Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Ibarra, R and Markides, CN and Matar, OK},
doi = {10.1615/MultScienTechn.v26.i3.10},
journal = {Multiphase Science and Technology},
pages = {171--198},
title = {A review of liquid-liquid flow patterns in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes},
url = {},
volume = {26},
year = {2014}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - © 2014 by Begell House, Inc. This paper presents a review of the co-current flow of two immiscible liquids in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes. Liquid-liquid flows are present in a wide variety of industrial processes, such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. However, this phenomenon is mainly studied in the oil industry, especially in the analysis of oil-water mixtures encountered in long transportation pipelines from the wellhead to the processing facility. The hydrodynamic behavior of liquid-liquid flows is more complex than that of gas-liquid flows because of density ratio, viscosity ratio, interfacial forces, and pipe wettability. This means that a significant number of different flow patterns can be obtained from different fluid properties and pipe characteristics. Furthermore, the flow pattern classification of liquid-liquid flows is arbitrary and several researchers use their own classification, complicating comparison and analysis of flow pattern maps. In this paper, a unified flow pattern classification for liquid-liquid flow is proposed. This classification enables the direct comparison of flow pattern maps for further analysis.
AU - Ibarra,R
AU - Markides,CN
AU - Matar,OK
DO - 10.1615/MultScienTechn.v26.i3.10
EP - 198
PY - 2014///
SN - 0276-1459
SP - 171
TI - A review of liquid-liquid flow patterns in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes
T2 - Multiphase Science and Technology
UR -
VL - 26
ER -