34 results found
Bhute V, Sengupta S, Campbell J, et al., 2022, Effectiveness of a large-scale implementation of hybrid labs for experiential learning at Imperial College London, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 39, Pages: 58-66, ISSN: 1749-7728
Experiential learning is an integral component of engineering education. The Chemeng Remote Experience Augmented through TEchnology (CREATE) labs concept was implemented in the academic year 2020–21 in response to COVID19 for first-, second-, and third-year chemical engineering undergraduate students studying at Imperial College London. Using a range of technologies including pan-tilt-zoom cameras and Microsoft HoloLens 2 to provide real-time views of the lab environment from anywhere in the world. Students could control the experiments remotely while graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) operated the equipment based on the students’ instructions. This study is aimed at assessing the effectiveness of this implementation with a focus on student communication and confidence. Students and GTAs were surveyed at the end of labs, and a year-dependent response was observed. The majority of students (>70%) reported experiencing effective communication with team members and GTAs and there was a strong positive correlation between communication and confidence in applying engineering concepts in the labs (χ2 = 79.96; p = 1.69 ×10−10). 5–10% of students from all year groups reported that they disliked the lack of in-person activities. The majority (>90%) of GTAs assisting with experiments stated that they associated their role in the CREATE labs with that of a facilitator. The overall delivery of CREATE labs during academic year 2020–21 was positively received by both students and GTAs with recommendations for in-person activities for first- and second-year students. With minor modifications, CREATE labs has the potential to prepare students for effective remote communication and gain experience in using smart technologies which are key components of Industry 4.0.
Chadha D, Campbell J, Maraj M, et al., 2022, Engaging students to shape their own learning: driving curriculum re-design using a Theory of Change approach, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 38, Pages: 14-21, ISSN: 1749-7728
Curriculum review is challenging, although if carried out strategically can be less so. The adoption of a theory of change approach for reviewing a chemical engineering curriculum at a research-intensive university in the UK is discussed. The curriculum review was undertaken as part of an institutional drive to modularise the curricula and align the number of contact and independent study hours for all undergraduate students in the institution. At the heart of our curriculum review is the student experience, which is often ignored in favour of the views of institutional management. The curriculum has been redesigned using a theory of change approach, which has enabled us to establish short and long-term plans based on our efforts to create a less burdensome, student-centred curriculum that incorporates our institutional learning and teaching strategy. As part of the process, assumptions needed to be surfaced, meaningful evidence collated, and a central end-goal identified These plans are evidence-based and include: the provision of a departmental wellbeing advisor, the application and development of interactive pedagogies, appropriate mechanisms that support slow learning through formative assessment and less of an assessment burden, and nurturing links with industry-based partners ensuring a greater emphasis on students’ professional development and their exposure to chemical engineering industries.
Shah U, Inguva P, Tan B, et al., 2021, CREATE labs-Student centric hybrid teaching laboratories, EDUCATION FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, Vol: 37, Pages: 22-28, ISSN: 1749-7728
The CREATE labs, a hybrid laboratory experience suitable for remote learning was developed at Imperial College in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. To facilitate the transformation from traditional to remote labs, a systematic review of offered projects was carried out to identify where learning objectives could be met using remote-friendly options such as simulations. Essential physical experiments were performed through the use of various technologies including online collaboration software and first-person point of view cameras to enable a high level of student involvement. Student surveys and interviews confirmed a positive experience comparable to previous years with an improvement in feedback provision.
Chadha D, Kogelbauer A, Campbell J, et al., 2021, Are the kids alright? Exploring students’ experiences of support mechanisms to enhance wellbeing on an engineering programme in the UK, European Journal of Engineering Education, Vol: 46, Pages: 662-677, ISSN: 0304-3797
In this paper, we aim to explore students’ experiences of support mechanisms that support their wellbeing on an engineering degree programme at a research-intensive higher education institution and understand how theory relates to practice. This study was conducted using a mixed-methods approach involving student survey responses (N = 173), interviews with 16 students and focus groups. Kahu and Nelson’s conceptual framework was used as a lens through which to explore student support mechanisms. Preliminary data analysis indicates that the intense workload adversely affects students as do some of the interactions they have with personal tutors and their peers. Our findings suggest that workload needs to be reduced, personal tutors need to fill gaps in their skills set, especially associated with student support, and institutional and departmental protocols be continually updated to support student wellbeing. Additionally, student wellbeing officers and professional, dedicated wellbeing advisors could be part of a long-term solution.
Inguva K, Shah P, Shah U, et al., 2021, How to design experiential learning resources for independent learning, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 98, Pages: 1182-1192, ISSN: 0021-9584
Key components of any experiential learning module are the resources students use to learn. These typically include laboratory equipment, handouts, and instructional material in the form of videos or standard operating procedures (SOPs). Their design and implementation require careful thought to ensure that students learn in an effective and meaningful way. From our own experience in the undergraduate teaching laboratory and from a variety of literature sources, we have identified five design principles that educators should consider and integrate into their resource development workflows: safety, authenticity, flexibility, accessibility, and robustness (SAFAR). We present several examples of how each principle can be implemented using Kolb’s experiential learning cycle as a lens to understand the impact of each design principle on the learning process.
Bhute VJ, Inguva P, Shah U, et al., 2021, Transforming traditional teaching laboratories for effective remote delivery—A review, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 35, Pages: 96-104, ISSN: 1749-7728
Teaching laboratories form an essential component of any engineering education. They enable students to participate in various stages of experiential learning including conceptualization and experimentation followed by reflection, analysis and interpretation of data. However, operating teaching laboratories with social distancing measures poses significant logistical and safety challenges, and alternative modes of delivery may be a realistic way forward in adapting engineering curricula to the post COVID-19 world. Best practices from spaces such as distance learning and virtual / remote laboratories can be leveraged to facilitate educators’ responses. This review is aimed at identifying evidence-based approaches for transforming hands-on labs into virtual or remote operation to achieve desired learning outcomes without compromising on soft skills and student self-efficacy. A critical review of the recent literature on delivering STEMM education laboratories in either a virtual or remote setting or a combination of both is presented here. Commonly emerging approaches are identified and strategies to implement remote or mixed-mode (a combination of remote and traditional lab components) delivery are highlighted. The value of these approaches to the educator is assessed based on claimed learning outcomes, availability of resources, technology, scheduling, and cost factors.
Campbell J, Macey A, Chen W, et al., 2020, Creating a confident and curious cohort: The effect of video-led instructions on teaching first-year chemical engineering laboratories, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 97, Pages: 4001-4007, ISSN: 0021-9584
On-demand video has become a seamless part of the fabric of information consumption. Initially inspired by the popularity of video guides for practical skills such as cooking and DIY, instructional videos were developed for equipment used in the first-year chemical engineering undergraduate teaching laboratory at Imperial College London. During 2016/2017, the effect of the videos on the students’ learning was measured using video viewership metrics, a survey, focus groups with students and Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) and rounded off through interviews with the module teaching team. Student reactions were overall positive, with >90% of students stating they found the videos useful. The outcome of our study indicated that because of access to the videos before, during, and after lab sessions, students were more confident in their own ability, spent more time engaging with theory, applied practical lab skills in a more targeted way, and produced better outputs. Rather than being just a video version of the experiment handout, the video influenced the behavior of both learners and teachers, freeing up time to engage in deeper exploration of topics. The results of the study suggest that the use of video-led instruction in undergraduate laboratory teaching improves student experience, saves GTA time, and decidedly shifts the teaching focus from demonstration to exploration.
Bhute V, Campbell J, Kogelbauer A, et al., 2020, Moving to timed remote assessments: the impact of COVID-19 on year end exams in Chemical Engineering at Imperial College London, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 97, Pages: 2760-2767, ISSN: 0021-9584
Summative year end assessments area major component of student assessment at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London.More than 600 studentsparticipate in over40 different exams during the summer term. At the end of the spring term, the college moved to fully remote operation due to COVID-19, leaving the academic community with the challenge of delivering examinationsremotely. At the time pandemic hit the UK, teaching for allmodules in the department had been completed, the exam timetable had already been published and all exam paperspassed the mandatory external quality review. To implement time-limited remote examsas stipulated by the university, the department decided to proceed with anexisting VLE platformfor submission of answer-sheets.This study highlights stakeholder reflections from the academic and student communityduring the implementation of this approachculminating in a mock examination to gauge readiness of the infrastructure as well as the student population.Our survey found that the majority of students (>80%) managed to follow the written instructionsand readily engaged with scanning technologies and the uploading process.In the main, students did not have to adapt their learning or writing style. All stakeholdersprovided constructive suggestions at the end of the mock exam resulting in a relatively smooth transition to this new mode of examination. This study highlights challenges and reflections on making the summer year end examsremote in a very short timeframein a large and diverse Chemical Engineering department at very short notice.
Xie M, Inguva K, Chen W, et al., 2020, Accelerating students’ learning of chromatography with an experiential module on process development and scaleup, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 97, Pages: 1001-1007, ISSN: 0021-9584
The objective of the presented module is to train students with no background in process development and scaleup of chromatographic processes to a high level of competency within 40 contact hours. The key pedagogical approach is “progression” where students’ capabilities are gradually built up with appropriate scaffolding provided at each stage of their learning. The module is broken up into three steps, with each step covering a different aspect of chromatography. Knowledge gained in one step is the foundation for work in the next. In the first step, students investigate several chromatographic column packing materials and perform a solvent selection process. Design of experiment (DOE) to systematically vary process parameters for method development is introduced in the second step. In the last step, students use a preparative-LC system to perform a larger-scale separation. Students explore different scale-up scenarios, including volume fraction collection and column overloading. Pedagogic outcomes of the module were determined through surveys, interviews, and personal interaction during the study. Results clearly indicate that students engaged well with the module while meeting overall learning objectives. The module is equally suitable for third- or fourth-year university students or industry practitioners unfamiliar with chromatography as part of continuing professional development.
Shah UV, Chen W, Inguva K, et al., 2020, The discovery laboratory part II: A framework for incubating independent learning, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 31, Pages: 29-37, ISSN: 1749-7728
We have conceptualized the Discovery Laboratory at Imperial College London into an educational framework that enables independent learning among students. The study demonstrates an effective implementation of the framework with associated benefits for the learner in the areas of cognitive skills (creativity and critical thinking), metacognitive skills (ability to reflect on the entire learning process) and affective skills (adaptive motivation). Key supportive elements were transferring ownership of the learning process to students and incorporating assessment criteria that reward creativity. The framework can be easily adapted to other experiential learning contexts.
González-Garay A, Pozo C, Galán-Martín Á, et al., 2019, Assessing the performance of UK universities in the field of chemical engineering using data envelopment analysis, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 29, Pages: 29-41, ISSN: 1749-7728
University rankings have become an important tool to compare academic institutions within and across countries. Yet, they rely on aggregated scores based on subjective weights which render them sensitive to experts’ preferences and not fully transparent to final users. To overcome this limitation, we apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate UK universities in the field of chemical engineering as a case study, using data retrieved from two national rankings. DEA is a non-parametric approach developed for the multi-criteria assessment of entities that avoids the use of subjective weightings and aggregated scores; this is accomplished by calculating an efficiency index, on the basis of which universities can be classified as either ‘efficient’ or ‘inefficient’. Our analysis shows that the Higher Education Institutions (HEI) occupying the highest positions in the chemical engineering rankings might not be the most efficient ones, and vice versa, which highlights the need to complement the use of rankings with other analytical tools. Overall, DEA provides further insight into the assessment of HEIs, allowing institutions to better understand their weaknesses and strengths, while pinpointing sources of inefficiencies where improvement efforts must be directed.
Chen W, Shah U, Brechtelsbauer C, 2019, A framework for hands-on learning in chemical engineering education—Training students with the end goal in mind, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 28, Pages: 25-29, ISSN: 1749-7728
Chemical engineering education aims to equip students with both theoretical knowledge and hands-on capability to solve practical problems. At Imperial College London, this is practiced via three laboratory-based courses, which span over the first three years of the undergraduate curriculum. The Foundation, Knowledge and Discovery Laboratories were designed based on Kolb’s experiential learning theory as well as Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Although these courses intend to challenge students, appropriate scaffolding is in place to ensure a satisfactory learning experience across the spectrum of abilities. Assessment and survey results show that all students were capable of meeting the learning goals (>96% achieving satisfactory to excellent results in academic years 2014–2016), while a large majority is satisfied with the courses (>80% in academic years 2014–2016). The design and implementation of these courses are discussed to promote the exchange of good practices within the higher education community.
Chadha D, Maraj M, Kogelbauer A, et al., 2019, Hearing you loud and clear: The student voice as a driver for curriculum change in a chemical engineering degree course (WIP), ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition 2019, Publisher: ASEE
A curriculum review can be an intricate and arduous process, made more complex due to a myriad of interwoven threads that inform the curriculum. This is often the case in chemical engineering due in part to the accommodation of employer expectations, requirements from accreditation bodies and the multidisciplinary, integrative nature of an engineering degree which depends on students acquiring a wide range of attributes, and which focuses on application and relevancy , . In this paper, we present our efforts to review the chemical engineering curricula at a research-intensive higher education institution (HEI)in the UK. This review is being orchestrated by institutional managers to ensure that programmes of study throughout the HEI better reflect student needs and expectations and adhere to a recently revised institutional teaching and learning strategy. This review is also driven by a recognition that the student body has changed with traditional modes of teaching seemingly outdated and ineffective. For example, it has previously been suggested that one of the greatest obstacles to overcome with respect to creating the right type of education for chemical engineers, does not arise from external drivers, but in recognising and responding to internal factors –amounting to fundamental pedagogical shifts in learner behaviour and expectation.
Chadha D, Maraj M, Kogelbauer A, et al., 2019, Work in Progress: Hearing You Loud and Clear: the Student Voice as a Driver for Curriculum Change in a Chemical Engineering Degree Course, 2019 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Publisher: ASEE Conferences
Inguva P, Teck A, Anabaraonye B, et al., 2018, Advancing experiential learning through participatory design, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 25, Pages: 16-21, ISSN: 1749-7728
Participatory design (PD) as a module development tool offers significant potential to enhance experiential learning courses such as laboratory modules. Involvement of students and other stakeholders results in pre-delivery feedback on module design, implementation strategy, and teaching material. In this study, PD was employed for design and development of a systems control and reaction engineering laboratory project. The nature of stakeholder interaction at various levels was analysed and specific examples for how such an approach improved the development process is presented. Current students provided feedback on how the module was perceived by their peers and participated in developing solutions to make the learning process more inclusive. Senior students and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) were able to contribute at a higher technical design level. Students were intellectually stimulated by the module design, enhancing the overall teaching and learning process.
Macey A, Campbell J, Chen W, et al., 2018, Transforming the role of demonstrators through video led instructions, International Symposium of Engineering Education 2018, Publisher: ISEE
Video on-demand has become a seamless part in the fabric of society’s information consumption. Although videos are common place as a demonstration medium for simple experiments, they have not been used widely as a training tool in teaching laboratories. In this study, we focus on employing video on location to provide practical instructions in authentic settings.Over 10 instructional videos of first year laboratory experiments in chemical engineering were filmed, each providing detailed operational information. The whole cohort of over 140 students performed two experiments without videos under the traditional demonstration regime, and the remaining five experiments with video led instructions. More than 90% of students found the instructional videos useful, and 75% of students confirmed that this approach improved their teaching and learning experience. Over 95% of the students who participated in the survey recommended using videos as an instructional medium. Because of ready access to the videos, students were more confident in their practical abilities and spent more time engaging with theory to produce better informed outputs. Instead of focusing on operational issues, teaching staff had time to engage with students in discussions to explore topics in more depth.Rather than just being perceived as live-action versions of experiment hand-outs, the instructional videos actually changed outcomes for both learners and educators. Results indicate that the student experience was significantly enhanced and the teaching focus shifted from demonstration to exploration by transforming the role of demonstrators to facilitators and mentors.
An experiment to aid the transition from secondary school chemistry to introductory chemical engineering in higher education is described. The phenomenon of chemiluminescence observed during the oxidation of luminol has been successfully employed to study the kinetics of the reaction. Using inexpensive light sensors the effects of temperature on rate of chemical reactions can easily be quantified through their associated kinetic parameters.The experiment gives reproducible results and allows the measurement of the rate constants of the reaction and its order with respect to luminol at different temperatures in one three hour laboratory session. From these, the activation energy of the reaction can be determined. Experimental skill and supervisory requirements are minimal making the setup ideal for first year undergraduate or final stage secondary school students.
Shah U, Chen W, Brechtelsbauer C, 2016, The discovery laboratory – A student-centred experiential learning practical: Part I – Overview, Education for Chemical Engineers, Vol: 17, Pages: 44-53, ISSN: 1749-7728
Chemical Engineering’s Discovery Laboratory at Imperial College London is a practical teaching programme designed specifically to support student-centred learning at an advanced level, bridging the gap between instructions driven lab experiments and fully open ended research. In the first part of this article we present an overview of this programme with particular attention given to the design of the pedagogical framework and the execution of teaching. The teaching goal is delivered by in-depth experiential learning, where students are assigned a specific subject area to conduct their own research within a set timeframe and boundary conditions that guarantee a successful learning outcome. Academic supervisors and teaching assistants play an important role in this process, where they provide students with continuing guidance throughout. The use of research or industrial grade equipment ensures the students’ preparation for their final year research project as well as their post-graduation careers. In addition to summative assessments, students also receive formative feedback periodically from academic supervisors and teaching assistants. The Discovery Laboratory has received positive feedback from both teachers and students since its inauguration in 2011 and here we share some useful insights for the execution of such a practical teaching programme.
Brechtelsbauer C, Haslam A, Shah U, et al., 2016, Measuring vapour pressure with an isoteniscope - a hands-on introduction to thermodynamic concepts, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 93, Pages: 920-926, ISSN: 1938-1328
Characterization of the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid or azeotropic mixture, and its fluid phase diagram, can be achieved with an isoteniscope and an industrial grade digital pressure sensor using the experimental method reported in this study. We describe vapor-pressure measurements of acetone and n-hexane and their azeotrope, and how the data can be used to calculate thermodynamic properties of the test liquids, such as the molar heat of vaporization. This hands-on experience allows students to appreciate important thermodynamic concepts such as phase equilibrium, preparing them for more advanced studies of the subject.
Brechtelsbauer Clemens, Hii King Kuok Mimi, 2014, 1. Catalysis in flow, ISBN: 9783110367508
Brechtelsbauer C, Hii KKM, 2014, Catalysis in Flow, in: Flow Chemistry Volume 2, Applications, Publisher: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN: 9783110289152
Broader theoretical insight on organic reactions in driving them automatically opens the window towards new technologies particularly to flow chemistry. This emerging concept promotes the transformation of present day's organic processes into a more rapid continuous set of synthesis operations, more compatible with the envisioned sustainable world. Ed. by Darvas, Ferenc / Hessel, Volker / Dorman, György, Preface by Jensen, Klavs F.With contrib. by Angi, Reka / de Bellefon, Claude / Brechtelsbauer, Clemens / Cukalovic, Ana / Fekete, Melinda / Filipcsei, Genovéva / Haroun, Samar / Hii, King Kuok Mimi / Kralisch, Dana / Li, Paul / Löwe, Holger / McQuade, D. Tyler / Miller, L. Zane / Monbaliu, J.-C. M. / Otvos, Zsolt / Rehm, Thomas / Schuelein, Julian / Steinbacher, Jeremy L. / Stevens, Christian / Wang, Qi
Ricard F, Brechtelsbauer C, Xu XY, et al., 2005, Monitoring of multiphase pharmaceutical processes using electrical resistance tomography, 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: 794-805, ISSN: 0263-8762
Ricard F, Brechtelsbauer C, Xu Y, et al., 2005, Development of an electrical resistance tomography reactor for pharmaceutical processes, 3rd World Congress in Process Tomography, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 11-18, ISSN: 0008-4034
Schmidt B, Patel J, Ricard FX, et al., 2004, Application of Process Modelling Tools in the Scale-Up of Pharmaceutical Crystallisation Processes, Organic Process Research and Development, Vol: 8, Pages: 998-1008
Crystallisations are frequent process steps in the manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). They are the primary means of intermediate or product formation andseparation to achieve the desired purity and form. These unit operations are complex processes which are difficult to control due to the interlinked chemical and physical effects. For example, chemical aspects such as salt and polymorph concernsare in the forefront of process research, but physical effects manifesting themselves on scale-up, due to equipment influences, can be equally important for the successful outcome of a campaign. Several operational parameters, such as temperature or impeller speed, need to be understood and controlled to achieve constant desupersaturation, consistent narrow particle size distribution around the desired mean, minimal attrition, and homogeneous growth conditions. This paper focuses on the equipment influence on crystallisations, relating it to first principles with respect to heat and momentum transfer, analysing it with computational fluid dynamics (CFD),and demonstrating its process impact using examples from recent development work. Dynamic process modelling and CFD are state-of-the-art engineering tools to identify process requirements and match them with equipment capabilities. The workreported here demonstrates how a semiquantitative application of these tools can lead to a controllable, robust process in an existing plant despite the time and resource limitations usually encountered in the industry.
Brechtelsbauer CM, Carpenter ST, Grinter TJ, et al., 2003, Processes for the production of amino-protected derivatives of 4-aminomethylene-pyrrolidin-3-one and/or 4-aminomethylene-pyrrolidin-3-alkoxyimino derivatives and/or gemifloxacin or a salt thereof, WO 2003011450 A1
The invention provides a process for the production of a compound of formula (I): wherein P1 and P2, which may be the same or different, are amino protecting groups, which comprises protection of a compound of formula (II) in solution phase continuous operation mode. This confers advantages over batch mode operation. The process is usually conducted in reaction equipment adapted for use in continuous processing mode, for example comprising one or more static mixers or a plug flow reactor. Preferably, the plug flow reactor comprises a jacketed tubular reactor fitted inside with internal mixing elements which continually split and remix the reaction streams promoting mass and heat transfer, whereby a uniform plug flow profile with turbulent fluid flow is achieved. The invention also provides a process for production of the antibacterial compound gemifloxacin or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt and/or hydrate thereof, comprising converting a compound of formula (I). The invention also provides a process for the productionof a compound of formula (VIIIa).
Ricard F, Brechtelsbauer C, Lawrence C, et al., 2003, Application of electrical resistance tomography technology to pharmaceutical processes, Pages: 701-706
Recent developments in the use of non-intrusive, electrical measurements to interrogate mixing processes in batch vessels have triggered a joint GSK/Imperial College project aimed at assessing the applicability of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to pharmaceutical process development. A jacketed 3.5 L glass reactor was fitted with 64 platinum sensors arranged on 4 planes and linked to an ITS P2000 data acquisition system. Several vessel/stirrer configurations aimed at mimicking typical plant reactor geometries were investigated in connection with typical process scenarios in the pharmaceutical industry. Variations in local and bulk conductivity measurements were monitored, and the data obtained were compared with spectroscopic on-line monitoring information as well as kinetic and computational fluid dynamics modelling results. Very encouraging results were achieved for model and industrial processes. This approach shows promise for on-line control of process mixing performance as well as efficiency evaluation and optimisation of reactor geometries. This allows us to conclude that ERT is a valuable tool for the development of robust manufacturing processes for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.
Brechtelsbauer C, Ricard F, 2001, Reaction engineering evaluation and utilization of static mixer technology for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, ORGANIC PROCESS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 5, Pages: 646-651, ISSN: 1083-6160
Brechtelsbauer CM, Oxley P, 2001, Process for epoxidising substituted cyclohexanones, WO2001014357 A1
This invention relates to a method for preparing 1-oxaspiro[2,5]-carbonitriles from ketones using spinning disc reactor technology.
Brechtelsbauer C, Lewis N, Oxley P, et al., 2001, Evaluation of a spinning disc reactor for continuous processing, ORGANIC PROCESS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 5, Pages: 65-68, ISSN: 1083-6160
Oxley P, Brechtelsbauer C, Ricard F, et al., 2000, Evaluation of spinning disk reactor technology for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 39, Pages: 2175-2182, ISSN: 0888-5885
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