Imperial College London

Dr Billy Wu

Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 6385billy.wu Website




Dyson BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Dr. Billy Wu is a senior lecturer at Imperial College London in the Dyson School of Design Engineering where he works on electrochemical devices and manufacturing. Within the School he is the part of the Energy Technologies and Systems theme and also jointly leads the Electrochemical Science and Engineering group. He is on the editorial board of Scientific Reports and the Journal of Power and Energy and also co-leads the Imperial College London Additive Manufacturing Network and is part of the management team for the Imperial College Advanced Hackspace. He is a fellow of the Higher Education Academy and his research activities include:

- Lithium-ion batteries
- Supercapacitors
- Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
- Redox flow batteries
- Metal-air batteries
- Additive manufacturing (3D printing)
- Manufacturing techniques

Lithium-ion battery

Inside a lithium-ion battery

He is currently course leader for the 1st year Productions and Materials course in the Dyson School of Design Engineering and also the academic workshop liaison officer. 

He was previous a post-doctoral research associate in the department of Earth Science and Engineering at Imperial College London working on large scale energy storage systems. He gained his PhD from Imperial College London in 2014 on modelling and testing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell hybrid powertrains for electric vehicles, under the supervision of Dr. Gregory Offer, Professor Ricardo Martinez-Botas and Professor Nigel Brandon. Prior to his PhD he graduated from Imperial Collge London in 2010 with a Masters (Honours) in Mechanical Engineering (MEng). 

Check out when we took our 9.5 kW fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid power generator to the BBC's Energy Day at their television studios in Manchester, where we appeared on BBC Breakfast News and Blue Peter. Our most recent activities focus on developing a fuel cell system for a Shell Eco-Marathon car together with Dr. Gregory OfferDr. Marc Masen and Dr. Fred Marquis as part of the Imperial Racing Green programme

Shell Eco-Marathon

He manages and is involved in a number of industry research/consultancy projects looking at topics including: lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, supercapacitors, solid oxide fuel cells, redox flow cells and additive manufacturing. He also often performs technology foresighting activities, having presented at the annual Imperial TechForesight event. 

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Prospective students/researchers

I welcome discussions from prospective students and researchers interested in joining our research group. Please send a CV and 1 page cover letter to 

Featured research

Our paper on a freeze aligned ionogel supercapacitor electrolytes was features as a cover page in Advanced Science

Aligned ionogel electrolytes for high-temperature supercapacitors. Xinhua Liu, Oluwadamilola Taiwo, Chengyao Yin, Mengzheng Ouyang, Ridwanur Chowdhury, Baofeng Wang, Huizhi Wang, Billy Wu, Nigel Brandon, Qigang Wang and Samuel Cooper. Advanced Science 2018.

Aligned ionogel

Our paper on a low cost desktop electrochemical metal 3D printer was featured as a cover page in Advanced Materials Technologies. 

A low cost desktop electrochemical metal 3D printer. Xiaolong Chen, Xinhua Liu, Peter Childs, Nigel Brandon and Billy Wu. Advanced Materials Technologies. Volume 2, Issue 10. October 2017. 

Electrochemical 3D printing

Our paper on 3D printed structural pseudocapacitors was featured as a cover page in Advanced Materials Technologies. 

3D-Printed Structural Pseudocapacitors. Xinhua Liu, Rhodri Jervis, Robert Maher, Ignacio Villar-Garcia, Max Naylor-Marlow, Paul Shearing, Mengzheng Ouyang, Lesley Cohen, Nigel Brandon and Billy Wu. Advanced Material Technologies. Volume 1, Issue 9. December 2016. 

AMT cover pager

Media mentions

Children of the 3D printing resolution. The Guardian - 2018

The quest for better batteries. Shell - 2017

Electrochemical Additive Manufacturing: A Low Cost Desktop 3D Printer. Science Trends - 2017

Sky News interview about electric vehicles - 2017

Batteries included. BBC Click - 2017

Our electric vehicle future. BBC World Service - 2017

Innovate or perish: Is first mover advantage always an advantage? Electric and hybrid vehicles magazine - 2017

It's not easy being green: Decarbonising transport and the grid - Imperial Business School - 2017

The impossible dream: perfecting the smart phone battery - Techradar - 2017

Charged issue: How phone batteries work and why some explode - The Guardian - 2016

Creative computers and 3D printed iPhones: experts map out the future of design - Imperial College London - 2016

3D printing: Imperial academic talks about advances being made in the field - Imperial College London - 2016

BBC Inside Science (Batteries) - Radio 4 - 2016

Fuel cell cars in Shell Eco-Marathon - London Live TV interview - 2016

Huge profits in store for firm that can make a great leap in battery technology - The Guardian - 2016

On the flightpath to a friendly footprint - The Engineer - 2016

New technology could help increase electric vehicle range - The Engineer - 2013

Students rock on at the BBC - Imperial College London - 2013



Ai W, Kraft L, Sturm J, et al., 2020, Electrochemical thermal-mechanical modelling of stress inhomogeneity in lithium-ion pouch cells, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol:167, ISSN:0013-4651

Chen X, Liu X, Ouyang M, et al., 2019, Multi-metal 4D printing with a desktop electrochemical 3D printer, Scientific Reports, Vol:9, ISSN:2045-2322

Tomaszewska A, Chu Z, Feng X, et al., Lithium-ion battery fast charging: A review, Etransportation, ISSN:2590-1168

Liu X, Ai W, Naylor Marlow M, et al., The effect of cell-to-cell variations and thermal gradients on the performance and degradation of lithium-ion battery packs, Applied Energy, ISSN:0306-2619

Yin C, Liu X, Wei J, et al., “All-in-Gel” design for supercapacitors towards solid-state energy devices with thermal and mechanical compliance, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol:7, ISSN:2050-7488, Pages:8826-8831

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