Imperial College London

DrBennyLo

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 0806benny.lo Website

 
 
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Location

 

B414BBessemer BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

202 results found

Berthelot ME, Yang GZ, Lo B, 2017, A self-calibrated tissue viability sensor for free flap monitoring, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol: 22, Pages: 5-14, ISSN: 2168-2194

In fasciocutaneous free flap surgery, close postoperative monitoring is crucial for detecting flap failure, as around 10% of cases require additional surgery due to compromised anastomosis. Different biochemical and biophysical techniques have been developed for continuous flap monitoring, however, they all have shortcoming in terms of reliability, elevated cost, potential risks to the patient and inability to adapt to the patient's phenotype. A wearable wireless device based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed for continuous blood flow and perfusion monitoring by quantifying tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). This miniaturized and low cost device is designed for postoperative monitoring of flap viability. With self-calibration, the device can adapt itself to the characteristics of the patients' skin such as tone and thickness. An extensive study was conducted with 32 volunteers. The experimental results show that the device can obtain reliable StO2 measurements across different phenotypes (age, sex, skin tone and thickness). To assess its ability to detect flap failure, the sensor was validated with an animal study. Free groin flaps were performed on 16 Sprague Dawley rats. Results demonstrate the accuracy of the sensor in assessing flap viability and identifying the origin of failure (venous or arterial thrombosis).

Journal article

Deligianni F, Wong CW, Lo B, Yang Get al., 2017, A fusion framework to estimate plantar ground force distributions and ankle dynamics, Information Fusion, Vol: 41, Pages: 255-263, ISSN: 1566-2535

Gait analysis plays an important role in several conditions, including the rehabilitation of patients with orthopaedic problems and the monitoring of neurological conditions, mental health problems and the well-being of elderly subjects. It also constitutes an index of good posture and thus it can be used to prevent injuries in athletes and monitor mental health in typical subjects. Usually, accurate gait analysis is based on the measurement of ankle dynamics and ground reaction forces. Therefore, it requires expensive multi-camera systems and pressure sensors, which cannot be easily employed in a free-living environment. We propose a fusion framework that uses an ear worn activity recognition (e-AR) sensor and a single video camera to estimate foot angle during key gait events. To this end we use canonical correlation analysis with a fused-lasso penalty in a two-steps approach that firstly learns a model of the timing distribution of ground reaction forces based on e-AR signal only and subsequently models the eversion/inversion as well as the dorsiflexion of the ankle based on the combined features of e-AR sensor and the video. The results show that incorporating invariant features of angular ankle information from the video recordings improves the estimation of the foot progression angle, substantially.

Journal article

Sun Y, Wong C, Yang GZ, Lo Bet al., 2017, Secure key generation using gait features for Body Sensor Networks, IEEE EMBS Annual International Body Sensor Networks Conference, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 206-210

With increasing popularity of wearable and Body Sensor Networks technologies, there is a growing concern on the security and data protection of such low-power pervasive devices. With very limited computational power, BSN sensors often cannot provide the necessary data protection to collect and process sensitive personal information. Since conventional network security schemes are too computationally demanding for miniaturized BSN sensors, new methods of securing BSNs have proposed, in which Biometric Cryptosystem (BCS) appears to be an effective solution. With regards to BCS security solutions, physiological traits, such as an individual's face, iris, fingerprint, electrocardiogram (ECG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) have been widely exploited. However, behavioural traits such as gait are rarely studied. In this paper, a novel lightweight symmetric key generation scheme based on the timing information of gait is proposed. By extracting similar timing information from gait acceleration signals simultaneously from body worn sensors, symmetric keys can be generated on all the sensor nodes at the same time. Based on the characteristics of generated keys and BSNs, a fuzzy commitment based key distribution scheme is also developed to distribute the keys amongst the sensor nodes.

Conference paper

Berthelot M, Yang GZ, Lo B, 2017, Preliminary study for hemodynamics monitoring using a wearable device network, Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 115-118

Blood flow, posture and phenotype (such as age, sex, smoking habit or physical activity) are closely related to vascular health. Episodic monitoring of the vascular system in clinical setting can lead to late diagnose. Inexpensive wearable devices for continuous monitoring of vascular parameters have been widely used, however, they often have limitations in data interpretation: changes in the environment setting can significantly affect the meaning of the results. This paper proposes a low cost networked body worn sensors for real-Time analysis of hemodynamics and reports preliminary results on the relation between blood flow (measured through pulse arrival time (PAT)), the effect of postures and age ranges based on experiments with 13 volunteers of different age ranges ( < 25 years old and > 50 years old). Standing, supine and sitting postures were investigated while photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensors were placed at different locations (ear, wrist and ankle). Results show the PAT changes according to the investigated locations and postures for both age group. Also, the average PAT values of the older group are generally higher than those of the younger group. In the older group, the average PAT value is higher for the supine posture than that of the sitting posture which is itself higher than that of the standing posture. In the younger group, the average PAT is higher in supine than that of the sitting and standing postures which have similar average PAT values. This indicates that hemodynamics vary with posture and age.

Conference paper

Deligianni F, Ravi D, Roots S, Rosa B, Sun Y, Wong C, Yang G-Z, Lo Bet al., Pervasive monitoring of mental health for preventing financial distress, Body Sensor Networks Conference (BSN’17), Publisher: IEEE

Mental health disorders are rankedamong the top twenty main causes of disability worldwide. It was found that thereis an intriguing relationship between mental health problems and financial difficulties.Current technology uses mobile apps for self-monitoring of mental health conditions with a potential to avoid debt crisis caused by mental illness. In this paper, we propose the use of a wearable sensor as an objective evaluation tool for monitoring the emotional well-being of the subject. By fusing the sensory data with financial data, an intelligent self-guard system is proposed for preventing excessive spending caused by mental condition.

Conference paper

Zhang R, Ravi D, Yang G-Z, Lo BENNYet al., A personalized air quality sensing system – a preliminary study on assessing the air quality of London Underground stations, Body Sensor Networks Conference (BSN’17), Publisher: IEEE

Recent studies have shown that air pollution has a negative impacton people’s health, especially for patients with respiratory and cardiac diseases (e.g. COPD, asthma, ischemic heart disease). Although there are already many air quality monitoring stations in major cities, such as London, these stations are sparsely located, and the periodic collection of information is insufficient to provide the granularity needed to assess the environmental risk for an individual (e.g. to avoid exacerbation). Wearable devices, on the other hand, are more suitable in this context, providing a better estimation of the air quality in the proximity of the person. Therefore, relevant warnings and information on health risks can be provided in real-time. As a proof of concept, we have developed a wearable sensor for continuous monitoring of air quality around the user, and a preliminarystudy was conducted to validate the sensor and assess the air quality in London underground stations. Based on the PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5μm), temperature and location information, a model is generated for predicting the air quality of each station at different times. Our preliminary results have shown that there are significant differences in air quality among stations and metro lines. It also demonstrates that wearable sensors can provide necessary information for users to make travel arrangements that minimize their exposure to polluted air.

Conference paper

Ravi D, Wong C, Lo B, Yang Get al., 2016, A deep learning approach to on-node sensor data analytics for mobile or wearable devices, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol: 21, Pages: 56-64, ISSN: 2168-2208

The increasing popularity of wearable devices inrecent years means that a diverse range of physiological and functionaldata can now be captured continuously for applicationsin sports, wellbeing, and healthcare. This wealth of informationrequires efficient methods of classification and analysis wheredeep learning is a promising technique for large-scale data analytics.Whilst deep learning has been successful in implementationsthat utilize high performance computing platforms, its use onlow-power wearable devices is limited by resource constraints.In this paper, we propose a deep learning methodology, whichcombines features learnt from inertial sensor data together withcomplementary information from a set of shallow features toenable accurate and real-time activity classification. The design ofthis combined method aims to overcome some of the limitationspresent in a typical deep learning framework where on-nodecomputation is required. To optimize the proposed method forreal-time on-node computation, spectral domain pre-processingis used before the data is passed onto the deep learning framework.The classification accuracy of our proposed deep learningapproach is evaluated against state-of-the-art methods using bothlaboratory and real world activity datasets. Our results show thevalidity of the approach on different human activity datasets,outperforming other methods, including the two methods usedwithin our combined pipeline. We also demonstrate that thecomputation times for the proposed method are consistent withthe constraints of real-time on-node processing on smartphonesand a wearable sensor platform.

Journal article

Zhang Y, Berthelot M, Lo BPL, 2016, Wireless Wearable Photoplethysmography Sensors for ContinuousBlood Pressure Monitoring, IEEE Wireless Health 2016, Publisher: IEEE

Blood Pressure (BP) is a crucial vital sign takeninto consideration for the general assessment of patient’s condition:patients with hypertension or hypotension are advisedto record their BP routinely. Particularly, hypertension isemphasized by stress, diabetic neuropathy and coronary heartdiseases and could lead to stroke. Therefore, routine andlong-term monitoring can enable early detection of symptomsand prevent life-threatening events. The gold standard methodfor measuring BP is the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometerto detect systolic and diastolic pressures. However,only discrete measurements are taken. To enable pervasiveand continuous monitoring of BP, recent methods have beenproposed: pulse arrival time (PAT) or PAT difference (PATD)between different body parts are based on the combinationof electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG)sensors. Nevertheless, this technique could be quite obtrusiveas in addition to at least two contacts/electrodes to measurethe differential voltage across the left arm/leg/chest and theright arm/leg/chest, ECG measurements are easily corruptedby motion artefacts. Although such devices are small, wearableand relatively convenient to use, most devices are not designedfor continuous BP measurements. This paper introduces anovel PPG-based pervasive sensing platform for continuousmeasurements of BP. Based on the principle of using PAT toestimate BP, two PPG sensors are used to measure the PATDbetween the earlobe and the wrist to measure BP. The device iscompared with a gold standard PPG sensor and validation ofthe concept is conducted with a preliminary study involving 9healthy subjects. Results show that the mean BP and PATD arecorrelated with a 0.3 factor. This preliminary study shows thefeasibility of continuous monitoring of BP using a pair of PPGplaced on the ear lobe and wrist with PATD measurements ispossible.

Conference paper

Wijayasingha L, Lo BPL, 2016, A Wearable Sensing Framework for Improving Personal and Oral Hygiene for People with Developmental Disabilities, IEEE Wireless Health 2016, Publisher: IEEE

People with developmental disabilities often facedifficulties in coping with daily activities and many requireconstant support. One of the major health issues for peoplewith developmental disabilities is personal hygiene. Many lackthe ability, poor memory or lack of attention to carry outnormal daily activities like brushing teeth and washing hands.Poor personal hygiene may result in increased susceptibility toinfection and other health issues. To enable independent livingand improve the quality of care for people with developmentalabilities, this paper proposes a new wearable sensingframework to monitoring personal hygiene. Based on asmartwatch, this framework is designed as a pervasivemonitoring and learning tool to provide detailed evaluation andfeedback to the user on hand washing and tooth brushing. Apreliminary study was conducted to assess the performance ofthe approach, and the results showed the reliability androbustness of the framework in quantifying and assessing handwashing and tooth brushing activities.

Conference paper

Ravi D, Wong C, Deligianni F, Berthelot M, Andreu-Perez J, Lo B, Yang Get al., Deep learning for health informatics, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol: 21, Pages: 4-21, ISSN: 2168-2208

With a massive influx of multimodality data, the roleof data analytics in health informatics has grown rapidly in thelast decade. This has also prompted increasing interests in thegeneration of analytical, data driven models based on machinelearning in health informatics. Deep learning, a technique withits foundation in artificial neural networks, is emerging in recentyears as a powerful tool for machine learning, promising toreshape the future of artificial intelligence. Rapid improvementsin computational power, fast data storage and parallelization havealso contributed to the rapid uptake of the technology in additionto its predictive power and ability to generate automaticallyoptimized high-level features and semantic interpretation fromthe input data. This article presents a comprehensive up-to-datereview of research employing deep learning in health informatics,providing a critical analysis of the relative merit and potentialpitfalls of the technique as well as its future outlook. The papermainly focuses on key applications of deep learning in the fields oftranslational bioinformatics, medical imaging, pervasive sensing,medical informatics and public health.

Journal article

Ding X-R, Zhao N, Yang G-Z, Pettigrew RI, Lo B, Miao F, Li Y, Liu J, Zhang Y-Tet al., 2016, Continuous blood pressure measurement from invasive to unobtrusive: celebration of 200th birth anniversary of Carl Ludwig, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol: 20, Pages: 1455-1465, ISSN: 2168-2208

The year 2016 marks the 200th birth anniversary of Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (1816-1895). As one of the most remarkable scientists, Ludwig invented the kymograph, which for the first time enabled the recording of continuous blood pressure (BP), opening the door to the modern study of physiology. Almost a century later, intraarterial BP monitoring through an arterial line has been used clinically. Subsequently, arterial tonometry and volume clamp method were developed and applied in continuous BP measurement in a noninvasive way. In the last two decades, additional efforts have been made to transform the method of unobtrusive continuous BP monitoring without the use of a cuff. This review summarizes the key milestones in continuous BP measurement; that is, kymograph, intraarterial BP monitoring, arterial tonometry, volume clamp method, and cuffless BP technologies. Our emphasis is on recent studies of unobtrusive BP measurements as well as on challenges and future directions.

Journal article

Chen S, Lach J, Lo B, Yang G-Zet al., 2016, Toward Pervasive Gait Analysis With Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review, IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, Vol: 20, Pages: 1521-1537, ISSN: 2168-2194

Journal article

Berthelot M, Chen C-M, Yang G-Z, Lo Bet al., 2016, Wireless wearable self-calibrated sensor for perfusion assessment of myocutaneous tissue, 13th IEEE International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 171-176, ISSN: 2376-8886

Abstract:Blood flow and perfusion monitoring are critical appraisal to ensure survival of tissue flap after reconstructive surgery. Many techniques have been developed over the years: from optical to chemical, invasive or not, they all have limitations in their price, risks and adaptiveness to the patient. A wireless wearable self-calibrated device, based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed for blood flow and perfusion monitoring contingent on tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). The use of such device is particularly relevant in the case of free flap myocutaneous reconstructive surgery; postoperative monitoring of the flap is crucial for a prompt intervention in case of thrombosis. Although failure rate is low, the rate of additional surgery following anastomosis problem is about 50%. NIRS has shown promising results for the monitoring of free flap, however lack of adaptation to its environment (ambient light) and users (body mass index (BMI), skin tone, alcohol and smoking habits or physical activity level) hinders the practical use of this technique. To overcome those limitations, a self-calibrated approach is introduced. Tested with is chaemia and cold water experiments on healthy subjects of different skin tones, its ability to personalize its calibration is demonstrated. Furthermore, using a vascular phantom, it is also able to detect pulses, differentiate venous and arterial coloured-like fluids with distinct clusters and detect significant changes in simulated partial venous occlusion. Placed in the trained classifier, partial occlusion data showed similar results between predicted and true classification. Further analysis from partial occlusion data showed that distinct clusters for 75% and 100% occlusion emerged.

Conference paper

Huen D, Liu J, Lo B, 2016, An integrated wearable robot for tremor suppression with context aware sensing, 13th IEEE International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 312-317, ISSN: 2376-8886

Abstract:Tremor is a neurological disorder which can significantly impede the daily functions of patients. The available treatments for patients with tremor are mainly pharmacotherapy and neurosurgery, but these treatments often have side effects. A wearable exoskeleton can potentially provide the assistance needed for patients with Parkinsonian or essential tremor to carry out daily activities and enable independent living. This paper presents the design and development of a 3D printed lightweight tremor suppression wearable exoskeleton. One of the major technical challenges for wearable robot is to maintain long battery life meanwhile miniature in size for practical use. This paper proposes an integrated approach where context aware Body Sensor Networks (BSN) sensors are incorporated to characterize voluntary and tremor movement, and detect activities of daily life (ADL). With the contextual information, the system can determine the intention of the user, optimize its control and minimize its power consumption by providing the necessary suppression only when needed. The preliminary result has shown that the wearable robot prototype can reduce the amplitude of simulated tremor by around 77%, and accurately identify different ADL with accuracy above 70%.

Conference paper

Ravi D, Wong C, Lo B, Yang GZet al., 2016, Deep learning for human activity recognition: A resource efficient implementation on low-power devices, 2016 IEEE 13th International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 71-76, ISSN: 2376-8894

Human Activity Recognition provides valuable contextual information for wellbeing, healthcare, and sport applications. Over the past decades, many machine learning approaches have been proposed to identify activities from inertial sensor data for specific applications. Most methods, however, are designed for offline processing rather than processing on the sensor node. In this paper, a human activity recognition technique based on a deep learning methodology is designed to enable accurate and real-time classification for low-power wearable devices. To obtain invariance against changes in sensor orientation, sensor placement, and in sensor acquisition rates, we design a feature generation process that is applied to the spectral domain of the inertial data. Specifically, the proposed method uses sums of temporal convolutions of the transformed input. Accuracy of the proposed approach is evaluated against the current state-of-the-art methods using both laboratory and real world activity datasets. A systematic analysis of the feature generation parameters and a comparison of activity recognition computation times on mobile devices and sensor nodes are also presented.

Conference paper

Lo BPL, Yang GZ, Merrifield R, 2016, A SENSING SYSTEM

The present disclosure relates to a system for detecting challenging behaviors, enabling a customizable learning experience, and providing context-aware, intelligent daily assistance for people with learning disabilities.In addition to general health problems, people with learning disabilities are known to have higher incidents of dementia, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal cancer, ADHD/hyperkinesis and conduct disorders, epilepsy, physical and sensory impairments, dysphagia, poor oral health, and tend to be prone to injuries, accidents and falls. Often due to the lack of expressive skills, people with learning disabilities are more likely to have undiagnosed long-term conditions and which leads to high risk of premature death. With the aim of improving the care of people with learning disabilities, a new wearable sensing system is provided which comprises a new miniaturized wearable sensor, for example that may be worn either as a wrist worn or ear worn sensor, and a seamlessly integrated mobile app that adapts to individual care needs.

Patent

Akay M, Coatrieux G, Hao Y, Fotiadis DI, Laine A, Lo B, Nikita KS, Noury N, Rodrigues J, Wang MDet al., 2016, Guest Editorial: MobiHealth 2014, IEEE HealthCom 2014, and IEEE BHI 2014, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, Vol: 20, Pages: 731-732, ISSN: 2168-2208

The papers in this special section were presented at three well-known conferences organized in 2014: EAI Mobihealth, IEEE HealthCom, and IEEE Biomedical and Health Informatics. EAI Mobihealth is an annually organized conference, which started in 2010, to address the demands of the rapidly evolving disciplines of wireless communications, mobile computing, and sensing technologies in healthcare. The IEEE-Healthcom is held every year since 1999 in different countries in Asia, Europe, and in America. It aims at bringing together interested parties working in the field of healthcare to exchange ideas, discuss innovative and emerging solutions, and develop collaborations. The IEEE Biomedical Health Informatics Conference started in 2013 and is organized every year providing the forum to showcase enabling technologies of computing, devices, imaging, sensors, and systems that optimize the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval, visualization, and analysis of medical data. The aim of this special section is to present an overview of recent advances in sensing technologies, monitoring of patients, security and privacy of data transfer, provision of collaborative environments, data gathering and analysis from various sources, and predictive models, which all finally target the best strategy for patient monitoring and treatment.

Journal article

Lo BPL, Ip H, Yang G-Z, 2016, Transforming health care: body sensor networks, wearables, and the Internet of Things, IEEE Pulse, Vol: 7, Pages: 4-8, ISSN: 2154-2287

This paper talks about body sensor networks, wearables, and the Internet of Things.

Journal article

Jarchi D, Peters A, Lo B, Kalliolia E, Di Giulio I, Limousin P, Day BL, Yang GZet al., 2016, Assessment of the e-AR sensor for gait analysis of Parkinson;s Disease patients, 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2376-8886

This paper analyses gait patterns of patients with Parkinson;s Disease (PD) based on the acceleration data given by an e-AR sensor. Ten PD patients wearing the e-AR sensor walked along a 7m walkway and each session contained 16 repeated trials. An iterative algorithm has been proposed to produce robust estimations in the case of measurement noise and short-duration of gait signals. Step-frequency as a gait parameter derived from the estimated heel-contacts is calculated and validated using the CODA motion-capture system. Intersession variability of step-frequency for each patient and the overall variability across patients demonstrate a good agreement between estimations from the e-AR and CODA systems.

Conference paper

Jarchi D, Lo B, Wong C, Ieong E, Nathwani D, Yang GZet al., 2015, Gait Analysis From a Single Ear-Worn Sensor: Reliability and Clinical Evaluation for Orthopaedic Patients, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol: 24, Pages: 882-892, ISSN: 1558-0210

Objective assessment of detailed gait patterns after orthopaedic surgery is important for post-surgical follow-up and rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a single ear-worn sensor for clinical gait analysis. A reliability measure is devised for indicating the confidence level of the estimated gait events, allowing it to be used in free-walking environments and for facilitating clinical assessment of orthopaedic patients after surgery. Patient groups prior to or following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and knee replacement were recruited to assess the proposed method. The ability of the sensor for detailed longitudinal analysis is demonstrated with a group of patients after lower limb reconstruction by considering parameters such as temporal and force-related gait asymmetry derived from gait events. The results suggest that the ear-worn sensor can be used for objective gait assessments of orthopaedic patients without the requirement and expense of an elaborate laboratory setup for gait analysis. It significantly simplifies the monitoring protocol and opens the possibilities for home-based remote patient assessment.

Journal article

Cola G, Avvenuti M, Vecchio A, Yang G-Z, Lo Bet al., 2015, An on-node processing approach for anomaly detection in gait, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol: 15, Pages: 6640-6649, ISSN: 1558-1748

Journal article

Kwasnicki RM, Hettiaratchy S, Okogbaa J, Lo B, Yang G-Z, Darzi Aet al., 2015, Return of functional mobility after an open tibial fracture a sensor-based longitudinal cohort study using the Hamlyn Mobility Score, Bone and Joint Journal, Vol: 97B, Pages: 1118-1125, ISSN: 2049-4394

In this study we quantified and characterised the return of functional mobility following open tibial fracture using the Hamlyn Mobility Score. A total of 20 patients who had undergone reconstruction following this fracture were reviewed at three-month intervals for one year. An ear-worn movement sensor was used to assess their mobility and gait. The Hamlyn Mobility Score and its constituent kinematic features were calculated longitudinally, allowing analysis of mobility during recovery and between patients with varying grades of fracture. The mean score improved throughout the study period. Patients with more severe fractures recovered at a slower rate; those with a grade I Gustilo-Anderson fracture completing most of their recovery within three months, those with a grade II fracture within six months and those with a grade III fracture within nine months.Analysis of gait showed that the quality of walking continued to improve up to 12 months post-operatively, whereas the capacity to walk, as measured by the six-minute walking test, plateaued after six months.Late complications occurred in two patients, in whom the trajectory of recovery deviated by > 0.5 standard deviations below that of the remaining patients. This is the first objective, longitudinal assessment of functional recovery in patients with an open tibial fracture, providing some clarification of the differences in prognosis and recovery associated with different grades of fracture.

Journal article

Kirby GSJ, Guyver P, Strickland L, Alvand A, Yang G-Z, Hargrove C, Lo BPL, Rees JLet al., 2015, Assessing arthroscopic skills using wireless elbow-worn motion sensors, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, Vol: 97A, Pages: 1119-1127, ISSN: 1535-1386

Background: Assessment of surgical skill is a critical component of surgical training. Approaches to assessment remain predominantly subjective, although more objective measures such as Global Rating Scales are in use. This study aimed to validate the use of elbow-worn, wireless, miniaturized motion sensors to assess the technical skill of trainees performing arthroscopic procedures in a simulated environment.Methods: Thirty participants were divided into three groups on the basis of their surgical experience: novices (n = 15), intermediates (n = 10), and experts (n = 5). All participants performed three standardized tasks on an arthroscopic virtual reality simulator while wearing wireless wrist and elbow motion sensors. Video output was recorded and a validated Global Rating Scale was used to assess performance; dexterity metrics were recorded from the simulator. Finally, live motion data were recorded via Bluetooth from the wireless wrist and elbow motion sensors and custom algorithms produced an arthroscopic performance score.Results: Construct validity was demonstrated for all tasks, with Global Rating Scale scores and virtual reality output metrics showing significant differences between novices, intermediates, and experts (p < 0.001). The correlation of the virtual reality path length to the number of hand movements calculated from the wireless sensors was very high (p < 0.001). A comparison of the arthroscopic performance score levels with virtual reality output metrics also showed highly significant differences (p < 0.01). Comparisons of the arthroscopic performance score levels with the Global Rating Scale scores showed strong and highly significant correlations (p < 0.001) for both sensor locations, but those of the elbow-worn sensors were stronger and more significant (p < 0.001) than those of the wrist-worn sensors.Conclusions: A new wireless assessment of surgical performance system for objective assessment of surgical skills has proven v

Journal article

Gaglione A, Chen S, Lo B, Yang GZet al., 2015, A Low-Power Opportunistic Communication Protocol for Wearable Applications, 12th IEEE International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), Publisher: To appear

Recent trends in wearable applications demandflexible architectures being able to monitor people while theymove in free-living environments. Current solutions use eitherstore-download-offline processing or simple communicationschemes with real-time streaming of sensor data. This limits theapplicability of wearable applications to controlled environments(e.g, clinics, homes, or laboratories), because they need tomaintain connectivity with the base station throughout themonitoring process. In this paper, we present the design andimplementation of an opportunistic communication frameworkthat simplifies the general use of wearable devices in free-livingenvironments. It relies on a low-power data collection protocolthat allows the end user to opportunistically, yet seamlesslymanage the transmission of sensor data. We validate thefeasibility of the framework by demonstrating its use forswimming, where the normal wireless communication isconstantly interfered by the environment.

Conference paper

Lo BPL, Chen CM, Yang GZ, 2015, A Multiple PPG sensing platform

Patent

Teachasrisaksakul K, Zhang Z-Q, Yang G-Z, Lo Bet al., 2015, Imitation of Dynamic Walking With BSN for Humanoid Robot, IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, Vol: 19, Pages: 794-802, ISSN: 2168-2194

Journal article

Ravi D, Lo B, Yang G, Real-time food intake classification and energy expenditure estimation on a mobile device, BSN 2015, Publisher: IEEE

Assessment of food intake has a wide range ofapplications in public health and life-style related chronic dis-ease management. In this paper, we propose a real-time foodrecognition platform combined with daily activity and energyexpenditure estimation. In the proposed method, food recognitionis based on hierarchical classification using multiple visual cues,supported by efficient software implementation suitable for real-time mobile device execution. A Fischer Vector representationtogether with a set of linear classifiers are used to categorizefood intake. Daily energy expenditure estimation is achieved byusing the built-in inertial motion sensors of the mobile device.The performance of the vision-based food recognition algorithmis compared to the current state-of-the-art, showing improvedaccuracy and high computational efficiency suitable for real-time feedback. Detailed user studies have also been performed todemonstrate the practical value of the software environment.

Conference paper

Wong C, Zhang Z-Q, Lo B, Yang G-Zet al., 2015, Wearable Sensing for Solid Biomechanics: A Review, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol: 15, Pages: 2747-2760, ISSN: 1558-1748

Abstract:Understanding the solid biomechanics of the human body is important to the study of structure and function of the body, which can have a range of applications in health care, sport, well-being, and workflow analysis. Conventional laboratory-based biomechanical analysis systems and observation-based tests are designed only to capture brief snapshots of the mechanics of movement. With recent developments in wearable sensing technologies, biomechanical analysis can be conducted in less-constrained environments, thus allowing continuous monitoring and analysis beyond laboratory settings. In this paper, we review the current research in wearable sensing technologies for biomechanical analysis, focusing on sensing and analytics that enable continuous, long-term monitoring of kinematics and kinetics in a free-living environment. The main technical challenges, including measurement drift, external interferences, nonlinear sensor properties, sensor placement, and muscle variations, that can affect the accuracy and robustness of existing methods and different methods for reducing the impact of these sources of errors are described in this paper. Recent developments in motion estimation in kinematics, mobile force sensing in kinematics, sensor reduction for electromyography, and the future direction of sensing for biomechanics are also discussed.

Journal article

Nikita K, Bourbakis N, Lo B, Fotiadis D, Hao Y, Kiourti Aet al., 2015, 4th international conference on wireless mobile communication and healthcare - MOBIHEALTH 2014, Pages: xii-xv

Conference paper

Cola G, Avvenuti M, Vecchio A, Yang G-Z, Lo Bet al., 2015, An Unsupervised Approach for Gait-based Authentication, IEEE 12th International Conference on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

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