Imperial College London

Dr Charlotte Gower (née Davies)

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Research Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3819c.gower

 
 
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Location

 

G21Medical SchoolSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

33 results found

Namsanor J, Pitaksakulrat O, Kopolrat K, Kiatsopit N, Webster BL, Gower CM, Webster JP, Laha T, Saijuntha W, Laoprom N, Andrews RH, Petney TN, Blair D, Sithithaworn Pet al., 2020, Impact of geography and time on genetic clusters of Opisthorchis viverrini identified by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 50, Pages: 1133-1144, ISSN: 0020-7519

Journal article

Gower CM, Dunning J, Nawaz S, Allen D, Ramsay ME, Ladhani Set al., 2020, Vaccine-derived rotavirus strains in infants in England, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD, Vol: 105, Pages: 553-557, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Faust CL, Crotti M, Moses A, Oguttu D, Wamboko A, Adriko M, Adekanle EK, Kabatereine N, Tukahebwa EM, Norton AJ, Gower CM, Webster JP, Lamberton PHLet al., 2019, Two-year longitudinal survey reveals high genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni with adult worms surviving praziquantel treatment at the start of mass drug administration in Uganda, PARASITES & VECTORS, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1756-3305

Journal article

Vince L, Gower CM, Binetou-Fall C, Leger E, Borlase AM, Waldman L, Sene-Wade CM, Diouf ND, Jackson E, Webster JPet al., 2019, TOWARDS A ONE-HEALTH COST-EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF SCHISTOSOMAISIS CONTROL IN AFRICA, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: S21-S21, ISSN: 0035-9203

Conference paper

Morter R, Adetifa I, Antonio M, Touray F, de Jong BC, Gower CM, Gehre Fet al., 2018, Examining human paragonimiasis as a differential diagnosis to tuberculosis in The Gambia., BMC Research Notes, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1756-0500

OBJECTIVE: Paragonimiasis is a foodborne trematode infection of the lungs caused by Paragonimus spp., presenting clinically with similar symptoms to active tuberculosis (TB). Worldwide, an estimated 20.7 million people are infected with paragonimiasis, but relatively little epidemiological data exists for Africa. Given a recently reported case, we sought to establish whether paragonimiasis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for human TB in The Gambia, West Africa. RESULTS: We developed a novel PCR-based diagnostic test for Paragonimus species known to be found in West Africa, which we used to examine archived TB negative sputum samples from a cross-sectional study of volunteers with tuberculosis-like symptoms from communities in the Western coastal region of The Gambia. Based on a "zero patient" design for detection of rare diseases, 300 anonymised AFB smear negative sputum samples, randomly selected from 25 villages, were screened for active paragonimiasis by molecular detection of Paragonimus spp. DNA. No parasite DNA was found in any of the sputa of our patient group. Despite the recent case report, we found no evidence of active paragonimiasis infection masking as TB in the Western region of The Gambia.

Journal article

Gower CM, Gehre F, Marques SR, Lamberton PHL, Lwambo NJ, Webster JPet al., 2017, Phenotypic and genotypic monitoring of Schistosoma mansoni in Tanzanian schoolchildren five years into a preventative chemotherapy national control programme., Parasites & Vectors, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1756-3305

BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of profound medical importance. Current control focusses on mass praziquantel (PZQ) treatment of populations in endemic areas, termed Preventative Chemotherapy (PC). Large-scale PC programmes exert prolonged selection pressures on parasites with the potential for, direct and/or indirect, emergence of drug resistance. Molecular methods can help monitor genetic changes of schistosome populations over time and in response to drug treatment, as well as estimate adult worm burdens through parentage analysis. Furthermore, methods such as in vitro drug sensitivity assays help phenotype in vivo parasite genotypic drug efficacy. METHODS: We conducted combined in vitro PZQ efficacy testing with population genetic analyses of S. mansoni collected from children from two schools in 2010, five years after the introduction of a National Control Programme. Children at one school had received four annual PZQ treatments and the other school had received two mass treatments in total. We compared genetic differentiation, indices of genetic diversity, and estimated adult worm burden from parasites collected in 2010 with samples collected in 2005 (before the control programme began) and in 2006 (six months after the first PZQ treatment). Using 2010 larval samples, we also compared the genetic similarity of those with high and low in vitro sensitivity to PZQ. RESULTS: We demonstrated that there were individual parasites with reduced PZQ susceptibility in the 2010 collections, as evidenced by our in vitro larval behavioural phenotypic assay. There was no evidence, however, that miracidia showing phenotypically reduced susceptibility clustered together genetically. Molecular analysis also demonstrated a significant reduction of adult worm load over time, despite little evidence of reduction in parasite infection intensity, as measured by egg output. Genetic diversity of infections did not reduce over time, despite changes in the genetic composit

Journal article

Gower CM, Vince L, Webster JP, 2017, Should we be treating animal schistosomiasis in Africa? The need for a One Health economic evaluation of schistosomiasis control in people and their livestock., Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol: 111, Pages: 244-247, ISSN: 0035-9203

A One Health economic perspective allows informed decisions to be made regarding control priorities and/or implementation strategies for infectious diseases. Schistosomiasis is a major and highly resilient disease of both humans and livestock. The zoonotic component of transmission in sub-Saharan Africa appears to be more significant than previously assumed, and may thereby affect the recently revised WHO vision to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025. Moreover, animal schistosomiasis is likely to be a significant cost to affected communities due to its direct and indirect impact on livelihoods. We argue here for a comprehensive evaluation of the economic burden of livestock and zoonotic schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa in order to determine if extending treatment to include animal hosts in a One Health approach is economically, as well as epidemiologically, desirable.

Journal article

Knowles SCL, Sturrock HJW, Turner H, Whitton JM, Gower CM, Jemu S, Phillips AE, Meite A, Thomas B, Kollie K, Thomas C, Rebollo MP, Styles B, Clements M, Fenwick A, Harrison WE, Fleming FMet al., 2017, Optimising cluster survey design for planning schistosomiasis preventive chemotherapy, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1935-2735

BackgroundThe cornerstone of current schistosomiasis control programmes is delivery of praziquantel to at-risk populations. Such preventive chemotherapy requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of infection, yet the performance of alternative survey designs for estimating prevalence and converting this into treatment decisions has not been thoroughly evaluated.Methodology/Principal findingsWe used baseline schistosomiasis mapping surveys from three countries (Malawi, Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia) to generate spatially realistic gold standard datasets, against which we tested alternative two-stage cluster survey designs. We assessed how sampling different numbers of schools per district (2–20) and children per school (10–50) influences the accuracy of prevalence estimates and treatment class assignment, and we compared survey cost-efficiency using data from Malawi. Due to the focal nature of schistosomiasis, up to 53% simulated surveys involving 2–5 schools per district failed to detect schistosomiasis in low endemicity areas (1–10% prevalence). Increasing the number of schools surveyed per district improved treatment class assignment far more than increasing the number of children sampled per school. For Malawi, surveys of 15 schools per district and 20–30 children per school reliably detected endemic schistosomiasis and maximised cost-efficiency. In sensitivity analyses where treatment costs and the country considered were varied, optimal survey size was remarkably consistent, with cost-efficiency maximised at 15–20 schools per district.Conclusions/SignificanceAmong two-stage cluster surveys for schistosomiasis, our simulations indicated that surveying 15–20 schools per district and 20–30 children per school optimised cost-efficiency and minimised the risk of under-treatment, with surveys involving more schools of greater cost-efficiency as treatment costs rose.

Journal article

Webster JP, Gower CM, Knowles SC, Molyneux DH, Fenton Aet al., 2016, One health - an ecological and evolutionary framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases., Evolutionary Applications, Vol: 9, Pages: 313-333, ISSN: 1752-4571

Understanding the complex population biology and transmission ecology of multihost parasites has been declared as one of the major challenges of biomedical sciences for the 21st century and the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs) are perhaps the most neglected of all the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). Here we consider how multihost parasite transmission and evolutionary dynamics may affect the success of human and animal disease control programmes, particularly neglected diseases of the developing world. We review the different types of zoonotic interactions that occur, both ecological and evolutionary, their potential relevance for current human control activities, and make suggestions for the development of an empirical evidence base and theoretical framework to better understand and predict the outcome of such interactions. In particular, we consider whether preventive chemotherapy, the current mainstay of NTD control, can be successful without a One Health approach. Transmission within and between animal reservoirs and humans can have important ecological and evolutionary consequences, driving the evolution and establishment of drug resistance, as well as providing selective pressures for spill-over, host switching, hybridizations and introgressions between animal and human parasites. Our aim here is to highlight the importance of both elucidating disease ecology, including identifying key hosts and tailoring control effort accordingly, and understanding parasite evolution, such as precisely how infectious agents may respond and adapt to anthropogenic change. Both elements are essential if we are to alleviate disease risks from NZDs in humans, domestic animals and wildlife.

Journal article

Lamberton PH, Mitchell K, Gower CM, Adriko M, Arinaitwe M, Enzaru A, Namukuta A, Crellen T, Tukahebwa EM, Kabatereine NB, Fenwick A, Webster JPet al., 2015, HOTSPOTS OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI TRANSMISSION TEN YEARS INTO A MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM, Publisher: AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE, Pages: 558-558, ISSN: 0002-9637

Conference paper

Gower CM, Gouvras AN, Lamberton PHL, Deol A, Shrivastava J, Mutombo PN, Mbuh JV, Norton AJ, Webster BL, Stothard JR, Garba A, Lamine MS, Kariuki C, Lange CN, Mkoji GM, Kabatereine NB, Gabrielli AF, Rudge JW, Fenwick A, Sacko M, Dembele R, Lwambo NJS, Tchuente L-AT, Rollinson D, Webster JPet al., 2013, Population genetic structure of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium from across six sub-Saharan African countries: Implications for epidemiology, evolution and control, ACTA TROPICA, Vol: 128, Pages: 261-274, ISSN: 0001-706X

Journal article

Gower CM, Gabrielli AF, Sacko M, Dembele R, Golan R, Emery AM, Rollinson D, Webster JPet al., 2011, Population genetics of Achistosoma haematobium: development of novel microsatellite markers and their application to schistosomiasis control in Mali., Parasitology

Journal article

Norton AJ, Gower CM, Lamberton PHL, Webster BL, Lwambo NJS, Blair L, Fenwick A, Webster JPet al., 2010, Genetic Consequences of Mass Human Chemotherapy for Schistosoma mansoni: Population Structure Pre- and Post-Praziquantel Treatment in Tanzania, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, Vol: 83, Pages: 951-957, ISSN: 0002-9637

Journal article

Webster JP, Oliviera G, Rollinson D, Gower CMet al., 2010, Schistosome genomes: a wealth of information, TRENDS IN PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 26, Pages: 103-106, ISSN: 1471-4922

Journal article

Webster JP, Gower CM, Norton AJ, 2008, Evolutionary concepts in predicting and evaluating the impact of mass chemotherapy schistosomiasis control programmes on parasites and their hosts, EVOLUTIONARY APPLICATIONS, Vol: 1, Pages: 66-83, ISSN: 1752-4571

Journal article

Gower CM, Shrivastava J, Lamberton PHL, Rollinson D, Webster BL, Emery A, Kabatereine NB, Webster JPet al., 2007, Development and application of an ethically and epidemiologically advantageous assay for the multi-locus microsatellite analysis of Schistosoma mansoni, PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 134, Pages: 523-536, ISSN: 0031-1820

Journal article

Golan R, Gower CM, Emory AM, Rollinson D, Webster JPet al., 2007, Isolation and characterization of the first polymorphic microsatellite markers for Schistosoma haematobium and their application in multiplex reactions of larval stages., Molecular Ecology Resources, Vol: 8, Pages: 647-649

Journal article

Webster JP, Gower CM, 2006, Mate choice, frequency dependence, and the maintenance of resistance to parasitism in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Symposium on Sexual Selection and Mating Systems in Hermaphrodites held at the Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 407-418, ISSN: 1540-7063

Conference paper

Mathews F, Macdonald DW, Taylor GM, Gelling M, Norman RA, Honess PE, Foster R, Gower CM, Varley S, Harris A, Palmer S, Hewinson G, Webster JPet al., 2006, Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 273, Pages: 357-365, ISSN: 0962-8452

Journal article

Shrivastana J, Gower CM, Balolong E, Wang TP, Qian BZ, Webster JPet al., 2005, Population genetics of multi-host parasites - the case for molecular epidemiological studies of Schistosoma japonicum using larval stages from naturally infected hosts, PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 131, Pages: 617-626, ISSN: 0031-1820

Journal article

Gower CM, Webster JP, 2005, Intraspecific competition and the evolution of virulence in a parasitic trematode, EVOLUTION, Vol: 59, Pages: 544-553, ISSN: 0014-3820

Journal article

Webster JP, Gower CM, Blair L, 2004, Do hosts and parasites coevolve? Empirical support from the Schistosoma system, AMERICAN NATURALIST, Vol: 164, Pages: S33-S51, ISSN: 0003-0147

Journal article

Gower CM, Webster JP, 2004, Fitness of indirectly transmitted pathogens: Restraint and constraint, EVOLUTION, Vol: 58, Pages: 1178-1184, ISSN: 0014-3820

Journal article

Davies CM, Fairbrother E, Webster JP, 2002, Mixed strain schistosome infections of snails and the evolution of parasite virulence, PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 124, Pages: 31-38, ISSN: 0031-1820

Journal article

Webster JP, Davies CM, Ndamba J, Noble LR, Jones CS, Woolhouse MEJet al., 2001, Spatio-temporal genetic variability in the schistosome intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi, ANNALS OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 95, Pages: 515-527, ISSN: 0003-4983

Journal article

Webster JP, Davies CM, Hoffman JI, Ndamba J, Noble LR, Woolhouse MEJet al., 2001, Population genetics of the schistosome intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the Zimbabwean highveld: implications for co-evolutionary theory, ANNALS OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 95, Pages: 203-214, ISSN: 0003-4983

Journal article

Davies CM, Webster JP, Woolhouse MEJ, 2001, Trade-offs in the evolution of virulence in an indirectly transmitted macroparasite, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 268, Pages: 251-257, ISSN: 0962-8452

Journal article

Webster JP, Davies CM, 2001, Coevolution and compatibility in the snail-schistosome system, PARASITOLOGY, Vol: 123, Pages: S41-S56, ISSN: 0031-1820

Journal article

Blair L, Donhoeff M, Davies CM, Webster JPet al., 2001, An experimental evaluation of the genetic control thoery for schistosomiasis, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol: 95

Journal article

Davies CM, Webster JP, 2001, A genetic trade-off of virulence and transmission in a snail-schistosome system., Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol: 95

Journal article

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