Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering








1M17ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

17 results found

Mun B, Jeong H, Kim R, Gu B, Kim J, Son HY, Rho HW, Lim EK, Haam Set al., 2024, 3D-Nanostructured microfluidic device arranged in a herringbone pattern for the highly effective capture of HER2-Positive cancer-derived exosomes in urine, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol: 482, ISSN: 1385-8947

Exosomes in body fluids are important in liquid biopsy as they reflect the information of their originating cells. Thus, exosome analysis can provide valuable insights into diseases such as cancer. However, the low concentration of exosomes in body fluids is accompanied by background noise, making exosome analysis challenging. Here, a microfluidic chip in which three-dimensional nanostructures were arranged in a herringbone pattern (nanochip) that could efficiently capture specific exosomes was developed. Nanostructures were prepared by stacking silica nanoparticles to enhance the contact and interaction between the exosomes and structures, which were then arranged in a herringbone pattern to improve mass transfer through micromixing. To analyze exosomes derived from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, an important marker for cancer progression and patient survival)-positive cancer, anti-HER2 antibody was introduced into the nanostructures in the nanochip and approximately 97.7% of exosome capture efficiency was confirmed. The nanochip performed better than chips with a solid herringbone structure or without a structure (solid and flat chips). The feasibility of capturing multiple exosomes was demonstrated using both in vitro and in vivo samples by employing a dual nanochip configuration in which nanochips with different antibodies were interconnected in a series. This nanochip can effectively capture HER2-positive exosomes and has potential for multiple exosome isolations. Additionally, this chip can capture and detect various disease-related exosomes because various antibodies can be applied; this nanochip will be useful for exosome-based disease diagnosis and monitoring in liquid biopsies.

Journal article

Jeong S, Gu B, Choi S, Ahn S-K, Lee J, Lee J, Jeong Set al., 2023, Engineered multi-scale roughness of carbon nanofiller-embedded 3D printed spacers for membrane distillation., Water Res, Vol: 231

Membrane distillation (MD) transfers heat and mass simultaneously through a hydrophobic membrane. Hence, it is sensitive to both concentration and temperature polarisation (CP and TP) effects. In this study, we fabricated feed spacers to improve MD efficiency by alleviating the polarisation effects. First, a 3D printed spacer design was optimised to show superior performance amongst the others tested. Then, to further enhance spacer performance, we incorporated highly thermally stable carbon nanofillers, including carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene, in the fabrication of filaments for 3D printing. All the fabricated spacers had a degree of engineered multi-scale roughness, which was relatively high compared to that of the polylactic acid (PLA) spacer (control). The use of nanomaterial-incorporated spacers increased the mean permeate flux significantly compared to the PLA spacer (27.1 L/m2h (LMH)): a 43% and 75% increase when using the 1% graphene-incorporated spacer (38.9 LMH) and 2% CNT incorporated spacer (47.5 LMH), respectively. This could be attributed to the locally enhanced turbulence owing to the multi-scale roughness formed on the spacer, which further increased the vaporisation rate through the membrane. Interestingly, only the CNT-embedded spacer markedly reduced the ion permeation through the membrane, which may be due to the effective reduction of CP. This further decreased with increasing CNT concentration, confirming that the CNT spacer can simultaneously reduce the CP and TP effects in the MD process. Finally, we successfully proved that the multi-scale roughness of the spacer surface induces micromixing near the membrane walls, which can improve the MD performance via computational fluid dynamics.

Journal article

Chong MY, Gu B, Armour C, Dokos S, Ong ZC, Xu X, Lim Eet al., 2022, An integrated fluid-structure interaction and thrombosis model for type B aortic dissection, Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, Vol: 21, Pages: 261-275, ISSN: 1617-7940

False lumen thrombosis (FLT) in type B aortic dissection has been associated with theprogression of dissection and treatment outcome. Existing computational models mostlyassume rigid wall behaviour which ignores the effect of flap motion on flow and thrombusformation within the FL. In this study, we have combined a fully coupled fluid-structureinteraction (FSI) approach with a shear-driven thrombosis model described by a series ofconvection-diffusion reaction equations. The integrated FSI-thrombosis model has beenapplied to an idealised dissection geometry to investigate the interaction between vessel wallmotion and growing thrombus. Our simulation results show that wall compliance and flapmotion can influence the progression of FLT. The main difference between the rigid and FSImodels is the continuous development of vortices near the tears caused by drastic flap motionup to 4.45 mm. Flap-induced high shear stress and shear rates around tears help to transportactivated platelets further to the neighbouring region, thus speeding up thrombus formationduring the accelerated phase in the FSI models. Reducing flap mobility by increasing theYoung’s modulus of the flap slows down the thrombus growth. Compared to the rigid model,the predicted thrombus volume is 25 % larger using the FSI-thrombosis model with a relativelymobile flap. Furthermore, our FSI-thrombosis model can capture the gradual effect of thrombusgrowth on the flow field, leading to flow obstruction in the FL, increased blood viscosity andreduced flap motion. This model is a step closer towards simulating realistic thrombus growthin aortic dissection, by taking into account the effect of intimal flap and vessel wall motion.

Journal article

Gu B, Huang Y, Manchester E, Hughes A, Thom S, Chen R, Xu XYet al., 2022, Multiphysics modelling and simulation of thrombolysis via activated platelet-targeted nanomedicine, Pharmaceutical Research, Vol: 39, Pages: 41-56, ISSN: 0724-8741

Purpose:This study establishes a multiphysics simulation platform for both conventional and targeted thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Based on our computational results, the effects of therapeutic parameters on the dynamics of thrombolysis and the risk of side effects are investigated.Methods:The model extends our previously developed one-dimensional(1D) mathematical models for fibrinolysis by incorporating targeted thrombolysis. It consists of two parts: (i) a coupled mathematical model of systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) and local PD in a 1D occluded artery, and (ii) a mechanistic model for a targeted thrombolytic system via activated platelet-targeted tPA-loaded nanovesicles (tPA-NV), with model parameters derived from our in vitro experiments. A total of 16 therapeutic scenarios are simulated by varying the clot location and composition as well as the dosing regimen with free tPA or tPA-NV.Results:Our simulation results indicate that tPA-NV offers several advantages over free tPA for thrombolysis. It reduces systemic exposure of tPA, thereby minimising the risk of bleeding complications. Simulations with different tPA-NV doses reveal that tPA-NV at 10% of the recommended dose can be as effective as the standard regimen with the full recommended dose of free tPA, demonstrating the potential of our tPA-NV as a new thrombolytic strategy with a reduced tPA dose. Moreover, faster recanalisation can be achieved with tPA-NV, especially for platelet-rich(or fibrin-poor) clots.Conclusions:Our simulation platform for thrombolysis with well-tuned model parameters can be used to evaluate and optimise treatment regimens of existing and new thrombolytic therapies via benefit/risk assessment under various therapeutic scenarios.

Journal article

Manchester E, Roi D, Gu B, Xu X, Lobotesis Ket al., 2021, Modelling combined intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke: Understanding the relationship between stent retriever configuration and clot lysis mechanisms, Life, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2075-1729

Background: Combined intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy (IVT-MT) is a common treatment in acute ischaemic stroke, however the interaction between IVT and MT from a physiological standpoint is poorly understood. In this pilot study, we conduct numerical simulations of combined IVT-MT with various idealised stent retriever configurations to evaluate performance in terms of complete recanalisation times and lysis patterns. Methods: A 3D patient-specific geometry of a terminal internal carotid artery with anterior and middle cerebral arteries is reconstructed, and a thrombus is artificially implanted in the MCA branch. Various idealised stent retriever configurations are implemented by varying stent diameter and stent placement, and a configuration without a stent retriever provides a baseline for comparison. A previously validated multi-level model of thrombolysis is used, which incorporates blood flow, drug transport, and fibrinolytic reactions within a fibrin thrombus. Results: Fastest total recanalisation was achieved in the thrombus without a stent retriever, with lysis times increasing with stent retriever diameter. Two mechanisms of clot lysis were established: axial and radial permeation. Axial permeation from the clot front was the primary mechanism of lysis in all configurations, as it facilitated increased protein binding with fibrin fibres. Introducing a stent retriever channel allowed for radial permeation, which occurred at the fluid-thrombus interface, although lysis was much slower in the radial direction because of weaker secondary velocities. Conclusions: Numerical models can be used to better understand the complex physiological relationship between IVT and MT. Two different mechanisms of lysis were established, providing a basis towards improving the efficacy of combined treatments.

Journal article

Huang Y, Gu B, Salles II, Taylor KA, Yu L, Ren J, Liu X, Emerson M, Longstaff C, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Xu XY, Chen Ret al., 2021, Fibrinogen-mimicking, multi-arm nanovesicles for human thrombus-specific delivery of tissue plasminogen activator and targeted thrombolytic therapy, Science Advances, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2375-2548

Clinical use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in thrombolytic therapy is limited by its short circulation time and hemorrhagic side effects. Inspired by fibrinogen binding to activated platelets, we report a fibrinogen-mimicking, multi-arm nanovesicle for thrombus-specific tPA delivery and targeted thrombolysis. This novel system is based on the lipid nanovesicle coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) terminally conjugated with a cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide. Our experiments with human blood demonstrated its highly selective binding to activated platelets and efficient tPA release at a thrombus site under both static and physiological flow conditions. Its clot dissolution time in a microfluidic system was comparable to that of free tPA. Furthermore, we report a purpose-built computational model capable of simulating targeted thrombolysis of the tPA-loaded nanovesicle and with potential in predicting the dynamics of thrombolysis in physiologically realistic scenarios. This combined experimental and computational work presents a promising platform for development of thrombolytic nanomedicines.

Journal article

Gu B, Adjiman C, Xu X, 2021, Correlations for concentration polarisation and pressure drop in spacer-filled RO membrane modules based on CFD simulations, Membranes, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2077-0375

Empirical correlations for mass transfer coefficient and friction factor are often used in process models for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. These usually involve four dimensionless groups, namely Reynolds number (Re), Sherwood number (Sh), friction factor (f), and Schmidt number (Sc), with the associated coefficients and exponents being obtained by fitting to experimental data. However, the range of geometric and operating conditions covered by the experiments is often limited. In this study, new dimensionless correlations for concentration polarization (CP) modulus and friction factor are presented, which are obtained by dimensional analysis and using simulation data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two-dimensional CFD simulations are performed on three configurations of spacer-filled channels with 76 combinations of operating and geometric conditions for each configuration, covering a broad range of conditions encountered in RO membrane systems. Results obtained with the new correlations are compared with those from existing correlations in the literature. There is good consistency in the predicted CP with mean discrepancies less than 6%, but larger discrepancies for pressure gradient are found among the various friction factor correlations. Furthermore, the new correlations are implemented in a process model with six spiral wound modules in series and the predicted recovery, pressure drop, and specific energy consumption are compared with a reference case obtained by ROSA (Reverse Osmosis System Analysis, The Dow Chemical Company). Differences in predicted recovery and pressure drop are up to 5% and 83%, respectively, highlighting the need for careful selection of correlations when using predictive models in process design. Compared to existing mass transfer correlations, a distinct advantage of our correlations for CP modulus is that they can be directly used to estimate the impact of permeate flux on CP at a membrane surface without having to r

Journal article

Chong MY, Gu B, Chan BT, Ong ZC, Xu XY, Lim Eet al., 2020, Effect of intimal flap motion on flow in acute type B aortic dissection by using fluid-structure interaction., International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 36, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 1069-8299

A monolithic, fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) computational framework was developed to account for dissection flap motion in acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD). Analysis of results included wall deformation, pressure, flow, wall shear stress (WSS), von. Mises stress and comparison of hemodynamics between rigid wall and FSI models. Our FSI model mimicked realistic wall deformation that resulted in maximum compression of the distal true lumen (TL) by 21.4%. The substantial movement of intimal flap mostly affected flow conditions in the false lumen (FL). Flap motion facilitated more flow entering the FL at peak systole, with the TL to FL flow split changing from 88:12 in the rigid model to 83:17 in the FSI model. There was more disturbed flow in the FL during systole (5.8% FSI vs. 5.2% rigid) and diastole (13.5% FSI vs. 9.8% rigid), via a λ2  -criterion. The flap-induced disturbed flow near the tears in the FSI model caused an increase of local WSS by up to 70.0% during diastole. This resulted in a significant reduction in the size of low time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) regions in the FL (113.11 cm2 FSI vs. 177.44 cm2 rigid). Moreover, the FSI model predicted lower systolic pressure, higher diastolic pressure, and hence lower pulse pressure. Our results provided new insights into the possible impact of flap motion on flow in aortic dissections, which are particularly important when evaluating hemodynamics of acute TBAD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Journal article

Huang Y, Gu B, Liu C, Stebbing J, Gedroyc W, Thanou M, Xu Xet al., 2019, Thermosensitive liposome-mediated drug delivery in chemotherapy: mathematical modelling for spatio-temporal drug distribution and model-based optimisation, Pharmaceutics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1999-4923

Thermosensitive liposome-mediated drug delivery has shown promising results in terms of improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects compared to conventional chemotherapeutics. In order to facilitate our understanding of the transport mechanisms and their complex interplays in the drug delivery process, computational models have been developed to simulate the multiple steps involved in liposomal drug delivery to solid tumours. In this study we employ a multicompartmental model for drug-loaded thermosensitive liposomes, with an aim to identify the key transport parameters in determining therapeutic dosing and outcomes. The computational model allows us to not only examine the temporal and spatial variations of drug concentrations in the different compartments by utilising the tumour cord concept, but also assess the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. In addition, the influences of key factors on systemic plasma concentration and intracellular concentration of the active drug are investigated; these include different chemotherapy drugs, release rate constants and heating duration. Our results show complex relationships between these factors and the predicted therapeutic outcome, making it difficult to identify the “best” parameter set. To overcome this challenge, a model-based optimisation method is proposed in an attempt to find a set of release rate constants and heating duration that can maximise intracellular drug concentration while minimising systemic drug concentration. Optimisation results reveal that under the operating conditions and ranges examined, the best outcome would be achieved with a low drug release rate at physiological temperature, combined with a moderate to high release rate at mild hyperthermia and 1 h heating after injection.

Journal article

Gu B, Piebalgs A, Huang Y, Roi D, Lobotesis K, Longstaff C, Hughes AD, Chen R, Thom SA, Xu XYet al., 2019, Computational simulations of thrombolysis in acute stroke: Effect of clot size and location on recanalisation, Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol: 73, Pages: 9-17, ISSN: 1350-4533

Acute ischaemic stroke can be treated by intravenous thrombolysis whereby tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is infused to dissolve clots that block blood supply to the brain. In this study, we aim to examine the influence of clot location and size on lysis pattern and recanalisation by using a recently developed computational modelling framework for thrombolysis under physiological flow conditions. An image-based patient-specific model is reconstructed which consists of the internal carotid bifurcation with the A1 segment of anterior cerebral arteries and M1 segment of middle cerebral arteries, and the M1 bifurcation containing the M2 segments. By varying the clot size and location, 7 scenarios are simulated mimicking thrombolysis of M1 and M2 occlusions. Our results show that initial breakthrough always occurs along the inner curvature of the occluded cerebral artery, due to prolonged tPA residence time in the recirculation zone. For a given occlusion site, lysis completion time appears to increase almost quadratically with the initial clot volume; whereas for a given clot volume, the simulated M2 occlusions take up to 30% longer for complete lysis compared to the corresponding M1 occlusions.

Journal article

Huang Y, Yu L, Ren J, Gu B, Longstaff C, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Xu XY, Chen Ret al., 2019, An activated-platelet-sensitive nanocarrier enables targeted delivery of tissue plasminogen activator for effective thrombolytic therapy, Journal of Controlled Release, Vol: 300, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0168-3659

It remains a major challenge to develop a selective and effective fibrinolytic system for thrombolysis with minimal undesirable side effects. Herein, we report a multifunctional liposomal system (164.6 ± 5.3 nm in diameter) which can address this challenge through targeted delivery and controlled release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at the thrombus site. The tPA-loaded liposomes were PEGylated to improve their stability, and surface coated with a conformationally-constrained, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) to enable highly selective binding to activated platelets. The in vitro drug release profiles at 37 °C showed that over 90% of tPA was released through liposomal membrane destabilization involving membrane fusion upon incubation with activated platelets within 1 h, whereas passive release of the encapsulated tPA in pH 7.4 PBS buffer was 10% after 6 h. The release of tPA could be readily manipulated by changing the concentration of activated platelets. The presence of activated platelets enabled the tPA-loaded, cRGD-coated, PEGylated liposomes to induce efficient fibrin clot lysis in a fibrin-agar plate model and the encapsulated tPA retained 97.4 ± 1.7% of fibrinolytic activity as compared with that of native tPA. Furthermore, almost complete blood clot lysis was achieved in 75 min, showing considerably higher and quicker thrombolytic activity compared to the tPA-loaded liposomes without cRGD labelling. These results suggest that the nano-sized, activated-platelet-sensitive, multifunctional liposomes could facilitate selective delivery and effective release of tPA at the site of thrombus, thus achieving efficient clot dissolution whilst minimising undesirable side effects.

Journal article

Gu B, Piebalgs A, Huang Y, Longstaff C, Hughes A, Chen R, Thom S, Xu Xet al., 2019, Mathematical modelling of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: Effects of dose regimens on levels of fibrinolytic proteins and clot lysis time, Pharmaceutics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1999-4923

Thrombolytic therapy is one of the medical procedures in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), whereby the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is intravenously administered to dissolve the obstructive blood clot. The treatment of AIS by thrombolysis can sometimes be ineffective and it can cause serious complications, such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we propose an efficient mathematical modelling approach that can be used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of thrombolysis in various clinically relevant scenarios. Our model combines the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tPA with local clot lysis dynamics. By varying the drug dose, bolus-infusion delay time, and bolus-infusion ratio, with the FDA approved dosing protocol serving as a reference, we have used the model to simulate 13 dose regimens. Simulation results are compared for temporal concentrations of fibrinolytic proteins in plasma and the time that is taken to achieve recanalisation. Our results show that high infusion rates can cause the rapid degradation of plasma fibrinogen, indicative of increased risk for ICH, but they do not necessarily lead to fast recanalisation. In addition, a bolus-infusion delay results in an immediate drop in plasma tPA concentration, which prolongs the time to achieve recanalisation. Therefore, an optimal administration regimen should be sought by keeping the tPA level sufficiently high throughout the treatment and maximising the lysis rate while also limiting the degradation of fibrinogen in systemic plasma. This can be achieved through model-based optimisation in the future.

Journal article

Piebalgs A, Gu B, Roi D, Lobotesis K, Thom S, Xu Xet al., 2018, Computational simulations of thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2045-2322

Ischaemic stroke can occur when an artery to the brain is blocked by a blood clot. The use of thrombolytic agents, such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), to dissolve the occluding clot is limited by the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), a known side effect associated with tPA. We developed a computational thrombolysis model for a 3D patient-specific artery coupled with a compartmental model for temporal concentrations of tPA and lysis proteins during intravenous infusion of tPA, in order to evaluate the effects of tPA dose on the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy and the risk of ICH. The model was applied to a 3-mm-long fibrin clot with two different fibrin fibre radii in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) – a setting relevant to ischaemic stroke, and results for different tPA dose levels and fibrin fibre radii were compared. Our simulation results showed that clot lysis was accelerated at higher tPA doses at the expense of a substantial increase in the risk of ICH. It was also found that a fine clot with a smaller fibre radius dissolved much slowly than a coarse clot due to a slower tPA penetration into the clots.

Journal article

Gu B, Adjiman CS, Xu XY, 2016, The effect of feed spacer geometry on membrane performance and concentration polarisation based on 3D CFD simulations, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol: 527, Pages: 78-91, ISSN: 1873-3123

Feed spacers are used in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane modules to keep the membrane sheets apart as well as to enhance mixing. They are beneficial to membrane performance but at the expense of additional pressure loss. In this study, four types of feed spacer configurations are investigated, with a total of 20 geometric variations based on commercially available spacers and selected filament angles. The impact of feed spacer design on membrane performance is investigated by means of three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, where the solution-diffusion model is employed for water and solute transport through RO membranes. Numerical simulation results show that, for the operating and geometric conditions examined, fully woven spacers outperform other spacer configurations in mitigating concentration polarisation (CP). When designed with a mesh angle of 60°, fully woven spacers also deliver the highest water flux, although the associated pressure drops are slightly higher than their nonwoven counterparts. Middle layer geometries with a mesh angle of 30° produce the lowest water flux. On the other hand, spacers with a mesh angle of 90° show the lowest pressure drop among all the filament arrangements examined. Furthermore, the computational model presented here can also be used to predict membrane performance for a given feed spacer type and geometry.

Journal article

Gu B, Xu XY, Adjiman CS, 2016, A predictive model for spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules: The effect of winding geometry and accurate geometric details, Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol: 96, Pages: 248-265, ISSN: 1873-4375

A new one-dimensional predictive model for spiral wound modules (SWMs) applied to reverse osmosis membrane systems is developed by incorporating a detailed description of the geometric features of SWMs and considering flow in two directions. The proposed model is found to capture existing experimental data well, with similar accuracy to the widely-used plate model in which the SWM is assumed to consist of multiple thin rectangular channels. However, physical parameters that should in principle be model-independent, such as membrane permeability, are found to differ significantly depending on which model is used, when the same data sets are used for parameter estimation. Conversely, when using the same physical parameter values in both models, the water recovery predicted by the plate-like model is 12–20% higher than that predicted by the spiral model. This discrepancy is due to differences in the description of geometric features, in particular the active membrane area and the variable channel heights through the module, which impact on predicted performance and energy consumption. A number of design variables – the number of membrane leaves, membrane dimensions, centre pipe radius and the height of feed and permeate channels – are varied and their effects on performance, energy consumption and calculated module size are analysed. The proposed spiral model provides valuable insights into the effects of complex geometry on the performance of the SWM as well as of the overall system, at a low computational cost.

Journal article

Mazlan NM, Marchetti P, Maples HA, Gu B, Karan S, Bismarck A, Livingston AGet al., 2016, Organic fouling behaviour of structurally and chemically different forward osmosis membranes – A study of cellulose triacetate and thin film composite membranes, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol: 520, Pages: 247-261, ISSN: 0376-7388

The HTI cellulose triacetate (CTA) and novel thin film composite (TFC) membranes are used to study the multifaceted interactions involved in the fouling and cleaning of forward osmosis (FO) membranes, using calcium alginate as a model foulant. Results show that fouling on the TFC membrane was more significant compared to CTA, arising from a variety of factors associated with surface chemistry, membrane morphology and structural properties. Interestingly, it was observed that in FO mode, membrane surface properties dominated over fouling layer properties in determining fouling behaviour, with some surface properties (e.g. surface roughness) having a greater effect on fouling than others (e.g. surface hydrophilicity). In pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode, structural properties of the support played a more dominant role whereby fouling mechanism was specific to the foulant size and aggregation as well as the support pore size relative to the foulant. Whilst pore clogging was observed in the TFC membrane due to its highly asymmetric and porous support structure, fouling occurred as a surface phenomenon on the CTA membrane support layer. Besides pore clogging, the severe fouling observed on the TFC membrane in PRO mode was due to a high specific mass of foulant adsorbed in its porous support. It was observed that a trade-off between enhanced membrane performance and fouling mitigation is apparent in these membranes, with both membranes providing improvement in one aspect at the expense of the other. Hence, significant developments in their surface and structural properties are needed to achieve high anti-fouling properties without compromising flux performance. Measured fouling densities on the studied surfaces suggest that there is not a strong correlation between foulant-membrane interaction and fouling density. Cleaning results suggest that physical cleaning was more efficient on the CTA membrane compared to the TFC membrane. Further, they implied that despite diff

Journal article

Gu B, Adjiman C, Xu Y, 2014, An integrated model of a spiral-wound membrane module for reverse osmosis considering the effects of winding and spacers, Pages: 566-568

Conference paper

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