Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Pantaleo, AM and de, palma P and Fordham, J and Oyewumni, O and Markides, CN},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.097},
journal = {Applied Energy},
pages = {782--796},
title = {Integrating cogeneration and intermittent waste-heat recovery in food processing: Microturbines vs. ORC systems in the coffee roasting industry},
url = {},
volume = {225},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Coffee roasting is a highly energy intensive process wherein a large quantity of heat is discharged from the stack at medium-to-high temperatures. Much of the heat is released from the afterburner, which is required to remove volatile organic compounds and other pollutants from the flue gases. In this work, intermittent waste-heat recovery via thermal energy storage (TES) and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) is compared to combined heat and power (CHP) based on micro gas-turbines (MGTs) for a coffee roasting plant. With regard to the former, a promising solution is proposed that involves recovering waste heat from the flue gas stream by partial hot-gas recycling at the rotating drum coffee roaster, and coupling this to a thermal store and an ORC engine for power generation. The two solutions (CHP + MGT prime mover vs. waste-heat recovery + ORC engine) are investigated based on mass and energy balances, and a cost assessment methodology is adopted to compare the profitability of three system configurations integrated into the selected roasting process. The case study involves a major Italian roasting plant with a 500 kg per hour coffee production capacity. Three options are investigated: (i) intermittent waste-heat recovery from the hot flue-gases with an ORC engine coupled to a TES system; (ii) regenerative topping MGT coupled to the existing modulating gas burner to generate hot air for the roasting process; and (iii) non-regenerative topping MGT with direct recovery of the turbine outlet air for the roasting process. The results show that the profitability of these investments is highly influenced by the natural gas and electricity prices and by the coffee roasting production capacity. The CHP solution via an MGT appears as a more profitable option than waste-heat recovery via an ORC engine primarily due to the intermittency of the heat-source availability and the high electricity cost relative to the cost of natural gas.
AU - Pantaleo,AM
AU - de,palma P
AU - Fordham,J
AU - Oyewumni,O
AU - Markides,CN
DO - 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.097
EP - 796
PY - 2018///
SN - 0306-2619
SP - 782
TI - Integrating cogeneration and intermittent waste-heat recovery in food processing: Microturbines vs. ORC systems in the coffee roasting industry
T2 - Applied Energy
UR -
UR -
VL - 225
ER -