Imperial College London

Dr J Antonio H Carraro

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Senior Lecturer in Experimental Geotechnical Engineering



+44 (0)20 7594 6038antonio.carraro Website




528BSkempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Dr Antonio Carraro researches Sustainable, Resilient and Equitable Infrastructure Materials and Fabric-Sensitive Soil Mechanics. He uses High-Quality Experimental Methods and Hands-On Experiential Learning to improve Geotechnical Analysis and Education. His research has been sponsored by the American Coal Ash Association, Australian Research Council, BP Exploration & Production, Colorado Dept. of Public Health & Environment, Colorado Dept. of Transportation, Fugro Singapore, GHD, Golder Associates, Knight Piésold, MWH Global, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Rio Tinto, SRK Consulting, Technip UK, Tetra Tech, United States Dept. of Transportation, Woodside Energy and WorleyParsons.

Dr Carraro is Associate Editor of the ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering and has served on the editorial boards of Géotechnique and ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. He is UK-nominated member of ISSMGE TC221 Tailings & Mine Wastes Committee and former member of ASTM D18 Committee on Soil & Rock.

Dr Carraro earned his PhD in Civil Engineering from Purdue Univ. in the United States and MSc and BSc degrees in Civil Engineering from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) in Brazil. Prior to joining Imperial, he was Associate Professor in the Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems at The Univ. of Western Australia, in Perth (Australia), and in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept. at Colorado State (United States). Dr Carraro taught several undergraduate and postgraduate classes in Civil and Geotechnical Engineering at Purdue and Colorado State universities, in the United States.

Areas of Expertise: 

Sustainable, Resilient & Equitable Infrastructure 

- Recycling & beneficial use of waste materials to develop sustainable, resilient and socially-conscious infrastructure

- Green geo-materials & sustainable soil stabilisation, e.g. soil-tyre rubber mixtures; waste lime; waste glass; coal mining waste & class-C, class-F and off-specification fly ashes; rammed earth; tailings & mine waste; recycled concrete

Rubber from waste tyres used to improve roads

Rubber from waste tyres used to improve road infrastructure (Carraro et al. 2013)

Fabric-Sensitive Soil Mechanics

- Undisturbed soil properties & geotechnical design

Fundamental behaviour of soil mixtures / intermediate soils

- Liquefaction / cyclic loading, undrained instability / phase transformation & specimen reconstitution of tailings, offshore sediments & fluvial / alluvial soils

Microphotograph of clayey sand (Carraro et al. 2009)

ESEM microphotograph of clayey sand (Carraro et al. 2009)

High-Quality Experimental Methods & Hands-On Experiential Learning

- Analysis of experimental uncertainty & error

- Machine learning & adaptive control of testing apparatus

- Cyclic hollow cylinder, triaxial & simple shear testing of soils

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Liu D, O'Sullivan C, Harb Carraro JA, 2022, Use of combined static and dynamic testing to quantify the participation of particles in stress transmission, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol:148, ISSN:0733-9410

Tastan EO, Harb Carraro JA, 2022, The effect of principal stress rotation and intermediate principal stress changes on the liquefaction resistance and undrained cyclic response of Ottawa sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol:148, ISSN:0733-9410, Pages:1-12

Liu D, Morimoto T, Carraro JAH, et al., 2022, A semi-empirical re-evaluation of the influence of state on elastic stiffness in granular materials, Granular Matter, Vol:24, ISSN:1434-5021, Pages:1-22

Kazmi D, Serati M, Williams DJ, et al., 2022, Kaolin clay reinforced with a granular column containing crushed waste glass or traditional construction sands, International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol:22, ISSN:1532-3641

Quinteros VS, Harb Carraro JA, 2021, The initial fabric of undisturbed and reconstituted fluvial sand, Geotechnique, ISSN:0016-8505

Liu D, O'Sullivan C, Carraro JAH, 2021, The influence of particle size distribution on the stress distribution in granular materials, Geotechnique, ISSN:0016-8505, Pages:1-37

Barnett N, Rahman MM, Karim MR, et al., 2021, Equivalent state theory for sand with non-plastic fine mixtures: A DEM investigation, Geotechnique, Vol:71, ISSN:0016-8505, Pages:423-440

Liu D, O'Sullivan C, Harb Carraro JA, 2021, Influence of particle size distribution on the proportion of stress-transmitting particles and implications for measures of soil state, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol:147, ISSN:0733-9410, Pages:04020182-1-04020182-14

Consoli NC, Carretta MS, Leon HB, et al., 2020, Behaviour of silty sands stabilised with cement subjected to hard environmental conditions, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Geotechnical Engineering, Vol:173, ISSN:1353-2618, Pages:40-48

Lim GT, Pineda J, Boukpeti N, et al., 2019, Effects of sampling disturbance in geotechnical design, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol:56, ISSN:0008-3674, Pages:275-289

Mashiri MS, Vinod JS, Sheikh MN, et al., 2018, Shear modulus of sand-tyre chip mixtures, Environmental Geotechnics, Vol:5, ISSN:2051-803X, Pages:336-344

Lim GT, Pineda JA, Boukpeti N, et al., 2018, Predicted and measured behaviour of an embankment on PVD-improved Ballina clay, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol:93, ISSN:0266-352X, Pages:204-221

Carraro JAH, 2017, Analysis of simple shear tests with cell pressure confinement, Geomechanics and Geoengineering: An International Journal, Vol:12, ISSN:1748-6025, Pages:169-180

Tastan EO, Carraro JAH, 2013, A New Slurry-Based Method of Preparation of Hollow Cylinder Specimens of Clean and Silty Sands, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol:36, ISSN:0149-6115, Pages:811-822

Prezzi M, Bandini P, Carraro JAH, et al., 2011, Use of Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Civil Engineering Applications, Advances in Civil Engineering, Vol:2011, ISSN:1687-8094

Carraro JAH, Prezzi M, Salgado R, 2009, Shear Strength and Stiffness of Sands Containing Plastic or Nonplastic Fines, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol:135, ISSN:1090-0241, Pages:1167-1178

van de Lindt JW, Carraro JAH, Heyliger PR, et al., 2008, Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings, Resources Conservation and Recycling, Vol:52, ISSN:0921-3449, Pages:1235-1240

Carraro JAH, Prezzi M, 2008, A new slurry-based method of preparation of specimens of sand containing fines, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol:31, ISSN:0149-6115, Pages:1-11

Murthy TG, Loukidis D, Carraro JAH, et al., 2007, Undrained monotonic response of clean and silty sands, Geotechnique, Vol:57, ISSN:0016-8505, Pages:273-288

Carraro JAH, Bandini P, Salgado R, 2003, Liquefaction resistance of clean and nonplastic silty sands based on cone penetration resistance, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol:129, ISSN:1090-0241, Pages:965-976


Carraro JAH, Boukpeti N, Guadalupe-Torres Y, et al., 2018, Laboratory Testing, Encyclopedia of Maritime and Offshore Engineering, Editor(s): Randolph, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., ISBN:9781118476352


Dominguez-Quintans C, Quinteros VS, Carraro JAH, et al., 2019, Quality assessment of a new in-mould slurry deposition method for triaxial specimen reconstitution of clean and silty sands, 7th International Symposium on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials - IS Glasgow 2019

H. Carraro JA, Bortolotto MS, 2015, Stiffness degradation and damping of carbonate and silica sands, Pages:1179-1184

Dunham-Friel J, Carraro JAH, 2014, Effects of compaction effort, inclusion stiffness, and rubber size on the shear strength and stiffness of expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixtures, Pages:3635-3644, ISSN:0895-0563

Dunham-Friel J, Carraro JAH, 2011, Shear strength and stiffness of Expansive Soil and Rubber (ESR) mixtures in undrained axisymmetric compression, Pages:1111-1120, ISSN:0895-0563

Seda JH, Lee JC, Carraro JAH, 2007, Beneficial use of waste tire rubber for swelling potential mitigation in expansive soils, ISSN:0895-0563

Carraro JAH, Consoli NC, 1997, Coal mining waste utilisation for soil improvement, 1st Australia/New Zealand Conference on Environmental Geotechnics (GEOENVIRONMENT 97), A A BALKEMA PUBLISHERS, Pages:475-480

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