Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Efstratiadi, M and Acha, Izquierdo S and Shah, N and Markides, C},
doi = {10.1016/},
journal = {Energy},
title = {Analysis of a closed-loop water-cooled refrigeration system in the food retail industry: A UK case study},
url = {},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Refrigeration in supermarkets accounts between 30% and 60% of total electricity demand in UK stores. The aim of this study is to conduct a pre-feasibility analysis of whether the use of a water-cooled configuration rejecting heat to the soil can improve the overall cooling performance of commercial refrigeration systems against air-cooled designs. In this work, a model simulating the operation of an existing refrigeration system is presented and validated against field data measurements taken from a supermarket. The examined system is used as a baseline and then modified to evaluate the impact of installing a water-cooled gas cooler. Results indicate that the use of water-cooled gas coolers has the potential to reduce electrical consumption of refrigeration systems by up to a factor of 5 when external temperatures are high. Overall, annual operation indicates the water-cooled alternative uses 3% less electricity than the air-cooled approach. A hybrid system is also considered consisting of coupled air-cooled and water-cooled units operating in parallel, for which an energy reduction of 6% is obtained compared against the baseline system. An economic evaluation of these systems shows promising results with a payback period of about 5 years for systems installed in new stores, although retrofits are costlier.
AU - Efstratiadi,M
AU - Acha,Izquierdo S
AU - Shah,N
AU - Markides,C
DO - 10.1016/
PY - 2019///
SN - 0360-5442
TI - Analysis of a closed-loop water-cooled refrigeration system in the food retail industry: A UK case study
T2 - Energy
UR -
UR -
ER -