Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Interim Head of NHLI, Vice-Dean (institutional Affairs) FoM



+44 (0)20 7594 3102c.lloyd Website




Office 352Sir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Clare Lloyd completed both her BSc and PhD degrees in Immunology at King's College London. She was awarded a Junior Research Fellowship from the National Kidney Research Fund at the United Medical and Dental Schools at Guy's Hospital to study the immune response associated with mouse models of glomerulonephritis. Thereafter she moved to the US to take up a Postdoctoral position jointly with Dr Jose-Carlos Gutierrez Ramos at Harvard University and Professor David Salant at Boston University Medical Center.

Professor Lloyd developed a mouse model of chronic inflammatory glomerulonephritis in order to study the role of infiltrating inflammatory cells in renal fibrosis. While in Dr Guteirrez-Ramos' laboratory she developed an interest in the molecular mechanisms of cell recruitment and was involved in the cloning and in vivo characterisation of several novel chemokines. She moved to Millennium Pharmaceuticals in Cambridge, USA where her role was to develop models and systems to functionally characterise novel genes of unknown function.

Professor Lloyd moved back to the UK to establish a research group at Imperial College in 1999 after being awarded a Wellcome Senior Fellow in Basic Biomedical Sciences. Her group has developed models of chronic allergic inflammation and outlined roles for cells and molecules involved in the development and regulation of pulmonary inflammation, airway hyperreactivity and airway remodelling. Her Fellowship was successfully renewed both in 2004 and 2010 and she was awarded a Personal Chair in Respiratory Immunology in 2006.

Current projects are focused on the mechanisms underlying the regulation and development of  allergen induced airway inflammation and remodelling; development of allergic inflammation and remodelling in neonates; effects of viral exacerbations on airway inflammation and remodelling. The overall goal of the work is to investigate epithelial-immune interactions underlying development and resolution of allergic airway inflammation, and we are paticularly focused on how genetics and the external environment influence these interactions. An important recent focus of Clare's research has been the investigation of the development of allergic immunity in early life, working closely with the Department of Paediatrics at the Royal Brompton Hospital in studying children with severe asthma.

This collaboration has resulted in the development of models of maternal and neonatal allergen exposure and we integrate these in vivo models with in vitro culture systems using pulmonary cells isolated from children in order to investigate pathways and mechanisms leading to allergic remodelling and inflammation in early life.

Professor Lloyd is a PI in the Medical Research Council/Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma and in the Wellcome Trust funded Centre for Respiratory Infection. She is also a PI in the Wellcome Trust funded 3i Consortium which is immunophenotyping mutant mice generated by the Sanger Centre with the aim of discovering novel genes involved in common immunological diseases.

Professor Lloyd has served on the research committees of Asthma UK and the British Heart and Lung Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust Immunology and Infectious Disease funding committee, and others internationally in Ireland, Findland and Portugal.

Professor Lloyd makes important contributions to management at College and Institute Levels, including chairing the BioServices Operations Committee (2011-2014) and becoming the institute's first Divisional Lead for Women -promoting the interests and careers of female scientists (2008-2014). In 2009 she led the NHLI Athena application, leading to a Silver Swan Award- the first Silver award to a Medical department in the country- this award was renewed in 2014. Her commitment to research training was recognised recently by award of the Rectors Medal for Excellence in Research Supervision.

Airway Inflammation and Remodelling

Publications: Google Scholar

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Snelgrove RJ, Patel DF, Patel T, et al., 2018, The enigmatic role of the neutrophil in asthma: Friend, foe or indifferent?, Clinical and Experimental Allergy, Vol:48, ISSN:0954-7894, Pages:1275-1285

Snelgrove RJ, Lloyd CM, 2018, Tasting type 2 inflammation in the airways, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol:142, ISSN:0091-6749, Pages:403-404

Lloyd CM, Snelgrove RJ, 2018, Type 2 immunity: expanding our view., Science Immunology, Vol:3, ISSN:2470-9468

Lloyd CM, Harker JA, 2018, Epigenetic control of interleukin-9 in asthma, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol:379, ISSN:0028-4793, Pages:87-89

Turner S, Custovic A, Ghazal P, et al., 2018, Pulmonary epithelial barrier and immunological functions at birth and in early life - key determinants of the development of asthma?  A description of the protocol for the Breathing Together study [version 1; peer review: 2 approved], Wellcome Open Research, Vol:3, ISSN:2398-502X

Zhang Y, Poobalasingam T, Yates LL, et al., 2018, Manipulation of Dipeptidylpeptidase 10 in mouse and human in vivo and in vitro models indicates a protective role in asthma, Disease Models & Mechanisms, Vol:11, ISSN:1754-8403

O'Reilly PJ, Ding Q, Akthar S, et al., 2017, Angiotensin-converting enzyme defines matrikine-regulated inflammation and fibrosis, Jci Insight, Vol:2, ISSN:2379-3708

Peiró T, Patel DF, Akthar S, et al., 2017, Neutrophils drive alveolar macrophage IL-1β release during respiratory viral infection, Thorax, Vol:73, ISSN:1468-3296, Pages:546-556

denney L, Branchett W, Gregory L, et al., 2017, Epithelial derived TGF-β1 acts as a pro-viral factor in the lung during influenza A infection, Mucosal Immunology, Vol:11, ISSN:1933-0219, Pages:523-535

Pavord ID, Beasley R, Agusti A, et al., 2017, After asthma: redefining airways diseases., The Lancet, Vol:391, ISSN:0140-6736, Pages:350-400

Dean CH, Lloyd CM, 2017, Lung Alveolar Repair: Not All Cells Are Equal, Trends in Molecular Medicine, Vol:23, ISSN:1471-4914, Pages:871-873

Snelgrove RJ, Lloyd CM, 2017, An NLRP3, IL-1 beta, Neutrophil Axis in the Respiratory Tract Leaves You Breathless, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol:196, ISSN:1073-449X, Pages:253-254

Lloyd CM, Saglani S, 2017, Development of allergic immunity in early life, Immunological Reviews, Vol:278, ISSN:0105-2896, Pages:101-115

Edwards MR, Saglani S, Schwarze J, et al., 2017, Addressing unmet needs in understanding asthma mechanisms: From the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership (EARIP) Work Package (WP)2 collaborators, European Respiratory Journal, Vol:49, ISSN:1399-3003

Lloyd CM, Marsland BJ, 2017, Lung homeostasis: influence of age, microbes, and the immune system, Immunity, Vol:46, ISSN:1074-7613, Pages:549-561

Low CM, Akthar S, Patel D, et al., 2017, The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation, Scientific Reports, Vol:7, ISSN:2045-2322

Poobalasingam T, Yates LL, Walker SA, et al., 2017, Heterozygous Vangl2 looptail mice reveal novel roles for the planar cell polarity pathway in adult lung homeostasis and repair, Disease Models & Mechanisms, Vol:10, ISSN:1754-8403, Pages:409-423

Byrne AJ, Weiss M, Mathie SA, et al., 2016, A critical role for IRF5 in regulating allergic airway inflammation, Mucosal Immunology, Vol:10, ISSN:1935-3456, Pages:716-726

Löser S, Gregory LG, Zhang Y, et al., 2016, Pulmonary ORMDL3 is critical for induction of Alternaria induced allergic airways disease, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol:139, ISSN:1097-6825, Pages:1496-1507.e3

Byrne AJ, Maher TM, Lloyd CM, 2016, Pulmonary macrophages: a new therapeutic pathway in fibrosing lung disease?, Trends in Molecular Medicine, Vol:22, ISSN:1471-4914, Pages:303-316

Saglani S, Lloyd CM, 2016, Prostacyclin as a potential novel means to manipulate type 2 innate lymphoid cell function, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol:193, ISSN:1535-4970, Pages:2-4

Snelgrove RJ, 2015, Matrikines are key regulators in modulating the amplitude of lung inflammation in acute pulmonary infection, Nature Communications, Vol:6, ISSN:2041-1723, Pages:1-14

Brown SM, Bush A, Davies J, et al., 2015, The ratio IL-8:IL-10 is increased in the paediatric CF airway as compared to other neutrophilic lung diseases, Pediatric Pulmonology, Vol:50, ISSN:8755-6863, Pages:237-238

Nagakumar P, Denney L, Fleming L, et al., 2015, Type 2 innate lymphoid cells in induced sputum from children with severe asthma, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol:137, ISSN:1097-6825, Pages:624-626.e6

Cullinan P, Lloyd CM, 2014, Year in review 2013: basic science and epidemiology, Thorax, Vol:69, ISSN:0040-6376, Pages:505-507


Nagakumar P, Artusio L, Fainardi V, et al., 2017, Role of airway Ilc2 And Ilc3 compared to Th2 And Th17 cells in paediatric severe therapy resistant asthma (stra), International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society (ATS), American Thoracic Society, ISSN:1073-449X

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