7 results found
Gillespie J, Yeoh WY, Zhao C, et al., 2021, In situ characterization of laser-generated melt pools using synchronized ultrasound and high-speed X-ray imaginga), JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Vol: 150, Pages: 2409-2420, ISSN: 0001-4966
Lan B, Carpenter MA, Gan W, et al., 2018, Rapid measurement of volumetric texture using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 157, ISSN: 1359-6462
This paper presents a non-destructive evaluation method of volumetric texture using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). It is based on a general theoretical platform that links the directional wave speeds of a polycrystalline aggregate to its texture through a simple convolution relationship, and RUS is employed to obtain the speeds by measuring the elastic constants, where well-established experimental and post-processing procedures are followed. Important lower-truncation-order textures of representative hexagonal and cubic metal samples with orthorhombic sample symmetries are extracted, and are validated against independent immersion ultrasound and neutron tests. The successful deployment of RUS indicates broader applications of the general methodology.
Lan B, 2018, Non-iterative, stable analysis of surface acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric multilayers using spectral collocation method, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol: 433, Pages: 16-28, ISSN: 0022-460X
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) enjoy profound importance across many disciplines, and one of their most prominent applications are the vast ranges of SAW devices made of piezoelectric multilayers. Thus a stable and efficient algorithm of analysing key SAW parameters in arbitrary layered media is of wide interest. This paper introduces such an algorithm based on the spectral collocation method (SCM). It firstly explains the fundamental governing equations and their numerical calculations via the SCM in a self-contained way, and then demonstrates the technique on the well-studied ZnO/diamond/Si material system, where the key factors of phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and effective permittivity are evaluated and discussed in detail. Compared to the widely employed root-finding approach, it is shown that the SCM is intuitive to formulate and code, and is highly accurate; it delivers all modes at once, and does not suffer from numerical instabilities. The establishment of the method on this simple example also implies potential applications to more general material and geometry types that could be difficult for the conventional approaches.
Lan B, Britton TB, Jun T-S, et al., 2018, Direct volumetric measurement of crystallographic texture using acoustic waves, Acta Materialia, Vol: 159, Pages: 384-394, ISSN: 1359-6454
Crystallographic texture in polycrystalline materials is often developed as preferred orientation distribution of grains during thermo-mechanical processes. Texture dominates many macroscopic physical properties and reflects the histories of structural evolution, hence its measurement and control are vital for performance optimisation and deformation history interogation in engineering and geological materials. However, exploitations of texture are hampered by state-of-the-art characterisation techniques, none of which can routinely deliver the desirable non-destructive, volumetric measurements, especially at larger lengthscales. Here we report a direct and general methodology retrieving important lower-truncation-order texture and phase information from acoustic (compressional elastic) wave speed measurements in different directions through the material volume (avoiding the need for forward modelling). We demonstrate its deployment with ultrasound in the laboratory, where the results from seven representative samples are successfully validated against measurements performed using neutron diffraction. The acoustic method we have developed includes both fundamental wave propagation and texture inversion theories which are free from diffraction limits, they are arbitrarily scalable in dimension, and can be rapidly deployed to measure the texture of large objects. This opens up volumetric texture characterisation capabilities in the areas of material science and beyond, for both scientific and industrial applications.
Lan B, Lowe M, DUNNE F, 2015, A spherical harmonic approach for the determination of HCP texture from ultrasound: a solution to the inverse problem, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 83, Pages: 179-198, ISSN: 0022-5096
A new spherical convolution approach has been presented which couples HCP single crystal wave speed (the kernel function) with polycrystal c-axis pole distribution function to give the resultant polycrystal wave speed response. The three functions have been expressed as spherical harmonic expansions thus enabling application of the de-convolution technique to enable any one of the three to be determined from knowledge of the other two. Hence, the forward problem of determination of polycrystal wave speed from knowledge of single crystal wave speed response and the polycrystal pole distribution has been solved for a broad range of experimentally representative HCP polycrystal textures. The technique provides near-perfect representation of the sensitivity of wave speed to polycrystal texture as well as quantitative prediction of polycrystal wave speed. More importantly, a solution to the inverse problem is presented in which texture, as a c-axis distribution function, is determined from knowledge of the kernel function and the polycrystal wave speed response. It has also been explained why it has been widely reported in the literature that only texture coefficients up to 4th degree may be obtained from ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the de-convolution approach presented provides the potential for the measurement of polycrystal texture from ultrasonic wave speed measurements.
Lan B, lowe M, dunne F, 2015, A generalized spherical harmonic deconvolution to obtain texture of cubic materials from ultrasonic wave speed, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol: 83, Pages: 221-242, ISSN: 0022-5096
In this paper, the spherical harmonic convolution approach for HCP materials (Lan et al., 2015) is extended into a generalised form for the principal purpose of bulk texture determination in cubic polycrystals from ultrasonic wave speed measurements. It is demonstrated that the wave speed function of a general single crystal convolves with the polycrystal Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) to make the resultant polycrystal wave speed function such that when the three functions are expressed in harmonic expansions, the coefficients of any one function may be determined from the coefficients of the other two. All three Euler angles are taken into account in the description of the ODF such that the theorem applies for all general crystal systems.The forward problem of predicting polycrystal wave speed with knowledge of single crystal properties and the ODF is solved for all general cases, with validation carried out on cubic textures showing strong sensitivity to texture and excellent quantitative accuracy in predicted wave speed amplitudes. Importantly, it is also revealed by the theorem that the cubic structure is one of only two crystal systems (the other being HCP) whose orientation distributions can be inversely determined from polycrystal wave velocities by virtue of their respective crystal symmetries. Proof of principle is then established by recovering the ODFs of representative cubic textures solely from the wave velocities generated from a computational model using these texture inputs, and excellent accuracies are achieved in the recovered ODF coefficients as well as the resultant pole figures. Hence the methodology is argued to provide a powerful technique for wave propagation studies and bulk texture measurement in cubic polycrystals and beyond.Keywords Texture; Generalised spherical convolution; Ultrasound; Cubic polycrystals
Lan B, Lowe M, Dunne FPE, 2014, Experimental and computational studies of ultrasound wave propagation in hexagonal close-packed polycrystals for texture detection, Acta Materialia, Vol: 63, Pages: 107-122, ISSN: 1359-6454
Texture in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) polycrystalline metals, often developed during thermomechanical processing, affects ultrasonic wave velocity. In this study, the relationship between bulk texture and ultrasonic wave velocity in aggregates of (predominantly) hcp grains is investigated using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods. A representative volume element methodology is presented, enabling the effects of texture on ultrasonic wave speed to be investigated in two-phase polycrystals, and is employed to examine the ultrasonic response of random polycrystals, textured polycrystals and macro-zones often observed in titanium alloys. Numerical results show that ultrasonic wave speed varies progressively with changing texture, over a range of ∼200 m s−1, within bounds set by the two extreme single-crystal orientations. Experimental ultrasound studies and full electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) characterization are conducted on unidirectionally rolled and cross-rolled Ti–6Al–4V samples in three orthogonal directions. In addition, the EBSD-determined textures are incorporated within the polycrystal model and predicted ultrasonic velocities compared directly with ultrasonic experiments. Good quantitative agreement is obtained and both the experimental and computed results demonstrate that ultrasonic velocity profiles exist for random, unidirectionally rolled and cross-rolled textures. The combined results indicate the possibility of the development of a methodology for bulk texture determination within Ti polycrystal components using ultrasound.
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