Imperial College London

Dr Sauer

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Professor of Physics
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7868ben.sauer Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Miss Sanja Maricic +44 (0)20 7594 7742

 
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Location

 

213Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

81 results found

Barontini G, Blackburn L, Boyer V, Butuc-Mayer F, Calmet X, Lopez-Urrutia JRC, Curtis EA, Darquie B, Dunningham J, Fitch NJ, Forgan EM, Georgiou K, Gill P, Godun RM, Goldwin J, Guarrera V, Harwood A, Hill IR, Hendricks RJ, Jeong M, Johnson MYH, Keller M, Sajith LPK, Kuipers F, Margolis HS, Mayo C, Newman P, Parsons AO, Prokhorov L, Robertson BI, Rodewald J, Safronova MS, Sauer BE, Schioppo M, Sherrill N, Stadnik YV, Szymaniec K, Tarbutt MR, Thompson RC, Tofful A, Tunesi J, Vecchio A, Wang Y, Worm Set al., 2021, Measuring the stability of fundamental constants with a network of clocks, Publisher: arXiv

The detection of variations of fundamental constants of the Standard Modelwould provide us with compelling evidence of new physics, and could lift theveil on the nature of dark matter and dark energy. In this work, we discuss howa network of atomic and molecular clocks can be used to look for suchvariations with unprecedented sensitivity over a wide range of time scales.This is precisely the goal of the recently launched QSNET project: A network ofclocks for measuring the stability of fundamental constants. QSNET will includestate-of-the-art atomic clocks, but will also develop next-generation molecularand highly charged ion clocks with enhanced sensitivity to variations offundamental constants. We describe the technological and scientific aims ofQSNET and evaluate its expected performance. We show that in the range ofparameters probed by QSNET, either we will discover new physics, or we willimpose new constraints on violations of fundamental symmetries and a range oftheories beyond the Standard Model, including dark matter and dark energymodels.

Working paper

Barontini G, Boyer V, Calmet X, Fitch NJ, Forgan EM, Godun RM, Goldwin J, Guarrera V, Hill IR, Jeong M, Keller M, Juipers F, Margolis HS, Newman P, Prokhorov L, Rodewald J, Sauer BE, Schioppo M, Sherrill N, Tarbutt MR, Vecchio A, Worm Set al., 2021, QSNET, a network of clock for measuring the stability of fundamental constants, Proceedings Volume 11881, Quantum Technology: Driving Commercialisation of an Enabling Science II, Publisher: SPIE, Pages: 1-4

The QSNET consortium is building a UK network of next-generation atomic and molecular clocks that will achieve unprecedented sensitivity in testing variations of the fine structure constant, α, and the electron-to-proton mass ratio, μ. This in turn will provide more stringent constraints on a wide range of fundamental and phenomenological theories beyond the Standard Model and on dark matter models.

Conference paper

Alauze X, Lim J, Trigatzis MA, Swarbrick S, Collings FJ, Fitch NJ, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2021, An ultracold molecular beam for testing fundamental physics, QUANTUM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2058-9565

Journal article

Jurgilas S, Chakraborty A, Rich C, Sauer B, Frye MD, Hutson JM, Tarbutt Met al., 2021, Collisions in a dual-species magneto-optical trap of molecules and atoms, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1367-2630

We study inelastic collisions between CaF molecules and ⁸⁷Rb atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap. The presence of atoms increases the loss rate of molecules from the trap. By measuring the loss rates and density distributions, we determine a collisional loss rate coefficient k₂ = (1.43 ± 0.29) × 10‾¹⁰cm³/s at a temperature of 2.4 mK. We show that this is not substantially changed by light-induced collisions or by varying the populations of excited-state atoms and molecules. The observed loss rate is close to the universal rate expected in the presence of fast loss at short range, and can be explained by rotation-changing collisions in the ground electronic state.

Journal article

Jurgilas S, Chakraborty A, Rich CJH, Caldwell L, Williams HJ, Fitch NJ, Sauer BE, Frye MD, Hutson JM, Tarbutt MRet al., 2021, Collisions between Ultracold Molecules and Atoms in a Magnetic Trap, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007

Journal article

Fitch NJ, Lim J, Hinds EA, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2021, Methods for measuring the electron's electric dipole moment using ultracold YbF molecules, QUANTUM SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2058-9565

Journal article

Ho C, Devlin JA, Rabey I, Yzombard P, Lim J, Wright S, Fitch N, Hinds EA, Tarbutt MR, Sauer BEet al., 2020, New techniques for a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1367-2630

The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) can be measured with high precision using heavy polar molecules. In this paper, we report on a series of new techniques that have improved the statistical sensitivity of the YbF eEDM experiment. We increase the number of molecules participating in the experiment by an order of magnitude using a carefully designed optical pumping scheme. We also increase the detection efficiency of these molecules by another order of magnitude using an optical cycling scheme. In addition, we show how to destabilise dark states and reduce backgrounds that otherwise limit the efficiency of these techniques. Together, these improvements allow us to demonstrate a statistical sensitivity of 1.8 x 10⁻²⁸ e cm after one day of measurement, which is 1.2 times the shot-noise limit. The techniques presented here are applicable to other high-precision measurements using molecules.

Journal article

Badurina L, Bentine E, Blas D, Bongs K, Bortoletto D, Bowcock T, Bridges K, Bowden W, Buchmueller O, Burrage C, Coleman J, Elertas G, Ellis J, Foot C, Gibson V, Haehnelt MG, Harte T, Hedges S, Hobson R, Holynski M, Jones T, Langlois M, Lellouch S, Lewicki M, Maiolino R, Majewski P, Malik S, March-Russell J, McCabe C, Newbold D, Sauer B, Schneider U, Shipsey I, Singh Y, Uchida MA, Valenzuela T, van der Grinten M, Vaskonen V, Vossebeld J, Weatherill D, Wilmut Iet al., 2020, AION: an atom interferometer observatory and network, JOURNAL OF COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS, ISSN: 1475-7516

Journal article

Ho C, Devlin J, Rabey I, Yzombard P, Lim J, Wright S, Fitch N, Hinds E, Tarbutt M, Sauer Bet al., 2020, New techniques for a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment, New Journal of Physics, ISSN: 1367-2630

The electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) can be measured with high precision using heavy polar molecules. In this paper, we report on a series of new techniques that have improved the statistical sensitivity of the YbF eEDM experiment. We increase the number of molecules participating in the experiment by an order of magnitude using a carefully designed optical pumping scheme. We also increase the detection efficiency of these molecules by another order of magnitude using an optical cycling scheme. In addition, we show how to destabilise dark states and reduce backgrounds that otherwise limit the efficiency of these techniques. Together, these improvements allow us to demonstrate a statistical sensitivity of 1.8 x 10⁻²⁸ e cm after one day of measurement, which is 1.2 times the shot-noise limit. The techniques presented here are applicable to other high-precision measurements using molecules.

Journal article

Caldwell L, Williams H, Fitch N, Aldegunde J, Hutson J, Sauer B, Tarbutt Met al., 2020, Long rotational coherence times of molecules in a magnetic trap, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 124, ISSN: 0031-9007

Polar molecules in superpositions of rotational states exhibit long-range dipolar interactions, but maintaining their coherence in a trapped sample is a challenge. We present calculations that show many laser-coolable molecules have convenient rotational transitions that are exceptionally insensitive to magnetic fi elds. We verify this experimentally for CaF where we find a transition with sensitivity below 5 HzG‾¹ and use it to demonstrate a rotational coherence time of 6.4(8) ms in a magnetic trap. Simulations suggest it is feasible to extend this to > 1 s using a smaller cloud in abiased magnetic trap.

Journal article

Caldwell L, Devlin J, Williams H, Fitch N, Hinds E, Sauer B, Tarbutt Met al., 2019, Deep Laser Cooling and Efficient Magnetic Compression of Molecules, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 123, ISSN: 0031-9007

We introduce a scheme for deep laser cooling of molecules based on robust dark states at zero velocity. By simulating this scheme, we show it to be a widely applicable method that can reach the recoil limit or below. We demonstrate and characterise the method experimentally, reachinga temperature of 5.4(7) μK. We solve a general problem of measuring low temperatures for large clouds by rotating the phase-space distribution and then directly imaging the complete velocity distribution. Using the same phase-space rotation method, we rapidly compress the cloud. Applying the cooling method a second time, we compress both the position and velocity distributions.

Journal article

Cournol A, Manceau M, Pierens M, Lecordier L, Tran DBA, Santagata R, Argence B, Goncharov A, Lopez O, Abgrall M, Le Coq Y, Le Targat R, Martinez HA, Lee WK, Xu D, Pottie P-E, Hendricks RJ, Wall TE, Bieniewska JM, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MR, Amy-Klein A, Tokunaga SK, Darquie Bet al., 2019, A new experiment to test parity symmetry in cold chiral molecules using vibrational spectroscopy, QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, Vol: 49, Pages: 288-292, ISSN: 1063-7818

Journal article

Blackmore JA, Caldwell L, Gregory PD, Bridge EM, Sawant R, Aldegunde J, Mur-Petit J, Jaksch D, Hutson JM, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MR, Cornish SLet al., 2019, Ultracold molecules for quantum simulation: rotational coherences in CaF and RbCs, Quantum Science and Technology, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2058-9565

Polar molecules offer a new platform for quantum simulation of systems with long-range interactions, based on the electrostatic interaction between their electric dipole moments. Here, we report the development of coherent quantum state control using microwave fields in 40Ca19F and 87Rb133Cs molecules, a crucial ingredient for many quantum simulation applications. We perform Ramsey interferometry measurements with fringe spacings of ~1 kHz and investigate the dephasing time of a superposition of N = 0 and N = 1 rotational states when the molecules are confined. For both molecules, we show that a judicious choice of molecular hyperfine states minimises the impact of spatially varying transition-frequency shifts across the trap. For magnetically trapped 40Ca19F we use a magnetically insensitive transition and observe a coherence time of 0.61(3) ms. For optically trapped 87Rb133Cs we exploit an avoided crossing in the AC Stark shifts and observe a maximum coherence time of 0.75(6) ms.

Journal article

Jarvis K, Sauer B, Tarbutt M, 2018, Characteristics of unconventional Rb magneto-optical traps, Physical Review A, Vol: 98, ISSN: 1050-2947

We study several new magneto-optical trapping configurations in ⁸⁷Rb. These unconventional MOTs all use type-II transitions, where the angular momentum of the ground state is greater than or equal to that of the excited state. Some use red-detuned light, and others blue-detuned light. The properties of these MOTs are strongly influenced by the balance between opposing Doppler and Sisyphus forces, and vary widely from one configuration to another. In the blue-detuned MOT, Sisyphus cooling dominates over Doppler heating for all relevant speeds and magnetic fields. We measure the capture velocity of this MOT as a function of intensity and detuning, finding a maximum of 3.8 ± 0.1 m/s. Atomic densities are particularly high in the blue-detuned MOT, and its lifetime is limited by collisions between the trapped atoms. We present measurements of the loss rate due to these ultracold collisions as a function of laser intensity and detuning. In the red-detuned MOTs, Sisyphus heating dominates at low speeds and Doppler cooling at higher speeds. Consequently, temperatures in the red-detuned MOTs are up to a thousand times higher than in the blue-detuned MOTs. One MOT forms large ring structures, with no density at the centre, showing how atoms driven towards a non-zero equilibrium speed remain trapped by orbiting around the centre. Another MOT demonstrates that magnetic mixing of the excited-state hyperfine levels can be an important mechanism in type-II MOTs.

Journal article

Williams HJ, Caldwell L, Fitch NJ, Truppe S, Rodewald J, Hinds EA, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2018, Magnetic trapping and coherent control of laser-cooled molecules, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 120, ISSN: 0031-9007

We demonstrate coherent microwave control of the rotational, hyperfine and Zeeman states of ultracold CaF molecules, and the magnetic trapping of these molecules in a single, selectable quantum state. We trap about 5 X 10³ molecules for almost 2s at a temperature of 70(8) μK and a density of 1.2 X 10⁵ cm⁻³. We measure the state-specific loss rate due to collisions with background helium.

Journal article

Lim J, Almond J, Trigatzis M, Devlin J, Fitch N, Sauer B, Tarbutt M, Hinds Eet al., 2018, Laser cooled YbF molecules for measuring the electron's electric dipole moment, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 120, ISSN: 0031-9007

We demonstrate one-dimensional sub-Doppler laser cooling of a beam of YbF molecules to 100 μK. This is a key step towards a measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment using ultracold molecules. We compare the effectiveness of magnetically-assisted and polarization-gradient sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms. We model the experiment and fi nd good agreement with our data.

Journal article

Jarvis KN, Devlin JA, Wall TE, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2018, Blue-detuned magneto-optical trap, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 120, ISSN: 0031-9007

We present the properties and advantages of a new magneto-optical trap (MOT) where blue- detuned light drives ‘type-II’ transitions that have dark ground states. Using ⁸⁷Rb, we reach a radiation-pressure-limited density exceeding 10¹¹ cm⁻³ and a temperature below 30 μK. The phase-space density is higher than in normal atomic MOTs, and a million times higher than comparable red-detuned type-II MOTs, making the blue-detuned MOT particularly attractive for molecular MOTs which rely on type-II transitions. The loss of atoms from the trap is dominated by ultracold collisions between Rb atoms. For typical trapping conditions, we measure a loss rate of 1.8(4) × 10⁻¹⁰ cm³ s⁻¹.

Journal article

Truppe S, Williams HJ, Hambach M, Caldwell L, Fitch NJ, Hinds EA, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2017, Molecules cooled below the Doppler limit, Nature Physics, Vol: 13, Pages: 1173-1176, ISSN: 1745-2473

The ability to cool atoms below the Doppler limit -- the minimum temperaturereachable by Doppler cooling -- has been essential to most experiments withquantum degenerate gases, optical lattices and atomic fountains, among manyother applications. A broad set of new applications await ultracold molecules,and the extension of laser cooling to molecules has begun. A molecularmagneto-optical trap has been demonstrated, where molecules approached theDoppler limit. However, the sub-Doppler temperatures required for mostapplications have not yet been reached. Here we cool molecules to 50 uK, wellbelow the Doppler limit, using a three-dimensional optical molasses. Theseultracold molecules could be loaded into optical tweezers to trap arbitraryarrays for quantum simulation, launched into a molecular fountain for testingfundamental physics, and used to study ultracold collisions and ultracoldchemistry.

Journal article

Williams H, Truppe S, Hambach M, Caldwell L, Fitch N, Hinds E, Sauer B, Tarbutt Met al., 2017, Characteristics of a magneto-optical trap of molecules, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1367-2630

We present the properties of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of CaFmolecules. We study the process of loading the MOT from a decelerated bu er-gas-cooled beam, and how best to slow this molecular beam in order to capture the most molecules. We determine how the number of molecules, the photon scattering rate, the oscillation frequency, damping constant, temperature, cloud size and lifetime depend on the key parameters of the MOT, especially the intensity and detuning of the main cooling laser. We compare our results to analytical and numerical models, to the properties of standard atomic MOTs, and to MOTs of SrF molecules. We load up to 2 x 10⁴ molecules, and measure a maximum scattering rate of 2.5 x 10⁶ s⁻¹ per molecule, a maximum oscillation frequency of 100 Hz, a maximum damping constant of 500 s⁻¹, and a minimum MOT rms radius of 1.5 mm. A minimum temperature of 730 μK is obtained by ramping down the laser intensity to low values. The lifetime, typically about 100 ms, is consistent with a leak out of the cooling cycle with a branching ratio of about 6 x 10⁻⁶. The MOT has a capture velocity of about 11 m/s.

Journal article

Truppe S, Hambach M, Skoff S, Bulleid N, Bumby J, Hendricks RJ, Hinds EA, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2017, A buffer gas beam source for short, intense and slow molecular pulses, Journal of Modern Optics, Vol: 65, Pages: 246-254, ISSN: 0950-0340

Experiments with cold molecules usually begin with a molecular source. We describe the construction and characteristics of a cryogenic buff er gas source of CaF molecules. The source emits pulses with a typical duration of 240 μs, a mean speed of about 150 m/s, and a flux of 5x 10¹⁰ molecules per steradian per pulse in a single rotational state.

Journal article

Sauer BE, Devlin JA, Rabey IM, 2017, A big measurement of a small moment, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1367-2630

A beam of ThO molecules has been used to make the most precise measurement of the electron's electric dipole moment (EDM) to date. In their recent paper, the ACME collaboration set out in detail their experimental and data analysis techniques. In a tour-de-force, they explain the many ways in which their apparatus can produce a signal which mimics the EDM and show how these systematic effects are measured and controlled.

Journal article

Truppe S, Williams HJ, Fitch NJ, Hambach M, Wall TE, Hinds EA, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2017, An intense, cold, velocity-controlled molecular beam by frequency-chirped laser slowing, NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1367-2630

Using frequency-chirped radiation pressure slowing, we precisely control the velocity of a pulsed CaF molecular beam down to a few m s–1, compressing its velocity spread by a factor of 10 while retaining high intensity: at a velocity of 15 m s–1 the flux, measured 1.3 m from the source, is 7 × 105 molecules per cm2 per shot in a single rovibrational state. The beam is suitable for loading a magneto-optical trap or, when combined with transverse laser cooling, improving the precision of spectroscopic measurements that test fundamental physics. We compare the frequency-chirped slowing method with the more commonly used frequency-broadened slowing method.

Journal article

Rabey IM, Devlin JA, Hinds EA, Sauer BEet al., 2016, Low magnetic Johnson noise electric field plates for precision measurement, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol: 87, ISSN: 1089-7623

We describe a parallel pair of high voltage electric field plates designed and constructed to minimise magnetic Johnson noise. They are formed by laminating glass substrates with commercially available polyimide (Kapton) tape, covered with a thin gold film. Tested in vacuum, the outgassing rate is less than 5 x 10 exp(-5) mbar.l/s. The plates have been operated at electric fields up to 8.3 kV/cm, when the leakage current is at most a few hundred pA. The design is discussed in the context of a molecular spin precession experiment to measure the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron.

Journal article

Dunseith DP, Truppe S, Hendricks RJ, Sauer BE, Hinds EA, Tarbutt MRet al., 2015, A high quality, efficiently coupled microwave cavity for trapping cold molecules, Journal of Physics B - Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 48, ISSN: 0953-4075

Journal article

Hendricks RJ, Holland DA, Truppe S, Sauer BE, Tarbutt MRet al., 2014, Vibrational branching ratios and hyperfine structure of 11BH and its suitability for laser cooling, Frontiers in Physics, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2296-424X

The simple structure of the BH molecule makes it an excellent candidate for direct laser cooling. We measure the branching ratios for the decay of the A1Π (v′ = 0) state to vibrational levels of the ground state, X1Σ+, and find that they are exceedingly favorable for laser cooling. We verify that the branching ratio for the spin-forbidden transition to the intermediate a3Π state is inconsequentially small. We measure the frequency of the lowest rotational transition of the X state, and the hyperfine structure in the relevant levels of both the X and A states, and determine the nuclear electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole coupling constants. Our results show that, with a relatively simple laser cooling scheme, a Zeeman slower and magneto-optical trap can be used to cool, slow and trap BH molecules.

Journal article

Zhelyazkova V, Cournol A, Wall TE, Matsushima A, Hudson JJ, Hinds EA, Tarbutt MR, Sauer BEet al., 2014, Laser cooling and slowing of CaF molecules, Physical Review A, Vol: 89, ISSN: 1094-1622

We demonstrate slowing and longitudinal cooling of a supersonic beam of CaF molecules using counterpropagating laser light resonant with a closed rotational and almost-closed vibrational transition. A group of molecules are decelerated by about 20 m/s by applying light of a fixed frequency for 1.8 ms. Their velocity spread is reduced, corresponding to a final temperature of about 300 mK. The velocity is further reduced by chirping the frequency of the light to keep it in resonance as the molecules slow down.

Journal article

Hudson JJ, Tarbutt MR, Sauer BE, Hinds EAet al., 2014, Stochastic multi-channel lock-in detection, NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1367-2630

Journal article

Bulleid NE, Skoff SM, Hendricks RJ, Sauer BE, Hinds EA, Tarbutt MRet al., 2013, Characterization of a cryogenic beam source for atoms and molecules, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

Journal article

Tarbutt MR, Sauer BE, Hudson JJ, 2013, Design for a fountain of YbF molecules to measure the electron's electric dipole moment, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 15

Journal article

Sauer BE, Devlin JA, Hudson JJ, Kara DM, Smallman IJ, Tarbutt MR, Hinds EAet al., 2013, Time reversal symmetry violation in the YbF molecule, HYPERFINE INTERACTIONS, Vol: 214, Pages: 119-126, ISSN: 0304-3843

Journal article

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