Imperial College London

DrAnnickBorquez

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Research Associate
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3290annick.borquez06

 
 
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Location

 

Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

24 results found

Marks C, Abramovitz D, Donnelly C, Carrasco-Escobar G, Carrasco-Hernandez R, Ciccarone D, González-Izquierdo A, Martin NK, Strathdee SA, Smith DM, Bórquez Aet al., 2021, Identifying counties at risk of high overdose mortality burden throughout the emerging fentanyl epidemic in the united states: a predictive statistical modeling study, The Lancet Public Health, ISSN: 2468-2667

Background. The emergence of fentanyl around 2013 represented a new, deadly stage in the US opioid epidemic. We developed a statistical regression approach to identify counties at the highest risk of high overdose mortality in the next year by predicting annual county-level overdose death rates across the contiguous US and validated it against observed overdose mortality data from 2013 to 2018.Methods. We fit mixed effects negative binomial regression models to predict next year’s county-level overdose death rates for the years 2013 to 2018. We used publicly available county-level data related to healthcare access, drug markets, socio-demographics, and the geographic spread of opioid overdose as model predictors. The crude number of county-level overdose deaths was extracted from restricted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mortality records. To predict county-level overdose rates for the year 201X: 1) a model was trained on county-level predictor data for the years 2010-201(X-2) paired with county-level overdose deaths for the year 2011-201(X-1); 2) county-level predictor data for the year 201(X-1) was then fed into the model to predict the 201(X) county-level crude number of overdose deaths; and 3) the latter was converted to a population-adjusted rate. For comparison, we generated a benchmark set of predictions by applying the observed slope of change in overdose death rates in the previous year to 201(X-1) rates. To assess the predictive performance of the model, we compared predicted values (of both the model and benchmark) to observed values by 1) calculating the mean average error, root mean squared error, and Spearman’s correlation coefficient and 2) assessing the proportion of counties in the top decile (10%) of overdose death rates that were correctly predicted as such. Finally, in a post-hoc analysis, we sought to identify variables with greatest predictive utility.Findings. Across the entire US and through time, our modeling approach

Journal article

Marquez LK, Cepeda JA, Borquez A, Strathdee SA, Gonzalez-Zuniga PE, Fleiz C, Rafful C, Garfein RS, Kiene SM, Brodine S, Martin NKet al., 2021, Is hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination achievable among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico? A modeling analysis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DRUG POLICY, Vol: 88, ISSN: 0955-3959

Journal article

Cepeda JA, Borquez A, Magana C, Vo A, Rafful C, Rangel G, Medina-Mora ME, Strathdee S, Martin NKet al., 2020, Modelling integrated antiretroviral treatment and harm reduction services on HIV and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico, JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY, Vol: 23

Journal article

Borquez A, Rich K, Farrell M, Degenhardt L, McKetin R, Tran LT, Cepeda J, Silva-Santisteban A, Konda K, Caceres CF, Kelly S, Altice FL, Martin NKet al., 2020, Integrating HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and harm reduction among men who have sex with men and transgender women to address intersecting harms associated with stimulant use: a modelling study, JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY, Vol: 23

Journal article

Farrell M, Martin NK, Stockings E, Borquez A, Cepeda JA, Degenhardt L, Ali R, Tran LT, Rehm J, Torrens M, Shoptaw S, McKetin Ret al., 2019, Responding to global stimulant use: challenges and opportunities, LANCET, Vol: 394, Pages: 1652-1667, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Marks C, Borquez A, Jain S, Sun X, Strathdee SA, Garfein RS, Milloy M-J, DeBeck K, Cepeda JA, Werb D, Martin NKet al., 2019, Opioid agonist treatment scale-up and the initiation of injection drug use: A dynamic modeling analysis, PLOS MEDICINE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1549-1277

Journal article

Borquez A, Guanira JV, Revill P, Caballero P, Silva-Santisteban A, Kelly S, Salazar X, Bracamonte P, Minaya P, Hallett T, Cáceres CFet al., 2019, The impact and cost-effectiveness of combined HIV prevention scenarios among transgender women sex-workers in Lima, Peru: A mathematical modelling study, Lancet Public Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e127-e136, ISSN: 2468-2667

BackgroundHIV incidence remains high among transgender women in Lima, Peru, most of whom report sex work. On the basis of a stakeholder analysis and health system capacity assessment, we designed a mathematical model to guide HIV programmatic planning among transgender women sex workers (TWSW) in Lima.MethodsUsing a deterministic compartmental model, we modelled HIV transmission among TWSW, their stable partners, and their clients to estimate the impact and cost-effectiveness of combinations of interventions compared with the standard of care on reducing HIV incidence over a 10-year period. We simulated HIV transmission accounting for differences in sexual positioning in anal intercourse and condom use by partner type and fitted the model to HIV surveillance data using Latin hypercube sampling. The interventions we considered were 15% relative increase in condom use with clients and 10% relative increase with stable partners; increase in antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage at CD4 count lower than 500 cells per mm3 and greater than or equal to 500 cells per mm3; and 15% pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) coverage using generic and branded formulations. We considered a basic scenario accounting for current limitations in the Peruvian HIV services and an enhanced scenario assuming achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and general improvements in HIV services. The 50 best fits according to log-likelihood were used to give the minimum and maximum values of intervention effect for each combination. We used disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) to measure the negative health outcomes associated with HIV infection that could be averted through the interventions investigated and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios to compare their cost-effectiveness.FindingsUnder the basic scenario, combining the four interventions of increasing condom use with clients and stable partners, extending ART to people with CD4 count greater than or equal to 500 cells per mm3

Journal article

Borquez A, Beletsky L, Nosyk B, Strathdee SA, Madrazo A, Abramovitz D, Rafful C, Morales M, Cepeda J, Panagiotoglou D, Krebs E, Vickerman P, Boily MC, Thomson N, Martin NKet al., 2018, The effect of public health-oriented drug law reform on HIV incidence in people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico: an epidemic modelling study, Lancet Public Health, Vol: 3, Pages: e429-e437, ISSN: 2468-2667

BackgroundAs countries embark on public health-oriented drug law reform, health impact evaluations are needed. In 2012, Mexico mandated the narcomenudeo reform, which depenalised the possession of small amounts of drugs and instituted drug treatment instead of incarceration. We investigated the past and future effect of this drug law reform on HIV incidence in people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.MethodsIn this epidemic modelling study, we used data from the El Cuete IV cohort study to develop a deterministic model of injecting and sexual HIV transmission in people who inject drugs in Tijuana between 2012 and 2030. The population was stratified by sex, incarceration status, syringe confiscation by the police, HIV stage, and exposure to drug treatment or rehabilitation (either opioid agonist treatment or compulsory drug abstinence programmes). We modelled the effect of these exposures on HIV risk in people who inject drugs, estimating the effect of observed and potential future reform enforcement levels.FindingsIn 2011, prior to the narcomenudeo reform, 547 (75%) of 733 people who inject drugs in the El Cuete cohort reported having ever been incarcerated, on average five times since starting injecting. Modelling estimated the limited reform implementation averted 2% (95% CI 0·2–3·0) of new HIV infections in people who inject drugs between 2012 and 2017. If implementation reduced incarceration in people who inject drugs by 80% from 2018 onward, 9% (95% CI 4–16) of new HIV infections between 2018 and 2030 could be averted, with 21% (10–33) averted if people who inject drugs were referred to opioid agonist treatment instead of being incarcerated. Referral to compulsory drug abstinence programmes instead of prison could have a lower or potentially negative impact with −2% (95% CI −23 to 9) infections averted.InterpretationMexican drug law reform has had a negligible effect on the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs

Journal article

Chow JY, Konda KA, Borquez A, Caballero P, Silva-Santisteban A, Klausner JD, Caceres CFet al., 2016, Peru's HIV care continuum among men who have sex with men and transgender women: opportunities to optimize treatment and prevention, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STD & AIDS, Vol: 27, Pages: 1039-1048, ISSN: 0956-4624

Journal article

Bórquez A, Cori A, Pufall EL, Kasule J, Slaymaker E, Price A, Elmes J, Zaba B, Crampin AC, Kagaayi J, Lutalo T, Urassa M, Gregson S, Hallett TBet al., 2016, The Incidence Patterns Model to Estimate the Distribution of New HIV Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model., PLOS Medicine, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1549-1277

BACKGROUND: Programmatic planning in HIV requires estimates of the distribution of new HIV infections according to identifiable characteristics of individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, robust routine data sources and historical epidemiological observations are available to inform and validate such estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a predictive model, the Incidence Patterns Model (IPM), representing populations according to factors that have been demonstrated to be strongly associated with HIV acquisition risk: gender, marital/sexual activity status, geographic location, "key populations" based on risk behaviours (sex work, injecting drug use, and male-to-male sex), HIV and ART status within married or cohabiting unions, and circumcision status. The IPM estimates the distribution of new infections acquired by group based on these factors within a Bayesian framework accounting for regional prior information on demographic and epidemiological characteristics from trials or observational studies. We validated and trained the model against direct observations of HIV incidence by group in seven rounds of cohort data from four studies ("sites") conducted in Manicaland, Zimbabwe; Rakai, Uganda; Karonga, Malawi; and Kisesa, Tanzania. The IPM performed well, with the projections' credible intervals for the proportion of new infections per group overlapping the data's confidence intervals for all groups in all rounds of data. In terms of geographical distribution, the projections' credible intervals overlapped the confidence intervals for four out of seven rounds, which were used as proxies for administrative divisions in a country. We assessed model performance after internal training (within one site) and external training (between sites) by comparing mean posterior log-likelihoods and used the best model to estimate the distribution of HIV incidence in six countries (Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland, and Zambia) in the region. We subsequ

Journal article

Cáceres CF, Borquez A, Klausner JD, Baggaley R, Beyrer Cet al., 2016, Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy., J Int AIDS Soc, Vol: 19

BACKGROUND: In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. DISCUSSION: The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive "combination prevention" programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. CONCLUSIONS: The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers' openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity

Journal article

Borquez A, Cori A, Pufall E, Kasule J, Slaymaker E, Price A, Elmes J, Gregson S, Crampin M, Urassa M, Kagaayi J, Lutalo T, Hallett Tet al., 2015, ESTIMATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF NEW HIV INFECTIONS BY KEY DETERMINANTS IN GENERALISED EPIDEMICS OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA USING A VALIDATED MATHEMATICAL MODEL, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A215-A216, ISSN: 1368-4973

Conference paper

Borquez A, Silva-Santisteban A, Guanira J, Salazar X, Caballero P, Nunes-Curto A, Motta A, Castillo R, Bracamonte P, Benites C, Minaya P, Hallett T, Caceres Cet al., 2015, IMPACT AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF HIV PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS AMONG TRANSGENDER WOMEN SEX-WORKERS IN LIMA, PERU USING MATHEMATICAL MODELLING INFORMED BY STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS AND HEALTH SYSTEM CAPACITY EVALUATION, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A52-A52, ISSN: 1368-4973

Conference paper

Poteat T, Wirtz AL, Radix A, Borquez A, Silva-Santisteban A, Deutsch MB, Khan SI, Winter S, Operario Det al., 2015, HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers, LANCET, Vol: 385, Pages: 274-286, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Rai T, Lambert HS, Borquez AB, Saggurti N, Mahapatra B, Ward Het al., 2014, Circular Labor Migration and HIV in India: Exploring Heterogeneity in Bridge Populations Connecting Areas of High and Low HIV Infection Prevalence, Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 210, Pages: S556-S561, ISSN: 1537-6613

BACKGROUND:The emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in rural areas of India are hypothesized to be linked to circular migrants who are introducing HIV from destination areas were the prevalence of HIV infection is higher. We explore the heterogeneity in potential roles of circular migrants in driving an HIV epidemic in a rural area in north India and examine the characteristics of the "sustaining bridge population", which comprises individuals at risk of HIV acquisition at destination and of HIV transmission into networks at origin capable of sustaining an epidemic.METHODS:Results of a behavioral survey of 639 male migrants from Azamgarh district, India, were analyzed using χ(2) tests and logistic regression.RESULTS:We estimated the size of various subgroups defined by specific sexual behaviors across different locations and over time. Only 20% fit our definition of a sustaining bridge population, with the majority making no apparent contribution to geographical connectedness between high- and low-prevalence areas. However, we found evidence of sexual contacts at origin that could potentially sustain an epidemic once HIV is introduced. Variables associated with sustaining bridge population membership were self-perceived HIV risk, current migrant status, and age.CONCLUSIONS:Circular migrants represent a heterogeneous population in terms of their role as a bridge group. Self-perception of heightened risk could be exploited in designing prevention programs.

Journal article

Keebler D, Revill P, Braithwaite S, Phillips A, Blaser N, Borquez A, Cambiano V, Ciaranello A, Estill J, Gray R, Hill A, Keiser O, Kessler J, Menzies NA, Nucifora KA, Vizcaya LS, Walker S, Welte A, Easterbrook P, Doherty M, Hirnschall G, Hallett TBet al., 2014, Cost-effectiveness of different strategies to monitor adults on antiretroviral treatment: a combined analysis of three mathematical models, LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 2, Pages: E35-E43, ISSN: 2214-109X

Journal article

Hallett TB, Menzies NA, Revill P, Keebler D, Borquez A, McRobie E, Eaton JWet al., 2014, Using modeling to inform international guidelines for antiretroviral treatment, AIDS, Vol: 28, Pages: S1-S4, ISSN: 0269-9370

Journal article

Gomez GB, Borquez A, Case KK, Wheelock A, Vassall A, Hankins Cet al., 2013, The Cost and Impact of Scaling Up Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Modelling Studies, PLoS Med, Vol: 10

<p>Gabriela Gomez and colleagues systematically review cost-effectiveness modeling studies of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for preventing HIV transmission and identify the main considerations to address when considering the introduction of PrEP to HIV prevention programs.</p>

Journal article

Case KK, Ghys PD, Gouws E, Eaton JW, Borquez A, Stover J, Cuchi P, Abu-Raddad LJ, Garnett GP, Hallett TBet al., 2012, Understanding the modes of transmission model of new HIV infection and its use in prevention planning, BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, Vol: 90, Pages: 831-838, ISSN: 0042-9686

Journal article

Gomez GB, Borquez A, Caceres CF, Segura ER, Grant RM, Garnett GP, Hallett TBet al., 2012, The Potential Impact of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru: A Mathematical Modelling Study, PLOS MEDICINE, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1549-1676

Journal article

Alarcon, Pun, Gutierrez, Whittembury, Tejada, Suarez, Rosell, Borquez, Cuchiet al., 2012, ESTIMACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LA INCIDENCIA DE VIH EN POBLACIÓN ADULTA DEL PERÚ: RESULTADOS DE LA APLICACIÓN DEL MODELO MATEMÁTICO MoT, Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública

Journal article

Borquez A, Gomez GB, Caceres CF, Segura ER, Grant RM, Garnett GP, Hallett TBet al., 2011, THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR HIV PREVENTION AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN (MSM) IN LIMA, PERU, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS, Vol: 87, Pages: A350-A350, ISSN: 1368-4973

Journal article

Borquez A, Hallett TB, Gomez GB, Garnett GPet al., 2011, Condom use by female sex workers and their clients in Mexico: who decides and does it matter?, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS, Vol: 87, Pages: 254-256, ISSN: 1368-4973

Journal article

Williams JR, Bórquez A, Basáñez MG, 2008, Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: a rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine., Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, Vol: 5, ISSN: 1742-7622

There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study of epidemiology and public health arising from traditions such as the Latin American social medicine movement, of which there may be limited awareness. A number of online bibliographic databases are available which focus primarily on health sciences literature arising in Spain and Latin America, the most prominent being Literatura Latinoamericana en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) and LATINDEX. Some such as LILACS also extensively index grey literature. As well as in Spanish, interfaces are provided in English and Portuguese. Abstracts of articles may also be provided in English with an increasing number of journals beginning to publish entire articles written in English. Free full text articles are becoming accessible, one of the most comprehensive sources being the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). There is thus an extensive range of literature originating in Spain and SSLAC freely identifiable and often accessible online, and with the potential to provide useful inputs to the study of epidemiology and public health provided that any reluctance to explore these resources can be overcome. In this article we provide an introduction to such resources.

Journal article

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