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Herbert R, Hatcher J, Jauneikaite E, Gharbi M, d'Arc S, Obaray N, Rickards T, Rebec M, Blandy O, Hope R, Thomas A, Bamford K, Jepson A, Sriskandan Set al., 2019, Two-year analysis of Clostridium difficile ribotypes associated with increased severity, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol: 103, Pages: 388-394, ISSN: 0195-6701

BackgroundCertain Clostridium difficile ribotypes have been associated with complex disease phenotypes including recurrence and increased severity, especially the well-described hypervirulent ribotype RT027. In this study we set out to determine the pattern of ribotypes causing infection and association if any with severity.MethodsAll faecal samples submitted to a large diagnostic laboratory for C. difficile testing between 2011 and 2013 were subject to routine testing and cultured. All C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and associated clinical and demographic patient data were retrieved then linked to ribotyping data.ResultsA total of 86 distinct ribotypes were identified from 705 isolates of C. difficile. Ribotypes RT002 and RT015 were the most prevalent (22.5%, n=159). Only five isolates (0.7%) were the hypervirulent RT027. Ninety of 450 (20%) patients with clinical information available died within 30-days of C. difficile isolation. Ribotype RT220, one of the ten commonest ribotypes, was associated with elevated median C-reactive protein and significantly increased 30-day all-cause mortality when compared with ribotypes RT002 and RT015, and with all other ribotypes found in the study.ConclusionsA wide range of C. difficile ribotypes were responsible for C. difficile infection presentations. Although C. difficile-associated mortality has reduced in recent years, expansion of lineages associated with increased severity could herald increases in future mortality. Enhanced surveillance for emerging lineages such as RT220 that are associated with more severe disease is required, with genomic approaches to dissect pathogenicity.

Journal article

Blandy O, Honeyford K, Gharbi M, Thomas A, Ramzan F, Ellington MJ, Hope R, Holmes A, Johnson AP, Aylin P, Woodford N, Sriskandan Set al., 2019, Factors that impact on the burden of Escherichia coli bacteraemia: multivariable regression analysis of 2011-2015 data from West London, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol: 101, Pages: 120-128, ISSN: 0195-6701

BackgroundThe incidence of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England is increasing amid concern regarding the roles of antimicrobial resistance and nosocomial acquisition on burden of disease.AimTo determine the relative contributions of hospital-onset E. coli blood stream infection and specific E. coli antimicrobial resistance patterns to the burden and severity of E. coli bacteremia in West London.MethodsPatient and antimicrobial susceptibility data were collected for all cases of E. coli bacteraemia between 2011 and 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between the category of infection (hospital or community-onset) and length of stay, intensive care unit admission, and 30-day all-cause mortality.FindingsE. coli bacteraemia incidence increased by 76% during the study period, predominantly due to community-onset cases. Resistance to quinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides also increased over the study period, occurring in both community- and hospital-onset cases. Hospital-onset and non-susceptibility to either quinolones or third-generation cephalosporins were significant risk factors for prolonged length of stay, as was older age. Rates of mortality were 7% and 12% at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Older age, a higher comorbidity score, and bacteraemia caused by strains resistant to three antibiotic classes were all significant risk factors for mortality at 30 days.ConclusionMultidrug resistance, increased age, and comorbidities were the main drivers of adverse outcome. The rise in E. coli bacteraemia was predominantly driven by community-onset infections, and initiatives to prevent community-onset cases should be a major focus to reduce the quantitative burden of E. coli infection.

Journal article

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