-central London were screened for eligibility; 1 974 919 (84·6%) individuals were outside the eligible age range, 7578 (2·1%) had pre-existing medical conditions, and 11 962 (3·3%) had opted out of particpation in research and thus were not invited. 95 297 individuals were eligible for invitation
Sheeka A, Singaravelou A, Bartlett E, et al., 2023, COVID-protected pathways for image-guided lung cancer intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cohort study., Br J Radiol, Vol: 96
OBJECTIVES: To compare the experience of COVID-protected and mixed cohort pathways in COVID-19 transmission at a tertiary referral hospital for elective CT-guided lung biopsy and ablation during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From September 2020 to August 2021, patients admitted for elective thoracic intervention were treated at a tertiary hospital (Site 1). Site 1 received patients for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and invasive ventilation in the treatment of COVID-19. Shared imaging, theater, and hallway facilities were used.From April 2020 to August 2020, patients admitted for elective thoracic intervention were treated at a COVID-protected hospital (Site 2). No patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were treated at Site 2.Patients were surveyed for clinical and laboratory signs of COVID-19 infection up to 30 days post-procedure. RESULTS: At Sites 1 and 2, patients (2.4%) were tested positive for COVID-19 at 10 and 14 days post-procedure.At Site 2, there were no COVID-19 positive cases within 30 days of undergoing elective thoracic intervention. CONCLUSION: A mixed-site method for infection control could represent a pragmatic approach to the management of elective procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic or for similar illnesses. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Mixed-cohort infection control is possible in the prevention of nosocomial COVID-19 infection.
Hunter B, Chen M, Ratnakumar P, et al., 2022, A radiomics-based decision support tool improves lung cancer diagnosis in combination with the Herder score in large lung nodules, EBioMedicine, Vol: 86, ISSN: 2352-3964
Background:Large lung nodules (≥15 mm) have the highest risk of malignancy, and may exhibit important differences in phenotypic or clinical characteristics to their smaller counterparts. Existing risk models do not stratify large nodules well. We aimed to develop and validate an integrated segmentation and classification pipeline, incorporating deep-learning and traditional radiomics, to classify large lung nodules according to cancer risk.Methods:502 patients from five U.K. centres were recruited to the large-nodule arm of the retrospective LIBRA study between July 2020 and April 2022. 838 CT scans were used for model development, split into training and test sets (70% and 30% respectively). An nnUNet model was trained to automate lung nodule segmentation. A radiomics signature was developed to classify nodules according to malignancy risk. Performance of the radiomics model, termed the large-nodule radiomics predictive vector (LN-RPV), was compared to three radiologists and the Brock and Herder scores.Findings:499 patients had technically evaluable scans (mean age 69 ± 11, 257 men, 242 women). In the test set of 252 scans, the nnUNet achieved a DICE score of 0.86, and the LN-RPV achieved an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.77–0.88) for malignancy classification. Performance was higher than the median radiologist (AUC 0.75 [95% CI 0.70–0.81], DeLong p = 0.03). LN-RPV was robust to auto-segmentation (ICC 0.94). For baseline solid nodules in the test set (117 patients), LN-RPV had an AUC of 0.87 (95% CI 0.80–0.93) compared to 0.67 (95% CI 0.55–0.76, DeLong p = 0.002) for the Brock score and 0.83 (95% CI 0.75–0.90, DeLong p = 0.4) for the Herder score. In the international external test set (n = 151), LN-RPV maintained an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.63–0.85). 18 out of 22 (82%) malignant nodules in the Herder 10–70% category in the test set were identified as high risk by the decision-support tool, and may have been referred for earl
Creamer AW, Horst C, Dickson JL, et al., 2022, Growing small solid nodules in lung cancer screening: safety and efficacy of a 200 mm(3) minimum size threshold for multidisciplinary team referral, THORAX, ISSN: 0040-6376
George PM, Reed A, Desai SR, et al., 2022, A persistent neutrophil-associated immune signature characterizes post-COVID-19 pulmonary sequelae., Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1946-6234
Interstitial lung disease and associated fibrosis occur in a proportion of individuals who have recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection through unknown mechanisms. We studied individuals with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after recovery from acute illness. Individuals with evidence of interstitial lung changes at 3 to 6 months after recovery had an up-regulated neutrophil-associated immune signature including increased chemokines, proteases, and markers of neutrophil extracellular traps that were detectable in the blood. Similar pathways were enriched in the upper airway with a concomitant increase in antiviral type I interferon signaling. Interaction analysis of the peripheral phosphoproteome identified enriched kinases critical for neutrophil inflammatory pathways. Evaluation of these individuals at 12 months after recovery indicated that a subset of the individuals had not yet achieved full normalization of radiological and functional changes. These data provide insight into mechanisms driving development of pulmonary sequelae during and after COVID-19 and provide a rational basis for development of targeted approaches to prevent long-term complications.
Woznitza N, Ghimire B, Devaraj A, et al., 2022, Impact of radiographer immediate reporting of X-rays of the chest from general practice on the lung cancer pathway (radioX): a randomised controlled trial, THORAX, ISSN: 0040-6376
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Dickson JL, Hall H, Horst C, et al., 2022, Utilisation of primary care electronic patient records for identification and targeted invitation of individuals to a lung cancer screening programme, LUNG CANCER, Vol: 173, Pages: 94-100, ISSN: 0169-5002
Nwankwo L, Periselneris J, Gilmartin D, et al., 2022, Predictors of adverse outcome in sarcoidosis complicated by chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 157-+, ISSN: 1369-3786
Denton CP, Goh NS, Humphries SM, et al., 2022, Extent of fibrosis and lung function decline in patients with systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung disease: data from the SENSCIS trial, Rheumatology, ISSN: 1462-0324
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between the extent of fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline and change in FVC over 52 weeks in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD) in the SENSCIS trial. METHODS: We used generalised additive models, which involve few assumptions and allow for interaction between non-linear effects, to assess associations between the extent of fibrotic ILD on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and the interplay of extent of fibrotic ILD on HRCT and FVC % predicted, at baseline and FVC decline over 52 weeks. RESULTS: In the placebo group (n = 288), there was weak evidence of a modest association between a greater extent of fibrotic ILD at baseline and a greater decline in FVC % predicted at week 52 (r: -0.09 [95% CI -0.2, 0.03]). Higher values of both the extent of fibrotic ILD and FVC % predicted at baseline tended to be associated with greater decline in FVC % predicted at week 52. In the nintedanib group (n = 288), there was no evidence of an association between the extent of fibrotic ILD at baseline and decline in FVC % predicted at week 52 (r: 0.01 [95% CI: -0.11, 0.12]) or between the interplay of extent of fibrotic ILD and FVC % predicted at baseline and decline in FVC % predicted at week 52. CONCLUSION: Data from the SENSCIS trial suggest that patients with SSc-ILD are at risk of ILD progression and benefit from nintedanib largely irrespective of their extent of fibrotic ILD at baseline. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02597933.
Zhang YZ, Sherlock S, Brambilla C, et al., 2022, Adenocarcinoma Grade Correlates with PD-L1 and TP53, but not EGFR/KRAS Status and Diagnostic Yield: Analysis of 346 Cases, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S516-S517, ISSN: 1556-0864
Sheeka A, Singaravelou A, Bartlett E, et al., 2022, COVID-Protected Pathways for Image Guided Lunc Cancer Intervention During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cohort Study, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S305-S305, ISSN: 1556-0864
Zhang YZ, Nicholson AG, Ly F, et al., 2022, Prediction of Clinically Significant Pathological Upstaging in Resected Lung Cancer: Insight from COVID-19 Pandemic (1st wave), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S112-S114, ISSN: 1556-0864
Hewitt RJ, Bartlett EC, Ganatra R, et al., 2022, Lung cancer screening provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung disease, Thorax, Vol: 77, Pages: 1149-1151, ISSN: 0040-6376
Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) can be incidentally detected in patients undergoing low-dose CT screening for lung cancer. In this retrospective study, we explore the downstream impact of ILA detection on interstitial lung disease (ILD) diagnosis and treatment. Using a targeted approach in a lung cancer screening programme, the rate of de novo ILD diagnosis was 1.5%. The extent of abnormality on CT and severity of lung function impairment, but not symptoms were the most important factors in differentiating ILA from ILD. Disease modifying therapies were commenced in 39% of ILD cases, the majority being antifibrotic therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tisi S, Dickson JL, Horst C, et al., 2022, Detection of COPD in the SUMMIT Study Lung Cancer Screening Cohort using Symptoms and Spirometry., Eur Respir J
BACKGROUND: COPD is a major comorbidity in lung cancer screening (LCS) cohorts, with a high prevalence of undiagnosed COPD. Combining symptom assessment with spirometry in this setting may enable earlier diagnosis of clinically significant COPD and facilitate increased understanding of lung cancer risk in COPD. In this study, we wished to understand the prevalence, severity, clinical phenotype and lung cancer risk of individuals with symptomatic undiagnosed COPD in a LCS cohort. METHODS: 16 010 current or former smokers aged 55-77 attended a Lung Health Check as part of the SUMMIT Study [NCT03934866]. A respiratory consultation and spirometry were performed alongside LCS eligibility assessment. Those with symptoms, no previous COPD diagnosis and airflow obstruction were labelled as undiagnosed COPD. Baseline low-dose CT was performed in those at high risk of lung cancer (PLCOm2012 score >1.3% and/or meeting USPSTF 2013 criteria). RESULTS: One in five (19.7%) met criteria for undiagnosed COPD. Compared to those previously diagnosed, those undiagnosed were more likely to be male (59.1% versus 53.2%, p<0.001), currently smoking (54.9% versus 47.6%, p<0.001) and from an ethnic minority group (p<0.001). Undiagnosed COPD was associated with less FEV1 impairment (GOLD grades 1&2 85.3% versus 68.4%, p<0.001) and lower symptom/exacerbation burden (GOLD A&B groups 95.6% versus 77.9%, p<0.001) than those with known COPD. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that airflow obstruction was an independent risk factor for lung cancer risk on baseline LDCT (adjOR 2.74, 95% CI 1.73-4.34; p<0.001), with a high risk seen in those with undiagnosed COPD (adjOR 2.79, 95% CI 1.67-4.64, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted case-finding within LCS detects high rates of undiagnosed symptomatic COPD in those most at risk. Individuals with undiagnosed COPD are at high risk for lung cancer.
Dickson JL, Hall H, Horst C, et al., 2022, Telephone risk-based eligibility assessment for low-dose CT lung cancer screening, THORAX, Vol: 77, Pages: 1036-1040, ISSN: 0040-6376
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Wu Y, Biswas D, Usaite I, et al., 2022, A local human Vδ1 T cell population is associated with survival in nonsmall-cell lung cancer., Nat Cancer, Vol: 3, Pages: 696-709
Murine tissues harbor signature γδ T cell compartments with profound yet differential impacts on carcinogenesis. Conversely, human tissue-resident γδ cells are less well defined. In the present study, we show that human lung tissues harbor a resident Vδ1 γδ T cell population. Moreover, we demonstrate that Vδ1 T cells with resident memory and effector memory phenotypes were enriched in lung tumors compared with nontumor lung tissues. Intratumoral Vδ1 T cells possessed stem-like features and were skewed toward cytolysis and helper T cell type 1 function, akin to intratumoral natural killer and CD8+ T cells considered beneficial to the patient. Indeed, ongoing remission post-surgery was significantly associated with the numbers of CD45RA-CD27- effector memory Vδ1 T cells in tumors and, most strikingly, with the numbers of CD103+ tissue-resident Vδ1 T cells in nonmalignant lung tissues. Our findings offer basic insights into human body surface immunology that collectively support integrating Vδ1 T cell biology into immunotherapeutic strategies for nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Hall H, Ruparel M, Quaife SL, et al., 2022, The role of computer-assisted radiographer reporting in lung cancer screening programmes, EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY, Vol: 32, Pages: 6891-6899, ISSN: 0938-7994
Vijayakumar B, Tonkin J, Devaraj A, et al., 2022, CT Lung Abnormalities after COVID-19 at 3 Months and 1 Year after Hospital Discharge, RADIOLOGY, Vol: 303, ISSN: 0033-8419
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 26
Walsh SL, Sverzellati N, Brown KK, et al., 2022, Changes in Radiological Features in Patients with Progressive Fibrosing ILDs Treated with Nintedanib: A Sub-Study of The INBUILD Trial, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X
Dickson JL, Bhamani A, Quaife SL, et al., 2022, The reporting of pulmonary nodule results by letter in a lung cancer screening setting, LUNG CANCER, Vol: 168, Pages: 46-49, ISSN: 0169-5002
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Bartlett E, Kemp S, Darby M, et al., 2022, UK screening centre agreement on management of complex nodule management scenarios in lung screening, Publisher: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Pages: S19-S20, ISSN: 0169-5002
Creamer A, Horst C, Dickson J, et al., 2022, Quality assurance of radiology reporting in lung cancer screening: the role of a radiology review meeting, Publisher: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, Pages: S20-S20, ISSN: 0169-5002
Vijayakumar B, Boustani K, Ogger P, et al., 2022, Immuno-proteomic profiling reveals aberrant immune cell regulation in the airways of individuals with ongoing post-COVD-19 respiratory disease, Immunity, Vol: 55, Pages: 542-556.e5, ISSN: 1074-7613
Some patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19 suffer respiratory symptoms that persist for many months. We delineated the immune-proteomic landscape in the airway and peripheral blood of healthy controls and post-COVID-19 patients 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. Post-COVID-19 patients showed abnormal airway (but not plasma) proteomes, with elevated concentration of proteins associated with apoptosis, tissue repair and epithelial injury versus healthy individuals. Increased numbers of cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed in individuals with greater airway dysfunction, while increased B cell numbers and altered monocyte subsets were associated with more widespread lung abnormalities. 1 year follow-up of some post-COVID-19 patients indicated that these abnormalities resolved over time. In summary, COVID-19 causes a prolonged change to the airway immune landscape in those with persistent lung disease, with evidence of cell death and tissue repair linked to ongoing activation of cytotoxic T cells.
Flaherty KR, Wells AU, Cottin V, et al., 2022, Nintedanib in progressive interstitial lung diseases: data from the whole INBUILD trial, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 59, ISSN: 0903-1936
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 20
Williams P, Buttery S, Mweseli R, et al., 2022, Immediate smoking cessation support vs usual care in smokers attending a targeted lung health check; the QuLIT trial, BMJ Open Respiratory Research, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2052-4439
Objectives: Lung cancer screening programmes offer an opportunity to address tobacco dependence in current smokers. The effectiveness of different approaches to smoking cessation in this context has not yet been established. We investigated if immediate smoking cessation support, including pharmacotherapy, offered as part of a lung cancer screening programme, increases quit rates compared to usual care (Very Brief Advice to quit and signposting to smoking cessation services).Materials and Methods: We conducted a single-blind randomised controlled trial of current smokers aged 55-75 years attending a Targeted Lung Health Check (TLHC). On randomly allocated days smokers received either (1) immediate support from a trained smoking cessation counsellor with appropriate pharmacotherapy or (2) usual care. The primary outcome was self-reported quit rate at three months. We performed thematic analysis of participant interview responses.Results: Of 412 people attending between January and March 2020, 115(27.9%) were current smokers; 46% female, mean(SD) 62.4(5.3) years. Follow up data were available for 84 smokers. At 3 months quit rates in the intervention group were higher 14/48(29.2%) versus 4/36(11%) (2 3.98, p=0.04). Participant interviews revealed four smoking-cessation related themes; 1) Stress and anxiety, 2) Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, 3) Computerised tomography scans influencing desire to quit, 4) Individual beliefs about stopping smoking. Conclusion: The provision of immediate smoking cessation support is associated with a substantial increase in quit rates at three months. Further research is needed to investigate longer term outcomes and to refine future service delivery.
Maher TM, Brown KK, Kreuter M, et al., 2022, Effects of nintedanib by inclusion criteria for progression of interstitial lung disease, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 59, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0903-1936
The INBUILD trial investigated nintedanib versus placebo in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). We investigated decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in subgroups based on the inclusion criteria for ILD progression.Subjects had a fibrosing ILD other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and met these criteria for ILD progression within the 24 months before screening despite management deemed appropriate in clinical practice: Group A, relative decline in FVC ≥10% predicted; Group B, relative decline in FVC ≥5-<10% predicted with worsened respiratory symptoms and/or increased extent of fibrosis on HRCT; Group C, worsened respiratory symptoms and increased extent of fibrosis on HRCT only.In the placebo group, the rates of FVC decline over 52 weeks in Groups A, B and C, respectively, were -241.9, -133.1 and -115.3 mL·year-1 in the overall population (p=0.0002 for subgroup-by-time interaction) and -288.9, -156.2 and -100.1 mL·year-1 among subjects with a usual interstitial pneumonia [UIP]-like fibrotic pattern on HRCT (p=0.0005 for subgroup-by-time interaction). Nintedanib had a greater absolute effect on reducing the rate of FVC decline in Group A than Group B or C. However, the relative effect of nintedanib versus placebo was consistent across the subgroups (p>0.05 for heterogeneity).In conclusion, the inclusion criteria used in the INBUILD trial, based on FVC decline or worsening of symptoms and extent of fibrosis on HRCT, were effective at identifying patients with progressive fibrosing ILDs. Nintedanib reduced the rate of decline in FVC across the subgroups based on the inclusion criteria related to ILD progression.
Macaluso C, Boccabella C, Kokosi M, et al., 2022, Short-term lung function changes predict mortality in patients with fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Respirology, Vol: 27, Pages: 202-208, ISSN: 1323-7799
Background and objectiveA proportion of patients with fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (fHP) follow a progressive disease course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Little is known about predictors of mortality in fHP. We aimed to investigate the impact of short-term lung function changes in fHP on mortality.MethodsBaseline demographics for 145 consecutive patients with a multi-disciplinary team diagnosis of fHP, as well as baseline and 1-year follow-up of lung function, baseline echocardiographic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity and all-cause mortality were recorded. Changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥ 5% and ≥10%, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≥ 10% and ≥15% at 1 year were calculated. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to test for associations with mortality.ResultsBaseline lung function severity, age, presence of honeycombing on computed tomography (CT) and echocardiographic pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) ≥ 40 mm Hg were associated with early mortality, while BAL lymphocytosis was associated with improved survival. A decline in FVC ≥ 5% (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.10, 95% CI: 2.00–4.81, p < 0.001), FVC ≥ 10% (HR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.94–4.99, p < 0.001), DLCO ≥ 10% (HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.78–4.42, p < 0.001) and DLCO ≥ 15% (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.18–4.72, p < 0.001) at 1 year was associated with markedly reduced survival on univariable and multivariable analyses after correcting for demographic variables, disease severity, honeycombing on CT and treatment, as well as BAL lymphocytosis and PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg on echocardiography, in separate models.ConclusionWorsening in FVC and DLCO at 1 year, including a marginal decline in FVC ≥ 5% and DLCO&th
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