Imperial College London

Dr Billy Wu

Faculty of EngineeringDyson School of Design Engineering

Reader in Electrochemical Design Engineering



+44 (0)20 7594 6385billy.wu Website




1M04Royal College of ScienceSouth Kensington Campus





Dr. Billy Wu is a Reader (Associate Professor) and Director of Research in the Dyson School of Design Engineering at Imperial College London. He works in the area of electrochemical design engineering and jointly leads the Electrochemical Science and Engineering group and is on the editorial board of Scientific Reports, Energy and AI, and HardwareX. His research activities focuses at the interface between fundamental science and engineering application of electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors, with work including: energy materials, continuum level modelling, understanding degradation, thermal management system and control. 

Lithium-ion battery

Inside a lithium-ion battery

He is a Faraday Institution Industrial Fellow through his partnership with Williams Advanced Engineering on battery diagnostics and control, a co-investigator on the Faraday Multi-Scale Modelling project and chair of the Faraday Institution Training and Diversity panel.

Within the Dyson School of Design Engineering he the head of programme for the MRes in Design Engineering Research and course leader for the 1st year Materials and Manufacturing course and is a fellow of the Higher Education Academy

He was previous a post-doctoral research associate in the department of Earth Science and Engineering at Imperial College London working on large scale energy storage systems. He gained his PhD from Imperial College London in 2014 on modelling and testing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell hybrid powertrains for electric vehicles, which was sponsored by Nissan, under the supervision of Dr. Gregory Offer, Professor Ricardo Martinez-Botas and Professor Nigel Brandon. Prior to his PhD he graduated from Imperial Collge London in 2010 with a Masters (Honours) in Mechanical Engineering (MEng). 

He is a keen outreach enthusiast, having done a range of public engagement events including presenting at the Royal Institution in 2022 on "Can batteries help to save the world?" with The Faraday Institution. 

For your inspiration: Powering our sustainable future

He previously developed a 9.5 kW fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid power generator which featured on the BBC's Energy Day at their television studios in Manchester, where he appeared on BBC Breakfast News and Blue Peter. Our activities focus on developing a fuel cell system for a Shell Eco-Marathon car together with Dr. Gregory OfferDr. Marc Masen and Dr. Fred Marquis as part of the Imperial Racing Green programme

Shell Eco-Marathon

He manages and is involved in a number of industry research/consultancy projects looking at topics including: lithium-ion batteries, hydrogen fuel cells, supercapacitors, solid oxide fuel cells, redox flow cells and additive manufacturing. He also often performs technology foresighting activities, having presented at the annual Imperial TechForesight event. 

Linkedin profile

Google Scholar profile

Twitter account

Youtube account

Prospective students/researchers

I welcome discussions from prospective students and researchers interested in joining our research group. Please send a CV and 1 page cover letter to 

Featured research

Our paper on a freeze aligned ionogel supercapacitor electrolytes was features as a cover page in Advanced Science

Aligned ionogel electrolytes for high-temperature supercapacitors. Xinhua Liu, Oluwadamilola Taiwo, Chengyao Yin, Mengzheng Ouyang, Ridwanur Chowdhury, Baofeng Wang, Huizhi Wang, Billy Wu, Nigel Brandon, Qigang Wang and Samuel Cooper. Advanced Science 2018.

Aligned ionogel

Our paper on a low cost desktop electrochemical metal 3D printer was featured as a cover page in Advanced Materials Technologies. 

A low cost desktop electrochemical metal 3D printer. Xiaolong Chen, Xinhua Liu, Peter Childs, Nigel Brandon and Billy Wu. Advanced Materials Technologies. Volume 2, Issue 10. October 2017. 

Electrochemical 3D printing

Our paper on 3D printed structural pseudocapacitors was featured as a cover page in Advanced Materials Technologies. 

3D-Printed Structural Pseudocapacitors. Xinhua Liu, Rhodri Jervis, Robert Maher, Ignacio Villar-Garcia, Max Naylor-Marlow, Paul Shearing, Mengzheng Ouyang, Lesley Cohen, Nigel Brandon and Billy Wu. Advanced Material Technologies. Volume 1, Issue 9. December 2016. 

AMT cover pager

Featured Media mentions

Plug it in: EV dream of 1,000-mile mega battery - Evening Standard postcast - 2022

Investors jumpstart battery funding to plug clean energy gap - The Financial Times - 2022

QuantumScape: can battery pioneer live up to the hype? - The Financial Times - 2021

Electric vehicles need to arrive as fast as vaccines - The Financial Times - 2021

Low cost metal 3D printing by electrochemistry - Hackaday - 2021

International EV Batteries 2020...60 seconds with Billy Wu, Imperial College London - IMechE - 2020

This week in clean tech podcast - 2019

Power-hungry Tesla picks up supercapacitor maker - Chemistry world - 2019

Multi-metal 4D printing. 3D Printing Industry - 2019

Children of the 3D printing resolution. The Guardian - 2018

Building better batteries for future electric car. Imperial College London - 2018 

The quest for better batteries. Shell - 2017

Electrochemical Additive Manufacturing: A Low Cost Desktop 3D Printer. Science Trends - 2017

Sky News interview about electric vehicles - 2017

Batteries included. BBC Click - 2017

Our electric vehicle future. BBC World Service - 2017

Innovate or perish: Is first mover advantage always an advantage? Electric and hybrid vehicles magazine - 2017

It's not easy being green: Decarbonising transport and the grid - Imperial Business School - 2017

The impossible dream: perfecting the smart phone battery - Techradar - 2017

Charged issue: How phone batteries work and why some explode - The Guardian - 2016

Creative computers and 3D printed iPhones: experts map out the future of design - Imperial College London - 2016

3D printing: Imperial academic talks about advances being made in the field - Imperial College London - 2016

BBC Inside Science (Batteries) - Radio 4 - 2016

Huge profits in store for firm that can make a great leap in battery technology - The Guardian - 2016

On the flightpath to a friendly footprint - The Engineer - 2016

New technology could help increase electric vehicle range - The Engineer - 2013

Students rock on at the BBC - Imperial College London - 2013



Ruan H, Kirkaldy N, Offer G, et al., 2024, Diagnosing health in composite battery electrodes with explainable deep learning and partial charging data, Energy and Ai, Vol:16, ISSN:2666-5468

Tu Y, Wu B, Ai W, et al., 2024, Influence of concentration-dependent material properties on the fracture and debonding of electrode particles with core–shell structure, Journal of Power Sources, Vol:603, ISSN:0378-7753, Pages:234395-234395

Kallitsis E, Lindsay JJ, Chordia M, et al., 2024, Think global act local: The dependency of global lithium-ion battery emissions on production location and material sources, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol:449, ISSN:0959-6526

Naylor Marlow M, Chen J, Wu B, 2024, Degradation in parallel-connected lithium-ion battery packs under thermal gradients, Communications Engineering, Vol:3, ISSN:2731-3395

Wang Z, Acha S, Bird M, et al., 2024, A total cost of ownership analysis of zero emission powertrain solutions for the heavy goods vehicle sector, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol:434, ISSN:0959-6526

More Publications