Imperial College London

ProfessorChristopherGourlay

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Materials

Professor of Physical Metallurgy
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 8707c.gourlay

 
 
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Location

 

301DBessemer BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

144 results found

Tan XF, Belyakov S, Su TC, Gu Q, Liu S, McDonald S, Gourlay C, Yasuda H, Matsumura S, Nogita Ket al., 2021, Rapid fabrication of tin-copper anodes for lithium-ion battery applications, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol: 867, ISSN: 0925-8388

The intermetallic Cu6Sn5 is ubiquitous in electronic interconnects where research has focused on controlling the size and distribution of this phase for improved performance. Cu6Sn5 also finds application as an anode material for advanced lithium-ion batteries. Cu6Sn5 anodes can be fabricated via an in-situ growth method involving the reaction between molten Sn and the Cu current collector. This manufacturing route offers some advantages over traditional anode fabrication however the process is slow, limiting its practical application. In this work we show the addition of 6 wt% Ni to the Cu current collector greatly accelerates the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 in Cu-xNi/Sn solid-melt couples, leading to a growth rate of up to 50x faster, reducing the processing time above 200 °C to less than 10 min. This research studies the dynamics of the formation of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 between Cu-xNi alloys and liquid Sn through real-time observation using synchrotron X-ray imaging. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 growth dynamics are characterised, and the growth kinetics are analysed. Subsequently, the mechanism of the accelerated growth is investigated with electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show the accelerated growth is due to the formation of η-(Cu,Ni)6Sn5 grains with two distinct Ni concentration ranges, leading to finer grains and spalling, which in turn facilitates the diffusion of Sn, enhancing the η-(Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formation kinetics.

Journal article

Altuhafi FN, O'Sullivan C, Sammonds P, Su T-C, Gourlay Cet al., 2021, Triaxial compression on semi-solid alloys, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Vol: 52, Pages: 2010-2023, ISSN: 1073-5623

Multi-axial compression of the mushy zone occurs in various pressurized casting processes. Here, we present a drained triaxial compression apparatus for semi-solid alloys that allow liquid to be drawn into or expelled from the sample in response to isotropic or triaxial compression. The rig is used to measure the pressure-dependent flow stress and volumetric response during isothermal triaxial compression of globular semi-solid Al-15 wt pct Cu at 70 to 85 vol pct solid. Analysis of the stress paths and the stress–volume data show that the combination of the solid fraction and mean effective pressure determines whether the material undergoes shear-induced dilation or contraction. The results are compared with the critical state soil mechanics (CSSM) framework and the similarities and differences in behavior between equiaxed semi-solid alloys and soils are discussed.

Journal article

Daszki AA, Gourlay CM, 2021, On the 3-D shape of interlaced regions in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder balls, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol: 50, Pages: 808-817, ISSN: 0361-5235

The microstructure of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder joints plays an important role in the reliability of electronics, and interlaced twinning has been linked with improved performance. Here, we study the three-dimensional (3-D) shape of interlaced regions in Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder balls by combining serial sectioning with electron backscatter diffraction. In solder balls without large Ag3Sn plates, we show that the interlaced volume can be reasonably approximated as a hollow double cone with the common 〈100〉 twinning axis as the cone axis, and the 〈110〉 from all three twinned orientations making up the cone sides. This 3-D morphology can explain a range of partially interlaced morphologies in past work on 2-D cross-sections.

Journal article

Belyakov SA, Coyle RJ, Arfaei B, Xian JW, Gourlay CMet al., 2021, Microstructure and damage evolution during thermal cycling of Sn-Ag-Cu solders containing antimony, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol: 50, Pages: 825-841, ISSN: 0361-5235

Antimony is attracting interest as an addition to Pb-free solders to improve thermal cycling performance in harsher conditions. Here, we investigate microstructure evolution and failure in harsh accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) of a Sn-3.8Ag-0.9Cu solder with 5.5 wt.% antimony as the major addition in two ball grid array (BGA) packages. SbSn particles are shown to precipitate on both Cu6Sn5 and as cuboids in β-Sn, with reproducible orientation relationships and a good lattice match. Similar to Sn-Ag-Cu solders, the microstructure and damage evolution were generally localised in the β-Sn near the component side where localised β-Sn misorientations and subgrains, accelerated SbSn and Ag3Sn particle coarsening, and β-Sn recrystallisation occurred. Cracks grew along the network of recrystallised grain boundaries to failure. The improved ATC performance is mostly attributed to SbSn solid-state precipitation within β-Sn dendrites, which supplements the Ag3Sn that formed in a eutectic reaction between β-Sn dendrites, providing populations of strengthening particles in both the dendritic and eutectic β-Sn.

Journal article

Peng L, Zeng G, Lin CJ, Gourlay CMet al., 2021, Al2MgC2 and AlFe3C formation in AZ91 Mg alloy melted in Fe-C crucibles, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol: 854, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0925-8388

Magnesium alloys are commonly melted and held in steel or cast iron crucibles and small but important amounts of Fe and C can dissolve into Mg-rich melts. Here, carbide formation is studied during interface reactions between solid Fe-xC alloys (x = 0–3.6 wt%) and liquid Mg-9Al-0.7Zn-0.2Mn (wt.%, AZ91) at temperatures from 700 to 800 °C. Two ternary carbides, AlFe3C and Al2MgC2, formed in the reaction layers between the Fe-C and AZ91, and T2-Al2MgC2 additionally formed within the AZ91 alloy due to carbon pickup. T2-Al2MgC2 grew in liquid AZ91 as hexagonal plates that were commonly twinned. A reproducible orientation relationship was measured between T2-Al2MgC2 and α-Mg, and the grain refinement of magnesium by heterogeneous nucleation on T2-Al2MgC2 is explored.

Journal article

Xu Y, Gu T, Xian J, Giuliani F, Britton T, Gourlay C, Dunne Fet al., 2021, Intermetallic size and morphology effects on creep rate of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder, International Journal of Plasticity, Vol: 137, ISSN: 0749-6419

The creep behaviour of directionally solidified SAC305 (96.5Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu wt%) alloy has been investigated with integrated particle matrix composite (PMC) crystal plasticity modelling and quantitative experimental characterisation and test. In this manuscript, the mechanistic basis of creep rate dependence is shown to be influenced by plastic strain gradients, and the associated hardening due to geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density. These gradients are created due to heterogenous deformation at the Sn phase and intermetallic compound (IMCs) boundaries. The size and distribution of IMCs is important, as finer and well dispersed IMCs leading to higher creep resistance and lower creep rates, and this agrees with experimental observations. This understanding has enabled the creation of a new microstructurally homogenized model which captures this mechanistic link between the GND hardening, the intermetallic size, and the corresponding creep rate. The homogenised model relates creep rates to the microstructure found within the solder alloy as they evolve in service, when ageing and coarsening kinetics are known.

Journal article

Gu T, Gourlay CM, Britton TB, 2021, The role of lengthscale in the creep of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder microstructures, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol: 50, Pages: 926-938, ISSN: 0361-5235

Creep of directionally solidified Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu wt.% (SAC305) samples with near-<110> orientation along the loading direction and different microstructural lengthscale is investigated under constant load tensile testing and at a range of temperatures. The creep performance improves by refining the microstructure, i.e. the decrease in secondary dendrite arm spacing (λ2), eutectic intermetallic spacing (λe) and intermetallic compound (IMC) size, indicating a longer creep lifetime, lower creep strain rate, change in activation energy (Q) and increase in ductility and homogeneity in macro- and micro-structural deformation of the samples. The dominating creep mechanism is obstacle-controlled dislocation creep at room temperature and transits to lattice-associated vacancy diffusion creep at elevated temperature (TTM > 0.7 to 0.75). The deformation mechanisms are investigated using electron backscatter diffraction and strain heterogeneity is identified between β-Sn in dendrites and β-Sn in eutectic regions containing Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 particles. The size of the recrystallised grains is modulated by the dendritic and eutectic spacings; however, the recrystalised grains in the eutectic regions for coarse-scaled samples (largest λ2 and λe) is only localised next to IMCs without growth in size.

Journal article

Xian JW, Belyakov SA, Gourlay CM, 2020, Time-lapse imaging of Ag3Sn thermal coarsening in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder joints, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol: 50, Pages: 786-795, ISSN: 0361-5235

The coarsening of Ag3Sn particles occurs during the operation of joints and plays an important role in failure. Here, Ag3Sn coarsening is studied at 125°C in the eutectic regions of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu/Cu solder joints by SEM-based time-lapse imaging. Using multi-step thresholding segmentation and image analysis, it is shown that coalescence of Ag3Sn particles is an important ripening process in addition to LSW-like Ostwald ripening. About 10% of the initial Ag3Sn particles coalesced during ageing, coalescence occurred uniformly across eutectic regions, and the scaled size distribution histograms contained large particles that can be best fit by the Takajo model of coalescence ripening. Similar macroscopic coarsening kinetics were measured between the surface and bulk Ag3Sn particles. Tracking of individual surface particles showed an interplay between the growth/shrinkage and coalescence of Ag3Sn.

Journal article

Gu T, Tong V, Gourlay C, Britton Tet al., 2020, In-situ study of creep in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder, Acta Materialia, Vol: 196, Pages: 31-43, ISSN: 1359-6454

The creep behaviour and microstructural evolution of a Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu wt% sample with a columnar microstructure have been investigated through in-situ creep testing under constant stress of 30 MPa at ~298 K. This is important, as 298 K is high temperature within the solder system and in-situ observations of microstructure evolution confirm the mechanisms involved in deformation and ultimately failure of the material. The sample has been observed in-situ using repeat and automatic forescatter diode and auto electron backscatter diffraction imaging. During deformation, polygonisation and recrystallisation are observed heterogeneously with increasing strain, and these correlate with local lattice rotations near matrix-intermetallic compound interfaces. Recrystallised grains have either twin or special boundary relationships to their parent grains. The combination of these two imaging methods reveal grain 1 (loading direction, LD, 10.4° from [100]) deforms less than the neighbour grain 2 (LD 18.8° from [110]), with slip traces in the strain localised regions. In grain 2, (10)[001] slip system is observed and in grain 1 (10)[1]/2 and (110)[11]/2 slip systems are observed. Lattice orientation gradients build up with increasing plastic strain and near fracture recrystallisation is observed concurrent with fracture.

Journal article

Feng S, Cui Y, Liotti E, Lui A, Gourlay CM, Grant PSet al., 2020, In-situ X-ray radiography of twinned crystal growth of primary Al13Fe4, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 184, Pages: 57-62, ISSN: 1359-6462

The faceted growth of primary Al13Fe4 intermetallic compounds was studied using in-situ X-ray radiography in a solidifying Al-3Fe alloy. Microscopic twins were frequently observed in the growing intermetallics and were confirmed by post-solidification electron backscatter diffraction. A twin plane re-entrant growth mechanism was suggested, where repeated formation of re-entrant corners facilitated crystal growth along a preferential direction, forming elongated plates. In contrast, for intermetallics where this preferential growth was constrained by surrounding crystals, formation of layered twins perpendicular to the preferential direction was promoted and led to lower aspect ratios, known to be less deleterious to tensile properties.

Journal article

Su TC, O'Sullivan C, Yasuda H, Gourlay CMet al., 2020, Rheological transitions in semi-solid alloys: in-situ imaging and LBM-DEM simulations, Acta Materialia, Vol: 191, Pages: 24-42, ISSN: 1359-6454

Rheological transitions from suspension flow to granular deformation and shear cracking are investigated in equiaxed-globular semi-solid alloys by combining synchrotron radiography experiments with coupled lattice Boltzmann method, discrete element method (LBM-DEM) simulations. The experiments enabled a deformation mechanism map to be plotted as a function of solid fraction and shear rate, including a rate dependence for the transition from net-contraction to net-dilation, and for the initiation of shear cracking. The LBM-DEM simulations are in quantitative agreement with the experiments, both in terms of the strain fields in individual experiments and the deformation mechanism map from all experiments. The simulations are used to explore the factors affecting the shear rate dependence of the volumetric strain and transitions. The simulations further show that shear cracking is caused by a local liquid pressure drop due to unfed dilatancy, and the cracking location and its solid fraction and shear rate dependence were reproduced in the simulations using a criterion that cracking occurs when the local liquid pressure drops below a critical value.

Journal article

Zeng G, Shuai SS, Zhu XZ, Ji SX, Xian JW, Gourlay CMet al., 2020, Al8Mn5 in high-pressure Die Cast AZ91: twinning, morphology and size distributions, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol: 51, Pages: 2523-2535, ISSN: 1073-5623

Manganese-bearing intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are important for limiting micro-galvanic corrosion of magnesium-aluminum alloys and can initiate cracks under tensile load. Here, we use electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), deep etching, and focussed ion beam (FIB) tomography to investigate the types of Al-Mn phases present, their faceted growth crystallography, and their three-dimensional distribution at different locations in high-pressure die cast (HPDC) AZ91D. The Al-Mn particle size distributions were well-described by lognormal distributions but with an additional population of externally solidified crystals (ESCs) formed in the shot chamber analogous to α-Mg ESCs. The large Al8Mn5 particles were cyclic twinned. Differences in the particle size distributions and number density in the center compared with the HPDC skin are identified, and the spatial relationship between Mg17Al12 and Al-Mn particles is explored.

Journal article

Cui Y, King DJM, Horsfield AP, Gourlay CMet al., 2020, Solidification orientation relationships between Al3Ti and TiB2, Acta Materialia, Vol: 186, Pages: 149-161, ISSN: 1359-6454

Orientation relationships (ORs) can form during solidification by a variety of mechanisms that are often difficult to distinguish after solidification. Here we study three ORs formed by the nucleation of Al3Ti on TiB2, and by the pushing and engulfment of TiB2 by growing Al3Ti facets in hyperperitectic Al-rich melts. The nucleation OR is identified by growing a relatively large TiB2 crystal, solidifying multiple small Al3Ti crystals on one (0001) facet of TiB2, and measuring the resulting OR by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Pushing and engulfment ORs are investigated by statistical analysis of EBSD measurements, density functional theory (DFT) calculations of interface energies, and imaging of cross-sections of TiB2 particles being pushed and engulfed by Al3Ti facets. It is shown that the lowest energy OR is formed by nucleation as well as by pushing/engulfment. The higher energy ORs, formed by pushing and engulfment, correspond to local interfacial energy minima and can be explained by rotation of TiB2 particles on Al3Ti facets during pushing.

Journal article

Pham M-S, Dovgyy B, Hooper P, Christopher G, Alessandro Pet al., 2020, The role of side-branching in microstructure development in laser powder-bed fusion, Nature Communications, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2041-1723

In-depth understanding of microstructure development is required to fabricate high quality products by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). Here we report the governing role of side-branching in the microstructure development of alloys by laser powder bed fusion. We show that perturbations on the sides of cells (or dendrites) facilitate crystals to change growth direction by side-branching along orthogonal directions in response to changes in local heat flux. While the continuous epitaxial growth is responsible for slender columnar grains confined to the centreline of melt pools, side-branching frequently happening on the sides of melt pools enables crystals to follow drastic changes in thermal gradient across adjacent melt pools, resulting in substantial broadening of grains. The variation of scan pattern can interrupt the vertical columnar microstructure, but promotes both in-layer and out-of-layer side-branching, in particular resulting in the helical growth of microstructure in a chessboard strategy with 67 rotation between layers.

Journal article

Gu T, Xu Y, Gourlay CM, Britton TBet al., 2020, In-situ electron backscatter diffraction of thermal cycling in a single grain Cu/Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu/Cu solder joint, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 175, Pages: 55-60, ISSN: 1359-6462

The heterogeneous evolution of microstructure in a single grain Cu/SAC305/Cu solder joint is investigated using in-situ thermal cycling combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Local deformation due to thermal expansion mismatch results in heterogeneous lattice rotation within the joint, localised towards the corners. This deformation is induced by the constraint and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the β-Sn, Cu6Sn5 and Cu at interfaces. The formation of subgrains with continuous increase in misorientation is revealed during deformation, implying the accumulation of plastic slip at the strain-localised regions and the activation of slip systems (110)[11]/2 and (0)[111]/2.

Journal article

Nishimura T, Sweatman K, Nishimura T, Gourlay C, Ma Z, Belyakov Set al., 2019, Solder joint and bonding method, WO2019009427A1

Provided are a solder joint in which βSn grains are oriented in a specific desired direction, the βSn grains having a desired structure, and a bonding method relating to the solder joint. Provided is a solder joint in which at least two copper substrates (2) are bonded to each other using a lead-free solder alloy including Sn. A solder ball (1) relating to the lead-free solder alloy comprises: one or a plurality of nucleation grains (4); and a single grain βSn of which a [001] direction is parallel with a facet plane of the nucleation grains (4), and which is crystal-oriented in a specific direction with respect to the copper substrates (2).

Patent

Belyakov SA, Arfaei B, Johnson C, Howell K, Coyle R, Gourlay Cet al., 2019, Phase stability and solid solubility in high reliability Pb-free solders containing Bi, Sb or In, SMTA International

Conference paper

Belyakov SA, Sweatman K, Akaiwa T, Nishimura T, Gourlay Cet al., 2019, Precipitation of (Bi) and SbSn phases in next-generation Pb-free solders, SMTA International

Conference paper

Peng L, Zeng G, Su TC, Yasuda H, Nogita K, Gourlay CMet al., 2019, Al8Mn5 particle settling and interactions with oxide films in liquid AZ91 magnesium alloys, JOM, Vol: 71, Pages: 2235-2244, ISSN: 1047-4838

Al8Mn5 particles form as primary solidification phases in Mg-Al-based alloys and are important for ensuring adequate corrosion resistance. However, excessive Al8Mn5 formation above the α-Mg liquidus temperature can lead to sludge formation, and the clustering of Al8Mn5 particles on oxide films can generate deleterious casting defects. Here, we use analytical SEM and real-time synchrotron x-ray radiography to study Al8Mn5 particle settling, the formation of a sludge layer, and the mechanism of Al8Mn5 clustering on oxides in AZ91 containing two Fe levels. It is shown that settling Al8Mn5 can become trapped in entrained oxide and that new Al8Mn5 particles also seem to nucleate on oxide films. On cooling, these Al8Mn5 particles continue to grow, creating large Al8Mn5 clusters.

Journal article

Ma ZL, Shang H, Daszki AA, Belyakov SA, Gourlay CMet al., 2019, Mechanisms of beta-Sn nucleation and microstructure evolution in Sn-Ag-Cu solders containing titanium, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol: 777, Pages: 1357-1366, ISSN: 0925-8388

The mechanisms by which Ti additions catalyse the nucleation of β-Sn are studied in 550 μm Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu (wt%) solder balls and joints on Cu and Ni substrates. It is shown that at least two new intermetallic compounds (IMCs), Ti2Sn3 and (Ti,Fe,Cu)Sn2, form as a result of a 0.2 wt% Ti addition. The nucleation potential of each IMC was studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of tin droplets solidified on the cross sectioned facets of each IMC. It is found that reproducible orientation relationships (ORs) form only between β-Sn and Ti2Sn3 and that the two ORs generate good atomic matching between the Sn atoms in Ti2Sn3 and the closest packed plane in β-Sn, {100}. β-Sn cyclic twinning occurred in droplets on Ti2Sn3 where the twinning axis 〈100〉Sn was always parallel with the lowest disregistry direction in the ORs. In solder balls and joints, the Ti2Sn3 addition triggered up to 12 independent β-Sn grains, whereas Ti-free SAC305 always solidified with one independent grain.

Journal article

Su T-C, O'Sullivan C, Nagira T, Yasuda H, Gourlay Cet al., 2019, Semi-solid deformation of Al-Cu alloys: a quantitative comparison between real-time imaging and coupled LBM-DEM simulations, Acta Materialia, Vol: 163, Pages: 208-225, ISSN: 1359-6454

Semi-solid alloys are deformed in a wide range of casting processes; an improved understanding and modelling capability is required to minimise defect formation and optimise productivity. Here we combine thin-sample in-situ X-ray radiography of semisolid Al-Cu alloy deformation at 40–70% solid with 2D coupled lattice Boltzmann method - discrete element method (LBM-DEM) simulations. The simulations quantitatively capture the key features of the in-situ experiments, including (i) the local contraction and dilation of the grain assembly during shear deformation; (ii) the heterogeneous strain fields and localisation features; (iii) increases in local liquid pressure in regions where liquid was expelled from the free surface in the experiment; and (iv) decreases in liquid pressure in regions where surface menisci are sucked-in in experiments. The verified DEM simulations provide new insights into the role of initial solid fraction on the stress-deformation response and support the hypothesis that the behaviour of semi-solid alloys can be described using critical state soil mechanics.

Journal article

Belyakov SA, Nishimura T, Akaiwa T, Sweatman K, Nogita K, Gourlay CMet al., 2019, Role of Bi, Sb and In in microstructure formation and properties of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni-X BGA interconnections, International Conference on Electronics Packaging (ICEP), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 235-239

Conference paper

Belyakov S, Xian J, Zeng G, Sweatman K, Nishimura T, Akaiwa T, Gourlay Cet al., 2019, Precipitation and coarsening of bismuth plates in Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi and Sn-Cu-Ni-Bi solder joints, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol: 30, Pages: 378-390, ISSN: 0957-4522

In recent years there has been increased interest in Bi-containing solders to improve the reliability of electronics and drive down processing temperatures. When the Bi content is more than ~ 2 wt% in Sn–Ag–Cu–Bi and Sn–Cu–Ni–Bi solders, (Bi) phase forms by a non-equilibrium eutectic reaction and also precipitates in the solid state. Here, we study the development of bismuth plates during room temperature storage in a range of Bi-containing solders. It is shown that Bi plates precipitate with one of two (Bi)–βSn orientation relationships (ORs). During coarsening the OR with the better lattice match grows at the expense of the other, leading to a single OR. The plate coarsening kinetics scale with the cube root of holding time and are relatively rapid, with plates exceeding 1 µm in length within 1 day at room temperature. Prolonged room temperature storage of more than 1 year resulted in Bi accumulation in 5–20 µm (Bi) particles at βSn grain boundaries.

Journal article

Gu T, Gourlay C, Britton T, 2019, Evaluating creep deformation in controlled microstructures of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder, Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol: 48, Pages: 107-121, ISSN: 0361-5235

The reliability of solder joints is affected significantly by thermomechanical properties such as creep and thermal fatigue. In this work, the creep of directionally solidified (DS) Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu wt.% (SAC305) dog-bone samples (gauge dimension: 10 × 2 × 1.5 mm) with a controlled <110> or <100> fibre texture is investigated under constant load testing (stress level: ∼ 30 MPa) at a range of temperatures from 20°C to 200°C. Tensile testing is performed and the secondary creep strain rate and the localised strain gradient are studied by two-dimensional optical digital image correlation (2-D DIC). The dominating creep mechanisms and their temperature dependence are explored at the microstructural scale using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), which enables the understanding of the microstructural heterogeneity of creep mechanisms at different strain levels, temperatures and strain rates. Formation of subgrains and the development of recrystallization are observed with increasing strain levels. Differences in the deformation of β-Sn in dendrites and in the eutectic regions containing Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 are studied and related to changes in local deformation mechanisms.

Journal article

Gourlay CM, Arfaei B, 2019, Advances in electronic interconnection materials, JOM, Vol: 71, Pages: 131-132, ISSN: 1047-4838

Journal article

Xian J, Mohd Salleh A, Belyakov S, Su T, Zeng G, Nogita K, Yasuda H, Gourlay Cet al., 2018, Influence of Ni on the refinement and twinning of primary Cu6Sn5 in Sn0.7Cu-0.05Ni, Intermetallics, Vol: 102, Pages: 34-45, ISSN: 0966-9795

The influence of Ni on the size and twinning of primary Cu6Sn5 crystals in Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni and Sn-xCu (x = 0.7, 0.9, 1.1) (mass%) solder joints is studied using synchrotron radiography and SEM-based EBSD. It is shown that the Ni addition does not cause significant refinement of primary Cu6Sn5 if the alloy is fully melted. However, for peak temperatures ≤250 °C relevant to industrial soldering, primary Cu6Sn5 are not completely melted in Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni and there are 10–100 times more numerous and smaller crystals than in Sn-0.7Cu. X-shaped Cu6Sn5 crystals with an angle of ∼70° commonly formed in Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni/Cu joints and are shown to be penetration twins. This type of growth twinning was only found in partially melted samples, both in Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni/Cu joints and binary Sn-1.1Cu alloy. The frequency of twinned crystals was significantly higher in Ni-containing solders. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of Ni on the Cu6Sn5 liquidus slope and on the lattice parameters of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5.

Journal article

Hsu Y, Zeng G, Xian JW, Belyakov SA, Gourlay CMet al., 2018, Tailoring the Cu6Sn5 layer texture with Ni additions in Sn-Ag-Cu based solder joints, 7th Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

Ma ZL, Belyakov SA, Xian JW, Nishimura T, Sweatman K, Gourlay CMet al., 2018, Controlling BGA joint microstructures using seed crystals, 7th Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

Piglione A, Dovgyy B, Liu C, Gourlay C, Hooper P, Pham Met al., 2018, Printability and microstructure of the CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy fabricated by laser powder bed fusion, Materials Letters, Vol: 224, Pages: 22-25, ISSN: 0167-577X

The CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy is a promising candidate for metal additive manufacturing. In this study, single-layer and multi-layer builds were produced by laser powder bed fusion to study microstructure formation in rapid cooling and its evolution during repeated metal deposition. CoCrFeMnNi showed good printability with high consolidation and uniform high hardness. It is shown that microstructure in the printed alloy is governed by epitaxial growth and competitive grain growth. As a consequence, a bi-directional scanning pattern without rotation in subsequent layers generates a dominant alternating sequence of two crystal orientations.

Journal article

Zeng G, Xian J, Gourlay C, 2018, Nucleation and growth crystallography of Al8Mn5 on B2-Al(Mn,Fe) in AZ91magnesium alloys, Acta Materialia, Vol: 153, Pages: 364-376, ISSN: 1359-6454

Manganese is widely added to Mg-Al-based alloys to form Al-(Mn,Fe) intermetallics that combat impurity Fe. Here EBSD, deep etching and FIB-tomography are combined to study the nucleation and growth crystallography of Al-Mn-Fe particles in Mg-9Al-0.7Zn-0.15Mn-0.002Fe (wt%) solidified at 1 K⋅s−1. It is shown that Al8Mn5 nucleates on B2-Al(Mn,Fe) particles and an incomplete peritectic transformation results in a Fe-richer B2-Al(Mn,Fe) core enveloped by a low-Fe Al8Mn5 shell. A reproducible orientation relationship (OR) is measured, and the close lattice match and OR are discussed in terms of the group-subgroup relationship between these phases. It is found that most rhombohedral Al8Mn5 particles are twinned, consisting of four orientations related by ∼90° rotations around three common , which is discussed in terms of the pseudo-cubic <100> axes of the Al8Mn5 rhombohedral gamma brass. Al8Mn5 grew as equiaxed particles that are explained by polyhedron models based on {100}, {110} and {112} facets of the pseudo-cubic Al8Mn5 cell. The results indicate that, at low Fe:Mn ratio, most impurity Fe is dissolved in B2 particles that are encapsulated by low-Fe Al8Mn5 which may be important for corrosion resistance.

Journal article

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