Imperial College London

ProfessorChrisCheeseman

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Professor of Materials Resources Engineering
 
 
 
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Contact

 

c.cheeseman

 
 
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Location

 

242Skempton BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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243 results found

Chen X, Zhang T, Cheeseman C, Bi W, Wang Set al., 2022, Production of Rapid-Hardening Magnesium Oxysulfate Cement Containing Boric Acid, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol: 34, ISSN: 0899-1561

Journal article

Alzeer MIM, Cheeseman C, Kinnunen P, 2022, New synthetic glass-based supplementary cementitious materials derived from basalt composition, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol: 46, Pages: 103699-103699, ISSN: 2352-7102

Journal article

Earl C, Shah IH, Cook S, Cheeseman CRet al., 2022, Environmental sustainability and supply resillience of cobalt, Sustainability, Vol: 14, Pages: 4124-4124, ISSN: 2071-1050

Cobalt (Co) is an essential metal for the development of energy-transition technologies, decarbonising transportation, achieving several sustainable development goals, and facilitating a future net zero transition. However, the supply of Co is prone to severe fluctuation, disruption, and price instabilities. This review aims to identify the future evolution of Co supply through technologically resilient and environmentally sustainable pathways. The work shows that advances in both primary and secondary sources, Co mining methods and recycling systems are yet to be fully optimised. Moreover, responsible sourcing from both large mines and small artisanal mines will be necessary for a resilient Co supply. Regulatory approaches may increase transparency, support local mining communities, and improve secondary Co recovery. Novel Co supply options, such as deep-sea mining and bio-mining of tailings, are associated with major techno-economic and environmental issues. However, a circular economy, keeping Co in the economic loop for as long as possible, is yet to be optimised at both regional and global scales. To achieve environmental sustainability of Co, economic incentives, regulatory push, and improved public perception are required to drive product innovation and design for circularity. Although the complexity of Co recycling, due to lack of standardisation of design and chemistry in batteries, is an impediment, a sustainable net zero transition using Co will only be possible if a reliable primary supply and a circular secondary supply are established

Journal article

Jnr AK-L, Galpin R, Manjula S, Lenkiewicz Z, Cheeseman Cet al., 2022, Reuse of Waste Plastics in Developing Countries: Properties of Waste Plastic-Sand Composites, WASTE AND BIOMASS VALORIZATION, ISSN: 1877-2641

Journal article

Kia A, Wong HS, Cheeseman CR, 2021, Freeze-Thaw Durability Of Clogging Resistant Permeable Concrete, 12th International Conference on Concrete Pavements, Publisher: International Society for Concrete Pavements

<jats:p>Permeable concrete pavements are one of the most promising flood mitigation strategies. However, they have a number of limitations including low strength, low resistance to clogging and freeze/thaw degradation, limiting their application particularly in cold climates. Through extensive laboratory work, a novel high-strength clogging resistant permeable pavement (CRP) has been developed to address these shortcomings. In this paper, we investigated the freeze-thaw durability performance of a range of conventional permeable concrete and novel CRP. Samples were exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles (-20 to +20C) and their mass, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and compressive strength were evaluated over time. The results show that CRP is highly resistant to freeze-thaw cycles while conventional permeable concrete degrades rapidly. This study demonstrates that CRP is durable under frost action and therefore has the potential to be deployed in harsh wintry conditions.</jats:p>

Conference paper

Kia A, Delens J, Wong H, Cheeseman Cet al., 2021, Structural and hydrological design of permeable concrete pavements, Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol: 15, ISSN: 2214-5095

Permeable pavements are used to mitigate urban flooding. However, conventional concrete permeable pavements have low compressive strength and are prone to clogging, which degrades performance and reduces service life. A new type of permeable pavement, high-strength clogging resistant permeable pavement (CRP), has recently been developed that overcomes many limitations of conventional permeable pavements. This paper presents a new design methodology for CRP that takes into account both structural and hydrological considerations. This is used in 12 case studies which compare CRP with conventional permeable pavements. The results highlight several advantages of CRP and demonstrate that CRP with low porosity (∼5%) can cope with severe rainfall run-off volumes. The suitability of using CRP in both light and heavy load bearing applications is demonstrated. The research also shows that the use of CRP allows considerable reductions in pavement depth compared to conventional permeable pavements with reduced material costs.

Journal article

Zhou Y, Cai G, Cheeseman C, Li J, Poon CSet al., 2021, Sewage sludge ash-incorporated stabilisation/solidification for recycling and remediation of marine sediments, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Vol: 301, ISSN: 0301-4797

Journal article

Alzeer MIM, Nguyen H, Cheeseman C, Kinnunen Pet al., 2021, Alkali-Activation of synthetic aluminosilicate glass with basaltic composition, Frontiers in Chemistry, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2296-2646

Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are a potential alternative to Portland cement because they can have high strength, good durability and low environmental impact. This paper reports on the structural and mechanical characteristics of aluminosilicate glass with basalt-like compositions, as a feedstock for AAMs. The alkali-activation kinetics, microstructure, and mechanical performance of the alkali activated glass were investigated. The results show that AAMs prepared from basalt glass have high compressive strength (reaching up to 90 MPa after 7 days of hydration) compared to those made using granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS). In addition, calorimetry data show that the hydrolysis of the developed glass and subsequent polymerization of the reaction product occur at a faster rate compared to GBFS. Furthermore, the obtained results show that the alkali activation of the developed glass formed sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H) intermixed with Ca aluminosilicate hydrate gel (C-A-S-H), while the alkali activation of GBFS resulted in predominantly C-A-S-H gel. The developed glass can be formed from carbonate-free and abundant natural resources such as basalt rocks or mixtures of silicate minerals. Therefore, the glass reported herein has high potential as a new feedstock of AAMs.

Journal article

Zhang T, Zhou Z, Li M, He Z, Jia Y, Cheeseman CR, Shi Cet al., 2021, Effect of hydrated magnesium carbonate grown in situ on the property of MgO-activated reactive SiO2 mortars, JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS, ISSN: 2165-0373

Journal article

Wu C, Chen C, Cheeseman C, 2021, Size Effects on the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Plaster and PLA Parts, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING, Vol: 33, ISSN: 0899-1561

Journal article

Zhou Y, Lu J, Li J, Cheeseman C, Poon CSet al., 2021, Effect of NaCl and MgCl2 on the hydration of lime-pozzolan blend by recycling sewage sludge ash, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 313, ISSN: 0959-6526

Journal article

Zhou Y-F, Lu J-X, Li J-S, Cheeseman C, Poon CSet al., 2021, Hydration, mechanical properties and microstructure of lime-pozzolana pastes by recycling waste sludge ash under marine environment, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 310, ISSN: 0959-6526

Journal article

Auwerter LC-C, Cheeseman C, Templeton M, Van Reeuwijk Met al., 2021, Quantifying the durability of a friction-reducing surface with recoverable super-hydrophobicity, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol: 147, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0733-9429

The durability of superhydrophobic surfaces in fully immersed conditions is a major obstacle to their application in engineering applications. We perform an experimental study to measure the friction factor fd as a function of time for a new superhydrophobic surface that is capable of recovering the Cassie-Baxter wetting state. Values of fd were obtained by measuring the pressure drop and volume flux of a turbulent water flow in a 1.5 m long duct containing one superhydrophobic wall. The Reynolds number of the flow was approximately 4.5×104 for all experiments. Reductions in fd were 29%–36% relative to a hydraulically smooth surface. The Cassie-Baxter state could be recovered by blowing air through the porous surface for 10 min. The durability of the drag-reduction, as quantified by the relaxation time T in which the surface loses its superhydrophobic characteristics, were measured to be between 10 and 60 min depending on the initial head. The relaxation time T was highly dependent on the pressure difference across the surface. In contrast to models based on Darcy flow through a porous medium, the study indicates that there seems to be a critical pressure difference beyond which the Cassie-Baxter state cannot be sustained for the material under consideration.

Journal article

Yio M, Yue X, Ji R, Russell M, Cheeseman Cet al., 2021, Production of foamed glass-ceramics using furnace bottom ash and glass, Ceramics International, Vol: 47, Pages: 8697-8706, ISSN: 0272-8842

This research has produced foamed glass-ceramics from coal fired power station furnace bottom ash (FBA) and soda-lime-silica glass. The as-received FBA was wet milled with different additions of glass. The resultant slurry was dried and formed into a powder. The powder was pressed and sintered at a range of temperatures with additions of a fluxing agent (sodium tetraborate decahydrate), a bubble stabilising additive (tri-sodium phosphate) and a bloating agent (calcium carbonate) and this produced foamed FBA-glass-ceramics. The effect of glass content and sintering temperature on the properties of the sintered ceramic foams are reported. A range of potential applications including thermal insulation and biological filters for water and wastewater treatment are discussed. The research demonstrates that it is possible to engineer the properties of FBA derived glass-ceramic foams by careful control of the composition and processing conditions in order to transform a problematic waste into commercially interesting materials.

Journal article

Guan Y, Hu Z, Zhang Z, Chang J, Bi W, Cheeseman CR, Zhang Tet al., 2021, Effect of hydromagnesite addition on the properties and water resistance of magnesium oxysulfate (MOS) cement, CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, Vol: 143, ISSN: 0008-8846

Journal article

Scott A, Oze C, Shah V, Yang N, Shanks B, Cheeseman C, Marshall A, Watson Met al., 2021, Transformation of abundant magnesium silicate minerals for enhanced CO2 sequestration, COMMUNICATIONS EARTH & ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 2

Journal article

Dieckmann E, Onsiong R, Nagy B, Sheldrick L, Cheeseman Cet al., 2021, Valorization of waste feathers in the production of new thermal insulation materials, Waste and Biomass Valorization, Vol: 12, Pages: 1119-1131, ISSN: 1877-2641

Poultry has become the primary source of dietary protein consumed globally and as a result the by-product feathers are an increasingly problematic industrial waste. Developing a circular economy for feathers is, therefore, an important research area that provides an opportunity to make use of the unique combination of properties of this abundant natural material. This paper reports on the thermal properties of novel feather-based thermal insulation materials. Waste feathers were collected, cleaned and processed into fibres, which were then used to form air-laid nonwoven materials. These have a high fibre content and exploit the excellent natural thermal insulation properties of feathers. The performance of the novel materials developed are tested in order to outline the influence of temperature and density on thermal conductivity and dynamic water sorption. Results are compared to a range of commercially available thermal insulation materials for buildings manufactured from denim, hemp, sheep wool, PET and mineral wool. It was found that air laid feather-fibre fabrics have comparable performance to other fibrous materials and have a thermal conductivity of 0.033 W/(m K) for samples with a density of 59 kg/m3. This is due to the low thermal conductivity of feather fibres and the void structure formed by air-laid processing that effectively traps air. These materials additionally offer improved sustainability credentials as they are derived from a readily available waste that is generally considered to be unavoidable. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant technical and commercial barriers that exist to using waste feathers in thermal insulation products and suggests areas for further research that can exploit the unique properties of feathers.

Journal article

Zhou Y, Lu J, Li J, Cheeseman C, Poon CSet al., 2021, Influence of seawater on the mechanical and microstructural properties of lime-incineration sewage sludge ash pastes, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, Vol: 278, ISSN: 0950-0618

Journal article

Zhang T, Li T, Zhou Z, Li M, Jia Y, Cheeseman Cet al., 2020, A novel magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whisker-reinforced magnesium silicate hydrate composites, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol: 198, ISSN: 0961-9526

Magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whiskers are used to reinforce magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement mortars as novel microfibrous materials because of their similar pH. The microstructure, mechanical performance, and reinforcement mechanism were investigated, and the results showed that the addition of between 1 and 5 wt% MHSH whiskers improved the compressive and flexural strengths of M-S-H cement mortars. The optimal compressive and flexural strengths were obtained at MHSH whisker contents between 3 and 4 wt%. The MHSH whiskers had a limited effect on the toughness of M-S-H cement, and mortars reinforced with MHSH whiskers exhibited brittle failure due to the small size of MHSH whiskers and low fiber bridging traction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the microscale reinforcement mechanism of MHSH whiskers involved whisker pullout, crack deflection, whisker-cement coalition pullout, and whisker fracture. These mechanisms helped dissipate energy and optimize the stress distribution and transfer, which were crucial to improving the flexural strength. The SEM images revealed the rough and grooved surfaces of MHSH whiskers, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the presence of polar functional groups on the surface which resulted in the adhesion of M-S-H gel on MHSH whiskers due to good interfacial bonding. The mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) results indicated that the addition of MHSH whiskers reduced the porosity of M-S-H cement mortars, which also contributed to the increased compressive strength.

Journal article

Vilchez V, Dieckmann E, Tammelin T, Cheeseman C, Lee K-Yet al., 2020, Upcycling Poultry Feathers with (Nano)cellulose: Sustainable Composites Derived from Nonwoven Whole Feather Preforms, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, Vol: 8, Pages: 14263-14267, ISSN: 2168-0485

Journal article

Ferraro A, Colangelo F, Farina I, Race M, Cioffi R, Cheeseman C, Fabbricino Met al., 2020, Cold-bonding process for treatment and reuse of waste materials: Technical designs and applications of pelletized products, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol: 51, Pages: 2197-2231, ISSN: 1064-3389

This work provides a comprehensive review of research on the cold-bonding pelletization process used to produce lightweight aggregates (LWAs) using waste materials, to valorize the waste and, at the same time, minimize risks related to disposal. Research investigating various aspects of the cold-bonding process highlight: i) feasible mix-designs for pellet production; ii) the most relevant operating parameters affecting the process; and iii) the potential applications of the LWAs produced. The analysis gives a wide overview of the fundamental key-points that control the cold-bonding process. Data comparison provides a useful way to identify the optimal process conditions to allow development of optimum products. This involves the selection of the correct mix-design, including suitable binders and potential additives, and the selection of appropriate operating conditions, which are a function of the waste investigated, and/or waste mix characteristics. The review proposes an optimized approach to experimental studies on cold-bonding processes that has potential to enhance future process performance. Moreover, the present work provides a complete framework useful for decision-making for both manufacturers and researchers working to use this promising technique.

Journal article

Zhao Y, Dieckmann E, Cheeseman C, 2020, Low-temperature thermal insulation materials with high impact resistance made from feather-fibres, Materials Letters: X, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 2590-1508

Thermal insulation materials typically used in low-temperature applications such as pipelines for transporting liquid natural gas can become brittle and are therefore susceptible to impact damage. New feather-fibre biomaterials developed in this work have extremely low thermal conductivity but retain high impact resistance at low-temperatures. The experiments reported demonstrate the improved impact resistance of feather fibre biomaterials compared to foamed nitrile rubber. The microstructural characteristics of feather-fibre biomaterials that allow them to be used as impact resistant thermal insulation at low-temperatures are discussed.

Journal article

Zhou Y-F, Li J-S, Lu J-X, Cheeseman C, Poon CSet al., 2020, Sewage sludge ash: A comparative evaluation with fly ash for potential use as lime-pozzolan binders, Construction and Building Materials, Vol: 242, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0950-0618

The disposal of sewage sludge ash (SSA) has become an environmental issue due to the limited available landfill space. This study aims at applying the finely-ground sewage sludge ash (FSSA) with quicklime and hydrated lime to develop a new type of lime-pozzolan system and study the effects of different types of lime on the mechanical properties of the systems. A traditional pozzolanic material (i.e. coal fly ash (FA)) was also used to compare with the FSSA. Multiple techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to assess the hydration kinetics and microscopic characteristics of the lime-pozzolan systems. The results showed that the quicklime system exhibited lower strength than the hydrated lime system, which was due to its lower reaction degree with the FSSA and the higher porosity caused by the expansion during the vigorous hydration reaction of quicklime. Compared to FA, the FSSA attained higher strength for the whole curing period (up to 90 d) in the lime system due to the highly porous nature of FSSA leading to a lower effective water to binder ratio. However, in the hydrated lime system, due to the higher overall pozzolanic activity of FA, its long-term strength values gradually improved. Besides, calcium phosphate hydrate crystals were detected by XRD in the FSSA; while some clinotobermorite was found in the FA both from XRD and SEM, which might govern the strength gain in the lime-FA system. Overall, the application of FSSA as a pozzolan in the lime-pozzolan system could be a promising option to both relieve the waste disposal pressure and provide a potential sustainable construction material.

Journal article

Fang L, Wang Q, Li J-S, Poon CS, Cheeseman CR, Donatello S, Tsang DCWet al., 2020, Feasibility of wet-extraction of phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) for phosphate fertilizer production: A critical review, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Pages: 1-33, ISSN: 1064-3389

Journal article

Dieckmann E, Sheldrick L, Tennant M, Myers R, Cheeseman Cet al., 2020, Analysis of barriers to transitioning from a linear to a circular economy for end of life materials: a case study for waste feathers, Sustainability, Vol: 12, Pages: 1725-1725, ISSN: 2071-1050

This research aimed to develop a simple but robust method to identify the key barriers to the transition from a linear to a circular economy (CE) for end of life products or material. Nine top-tier barrier categories have been identified that influence this transition. These relate to the basic material properties and product characteristics, the availability of suitable processing technology, the environmental impacts associated with current linear management, the organizational context, industry and supply chain issues, external drivers, public perception, the regulatory framework and the overall economic viability of the transition. The method provides a novel and rapid way to identify and quantitatively assess the barriers to the development of CE products. This allows mitigation steps to be developed in parallel with new product design. The method has been used to assess the potential barriers to developing a circular economy for waste feathers generated by the UK poultry industry. This showed that transitioning UK waste feathers to circularity faces significant barriers across numerous categories and is not currently economically viable. The assessment method developed provides a novel approach to identifying barriers to circularity and has potential to be applied to a wide range of end of life materials and products.

Journal article

Zhang T, Zou J, Li Y, Jia Y, Cheeseman CRet al., 2020, Stabilization/Solidification of Strontium Using Magnesium Silicate Hydrate Cement, Processes, Vol: 8, Pages: 163-163, ISSN: 2227-9717

<jats:p>Magnesium silicate hydrate (M–S–H) cement, formed by reacting MgO, SiO2, and H2O, was used to encapsulate strontium (Sr) radionuclide. Samples were prepared using light-burned magnesium oxide and silica fume, with sodium hexametaphosphate added to the mix water as a dispersant. The performance of the materials formed was evaluated by leach testing and the microstructure of the samples was also characterized. The stabilizing/solidifying effect on Sr radionuclide in the MgO–SiO2–H2O system with low alkalinity is demonstrated in the study. The leaching rate in a standard 42-day test was 2.53 × 10−4 cm/d, and the cumulative 42-day leaching fraction was 0.06 cm. This meets the relevant national standard performance for leaching requirements. Sr2+ was effectively incorporated into the M–S–H hydration products and new phase formation resulted in low Sr leaching being observed.</jats:p>

Journal article

Fang L, Li J-S, Donatello S, Cheeseman CR, Poon CS, Tsang DCWet al., 2020, Use of Mg/Ca modified biochars to take up phosphorus from acid-extract of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) for fertilizer application, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 244, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0959-6526

Recovery of phosphorus (P) from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) by biochar is an attractive solution for mitigating the P scarcity and transferring waste to resources. This work used Mg/Ca-modified biochars to take up P from the acid-extract from ISSA at low pH (<2), which simplified the previous P recycling process. The hypothesis is to produce a P-enriched post-sorption biochar that can be directly applied as a P fertilizer. Wastes of peanut shell and sugarcane bagasse were used to synthesize Mg/Ca-modified biochars at pyrolysis temperatures of 450 °C, 700 °C and 850 °C. Preliminary results indicated Mg-modified sugarcane bagasse biochar pyrolysed at 700 °C produced optimal P-absorption. This biochar was positively charged and had a high specific surface area (1440 m2/g), consistent with a layered porous structure. The optimal biochar showed rapid adsorption of P which could be described by the pseudo-second-order model. Successful adsorption of P from the acid-extract by the optimal biochar was mainly due to chemical precipitation and its adsorption capacity is 129.79 mg P/g biochar.

Journal article

Zhou Y-F, Li J-S, Lu J-X, Cheeseman C, Poon CSet al., 2020, Recycling incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) as a cementitious binder by lime activation, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 244, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0959-6526

Incineration is used to manage sewage sludge in many countries and regions including Hong Kong. This generates a huge amount of incinerated sewage sludge ash, the disposal of which is an environmental issue. In this research, an eco-friendly cementitious binder was developed by adding 10, 20, and 30 wt % of lime into sludge ash to obtain different lime/sewage sludge ash ratios. The same amounts of ordinary Portland cement were also added to the equivalent batches of sewage sludge ash for comparing the two systems. Paste samples were characterised for heat of hydration, mechanical properties and thermogravimetric analysis. Microstructural analysis using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and the factors controlling strength development are reported. The results show that sewage sludge ash accelerated the hydration rate of cement, and the lime pastes with sewage sludge ash showed larger amounts of heat and higher reactivity than the cement pastes with sewage sludge ash. Considering the lime-based binder was mainly proposed for the production of controlled low strength materials, within the lime system the optimum mechanical properties (compressive strength) were achieved by the 30% lime with sewage sludge ash mix and the strength value showed remarkable improvement from 28 to 90 days of curing. The crystalline phases responsible for the strength development in the lime-based system were mainly brushite and calcium phosphate hydrates. The lime with sewage sludge ash mix has potential to be used for the development of new controlled low-strength materials.

Journal article

Li JS, Fang L, Wang Q, Tsang DCW, Donatello S, Cheeseman CR, Poon CSet al., 2020, Phosphorus (P) recovery and reuse as fertilizer from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Resource Recovery from Wastes, Pages: 263-288, ISBN: 9780444643223

Phosphorus (P), an essential macromineral, is fundamental to all living things. Alarmingly, P is consumed in excess in most countries, and the known P source will be run out within several decades. Therefore, looking for alternative P sources from P-bearing wastes is significant and urgent, which can not only recycle P resources but also avoid the huge cost of disposing these wastes. P-rich incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is a by-product of the incineration process of dewatered sewage sludge generated from sewage treatment plants. The P in the ISSA, if economically and environmentally recycled, can achieve the sustainable management of sewage sludge and P resources. In this chapter, the comprehensive physical and chemical characteristics of Hong Kong ISSA are discussed. The leachability and the associated environmental risk of metal(loid)s from the ISSA are highlighted in an attempt to improve the public perception of sewage sludge incineration from an environmental perspective. Afterward, a series of laboratory-scale processes for extracting P from the ISSA to form fertilizer products (Ca-P and struvite) are introduced. Especially, an innovative two-step extraction method and a struvite crystallization technology are developed to obtain a P extract with high purity. In addition, the characteristics and reuse values of P-free ISSA are evaluated. Lastly, future research needs are assessed with emphasis placed on P reclamation from the ISSA and application in agriculture. This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art recycling options of ISSA and thereby proposes innovative technologies to use ISSA as a valuable resource by extracting P and producing fertilizers.

Book chapter

Nakic D, Vouk D, Serdar M, Cheeseman CRet al., 2020, Use of MID-MIX® treated sewage sludge in cement mortars and concrete, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Vol: 24, Pages: 1483-1498, ISSN: 1964-8189

Developing beneficial applications for sewage sludge is a key challenge in many countries, given the amount of sludge generated and the disposal or recycling options currently available. Sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant at Koprivnica in Croatia has been treated using MID-MIX ® technology that involves the addition of Ca(OH) 2 and CaO to dewatered sludge. This produces a low-density non-hazardous white-grey powder. The treated sewage sludge has been heated to 800, 900 and 1000 °C to form MID-MIX ® treated sewage sludge ash with reduced organic content. MID-MIX ® treated sewage sludge and ash have been used to replace 10 and 20% of cement in mortar and concrete samples. The addition of MID-MIX ® treated sewage sludge causes a significant increase in void content which reduces the mechanical properties and durability of mortar and concrete samples. However, replacement of cement by MID-MIX ® ash did not significantly affect the strength, water penetration or gas permeability compared to control samples. Leaching tests on MID-MIX ® powder, MID-MIX ® ash and mortar samples produced low levels of heavy metal release. The research shows that thermally processed MID-MIX ® treated sewage sludge produces an ash product that has potential to be beneficially used in cementitious materials for selected applications.

Journal article

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