7 results found
Doyle YG, Solomon BD, Owusu G, 2022, Cities and global health: fragmented housing policies increase health risks for vulnerable people., BMJ, Vol: 379, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 1759-2151
Baumgartner J, Rodriguez J, Berkhout F, et al., 2022, Synthesizing the links between secure housing tenure and health for more equitable cities, Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 18-18
<ns4:p>Millions of households in rich and poor countries alike are at risk of being unwilfully displaced from their homes or the land on which they live (i.e., lack secure tenure), and the urban poor are most vulnerable. Improving housing tenure security may be an intervention to improve housing and environmental conditions and reduce urban health inequalities. Building on stakeholder workshops and a narrative review of the literature, we developed a conceptual model that infers the mechanisms through which more secure housing tenure can improve housing, environmental quality, and health. Empirical studies show that more secure urban housing tenure can boost economic mobility, improve housing and environmental conditions including reduced exposure to pollution, create safer and more resourced communities, and improve physical and mental health. These links are shared across tenure renters and owners and different economic settings. Broader support is needed for context-appropriate policies and actions to improve tenure security as a catalyst for cultivating healthier homes and neighbourhoods and reducing urban health inequalities in cities.</ns4:p>
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration NCD-RisC, Iurilli N, 2021, Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body-mass index to change in obesity and underweight, eLife, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2050-084X
From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
Osibona O, Solomon B, Fecht D, 2021, Lighting in the home and health: a systematic review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1660-4601
Poor housing is an important determinant of poor health. One key aspect of housing quality is lighting. Light is important for visual performance and safety, and also plays a vital role in regulating human physiological functions. This review aims to synthesise existing evidence on the relationship between lighting in the home and health and recommends areas for future research. Three databases were searched for relevant literature using pre-defined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Extracted data were qualitatively synthesised according to type of lighting (natural light, artificial light and light at night) and stratified by broad health domains (physical, mental and sleep health). Of the 4043 records retrieved, 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. There was considerable heterogeneity in light exposure metrics used and specific health outcome assessed by the studies. Lighting in the home can negatively affect health but the current evidence base is limited to a small number of studies in different domains of light and health. Further research surrounding specific health outcomes is required to better inform housing quality assessments and lighting practises in the home.
Zhou B, Carrillo-Larco RM, Danaei G, et al., 2021, Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 957-980, ISSN: 0140-6736
Bixby H, Bentham J, Zhou B, et al., 2019, Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic, Nature, Vol: 569, Pages: 260-264, ISSN: 0028-0836
Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
Morse LR, Xu Y, Solomon B, et al., 2011, Severe Spinal Cord Injury Causes Immediate Multi-cellular Dysfunction at the Chondro-Osseous Junction, Translational Stroke Research, Vol: 2, Pages: 643-650, ISSN: 1868-4483
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