Imperial College London

ProfessorChristosMarkides

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website

 
 
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Location

 

404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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325 results found

Gupta A, Markides CN, 2020, Autoignition of an n-heptane jet in a confined turbulent hot coflow of air, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 119, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 0894-1777

The autoignition of a continuous, single jet of pure liquid n-heptane injected concentrically and axisymmetrically from a water-cooled circular nozzle into a confined turbulent hot coflow (CTHC) of air at atmospheric pressure has been investigated experimentally at air temperatures up to 1150 K and velocities up to 40 m/s. The aim of this work was to examine the emergence of liquid-fuel autoignition in the presence of flow, mixture and phase inhomogeneities, to which end, the velocity, temperature and fuel-droplet fields inside the CTHC reactor were characterized in a series of dedicated measurement campaigns. Distinct phenomena were identified concerning the emergence of various regimes: no autoignition, random spots, and continuous flame. In the random spots regime, autoignition appeared in the form of well-defined, discrete localized spots occurring randomly within the reactor, similar to observations in a similar apparatus with gaseous fuels (Markides, 2005; Markides and Mastorakos, 2005, 2011; Markides et al., 2007). High-speed optical measurements of these random spots were made from which the autoignition locations/lengths were measured, and then used to infer average autoignition delay, or residence, times from injection based on the bulk air velocity. An increase in the air temperature moved the region of autoigniting spots closer to the injector nozzle, thus decreasing the autoignition length and also decreasing the autoignition delay time. Generally, autoignition moved downstream with increasing bulk air velocity, but the delay times decreased contrary to the aforementioned earlier work with pre-vaporized n-heptane in this geometry. Of interest is the finding that at the highest investigated air velocities, the autoignition length decreased as the air velocity increased, which again deviates from the same earlier work with vaporized n-heptane. Furthermore, higher liquid injection velocities also resulted in increased autoignition lengths and times. The re

Journal article

Wang K, Pantaleo AM, Herrando M, Faccia M, Pesmazoglou I, Franchetti BM, Markides CNet al., 2020, Spectral-splitting hybrid PV-thermal (PVT) systems for combined heat and power provision to dairy farms, Renewable Energy, Vol: 159, Pages: 1047-1065, ISSN: 0960-1481

Dairy farming is one of the most energy- and emission-intensive industrial sectors, and offers noteworthy opportunities for displacing conventional fossil-fuel consumption both in terms of cost saving and decarbonisation. In this paper, a solar-combined heat and power (S–CHP) system is proposed for dairy-farm applications based on spectral-splitting parabolic-trough hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors, which is capable of providing simultaneous electricity, steam and hot water for processing milk products. A transient numerical model is developed and validated against experimental data to predict the dynamic thermal and electrical characteristics and to assess the thermoeconomic performance of the S–CHP system. A dairy farm in Bari (Italy), with annual thermal and electrical demands of 6000 MWh and 3500 MWh respectively, is considered as a case study for assessing the energetic and economic potential of the proposed S–CHP system. Hourly simulations are performed over a year using real-time local weather and measured demand-data inputs. The results show that the optical characteristic of the spectrum splitter has a significant influence on the system’s thermoeconomic performance. This is therefore optimised to reflect the solar region between 550 nm and 1000 nm to PV cells for electricity generation and (low-temperature) hot-water production, while directing the rest to solar receivers for (higher-temperature) steam generation. Based on a 10000-m2 installed area, it is found that 52% of the demand for steam generation and 40% of the hot water demand can be satisfied by the PVT S–CHP system, along with a net electrical output amounting to 14% of the farm’s demand. Economic analyses show that the proposed system is economically viable if the investment cost of the spectrum splitter is lower than 75% of the cost of the parabolic trough concentrator (i.e., <1950 €/m2 spectrum splitter) in this application. The influenc

Journal article

Le Brun N, Simpson M, Acha S, Shah N, Markides CNet al., 2020, Techno-economic potential of low-temperature, jacket-water heat recovery from stationary internal combustion engines with organic Rankine cycles: A cross-sector food-retail study, Applied Energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0306-2619

We examine the opportunities and challenges of deploying integrated organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines to recover heat from low-temperature jacket-water cooling circuits of small-scale gas-fired internal combustion engines (ICEs), for the supply of combined heat and power (CHP) to supermarkets. Based on data for commercially-available ICE and ORC engines, a techno-economic model is developed and applied to simulate system performance in real buildings. Under current market trends and for the specific (low-temperature) ICE + ORC CHP configuration investigated here, results show that the ICE determines most economic savings, while the ORC engine does not significantly impact the integrated CHP system performance. The ORC engines have long payback times (4–9 years) in this application, because: (1) they do not displace high-value electricity, as the value of exporting electricity to the grid is low, and (2) it is more profitable to use the heat from the ICEs for space heating rather than for electricity conversion. Commercial ORC engines are most viable (payback ≈ 4 years) in buildings with high electrical demands and low heat-to-power ratios. The influence of factors such as the ORC engine efficiency, capital cost and energy prices is also evaluated, highlighting performance gaps and identifying promising areas for future research.

Journal article

Olympios AV, Pantaleo AM, Sapin P, Markides CNet al., 2020, On the value of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and heat pumps in centralised and distributed heating systems: Lessons from multi-fidelity modelling approaches, Applied Energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0306-2619

This paper presents a multi-scale framework for the design and comparison of centralised and distributed heat generation solutions. An extensive analysis of commercially available products on the UK market is conducted to gather information on the performance and cost of a range of gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) systems, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) and ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs). Data-driven models with associated uncertainty bounds are derived from the collected data, which capture cost and performance variations with scale (i.e., size and rating) and operating conditions. In addition, a comprehensive thermoeconomic (thermodynamic and component-costing) heat pump model, validated against manufacturer data, is developed to capture design-related performance and cost variations, thus reducing technology-related model uncertainties. The novelty of this paper lies in the use of multi-fidelity approaches for the comparison of the economic and environmental potential of important heat-generation solutions: (i) centralised gas-fired CHP systems associated with district heating network; (ii) gas-fired CHP systems or GSHPs providing heat to differentiated energy communities; and (iii) small-scale micro-CHP systems, ASHPs or GSHPs, installed at the household level. The pathways are evaluated for the case of the Isle of Dogs district in London, UK. A centralised CHP system appears as the most profitable option, achieving annual savings of £13 M compared to the use of decentralised boilers and a levelised cost of heat equal to 31 £/MWhth. However, if the carbon intensity of the electrical grid continues to reduce at current rates, CHP systems will only provide minimal carbon savings compared to boilers (<6%), with heat pumps achieving significant heat decarbonisation (55–62%). Differentiating between high- and low-performance and cost heat pump designs shows that the former, although 25% more expensive, have significantly lower annualised

Journal article

Acha Izquierdo S, Le Brun N, Damaskou M, Fubara TC, Mulgundmath V, Markides C, Shah Net al., 2020, Fuel cells as combined heat and power systems in commercial buildings: A case study in the food-retail sector, Energy, Vol: 206, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0360-5442

This work investigates the viability of fuel cells (FC) as combined heat and power (CHP) prime movers in commercial buildings with a specific focus on supermarkets. Up-to-date technical data from a FC manufacturing company was obtained and applied to evaluate their viability in an existing food-retail building. A detailed optimisation model for enhancing distributed energy system management described in previous work is expanded upon to optimise the techno-economic performance of FC-CHP systems. The optimisations employ comprehensive techno-economic datasets that reflect current market trends. Outputs highlight the key factors influencing the economics of FC-CHP projects. Furthermore, a comparative analysis against a competing internal combustion engine (ICE) CHP system is performed to understand the relative techno-economic characterisitcs of each system. Results indicate that FCs are becoming financially competitive although ICEs are still a more attractive option. For supermarkets, the payback period for installing a FC system is 4.7–5.9 years vs. 4.0–5.6 years for ICEs when policies are considered. If incentives are removed, FC-CHP systems have paybacks in the range 6–10 years vs. 5–8.5 years for ICE-based systems. A sensitivity analysis under different market and policy scenarios is performed, offering insights into the performance gap fuel cells face before becoming more competitive.

Journal article

Song J, Li X, Wang K, Markides CNet al., 2020, Parametric optimisation of a combined supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for internal combustion engine (ICE) waste-heat recovery, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 218, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0196-8904

Supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) power-cycle systems are a promising technology for waste-heat recovery from internal combustion engines (ICEs). However, the effective utilisation of the heat from both the exhaust gases and cooling circuit by a standalone S-CO2 cycle system remains a challenge due to the unmatched thermal load of these heat sources, while a large amount of unexploited heat is directly rejected in the system’s pre-cooler. In this paper, a combined-cycle system for ICE waste-heat recovery is presented that couples an S-CO2 cycle to a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC), which recovers heat rejected from the S-CO2 cycle system, as well as thermal energy available from the jacket-water and exhaust-gas streams that have not been utilised by the S-CO2 cycle system. Parametric optimisation is implemented to determine operating conditions for both cycles from thermodynamic and economic perspectives. With a baseline case using a standalone S-CO2 cycle system for an ICE with a rated power output of 1170 kW, our investigation reveals that the combined-cycle system can deliver a maximum net power output of 215 kW at a minimum specific investment cost (SIC) of 4670 $/kW, which are 58% and 4% higher than those of the standalone S-CO2 cycle system, respectively. A range of ICEs of different sizes are also considered, with significant performance improvements indicating a promising potential of exploiting such combined-cycle systems. This work motivates the pursuit of further performance improvements to waste-heat recovery systems from ICEs and other similar applications.

Journal article

Gupta A, Qadri UA, Koutita K, Zadrazil I, Hussain T, Balachandran R, Markides CNet al., 2020, Experimental investigation of the flow in a micro-channelled combustor and its relation to flame behaviour, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 116, ISSN: 0894-1777

The dynamic behaviour of periodic laminar premixed acetylene-air flames in a micro-channelled combustor consisting of an array of five planar rectangular channels was found to be influenced by the equiv- alence ratio and flow-rate of the continuously and steadily injected premixed fuel charge. Three distinct flame stages were observed — planar, chaotic and trident, which were strongly correlated to the flow dynamics. The effect of the flow on the flame behaviour was investigated by characterizing the cold flow in a scaled-up model channel with the same aspect ratio as the combustion micro-channel. Direct flow visualization using flow tracers and quantitative velocity-field data from PIV measurements showed both an increase in the bottom recircula- tion zone reattachment length (along the floor of the channel) and a decrease in the lateral recirculation zone reattachment length (along the sides of the channel) with increasing flow Reynolds number. Comparison of the flow and flame transition locations downstream of the injection point suggested that the location of trident flame onset coincides with the flow bottom recirculation zone reattachment length. The planar-chaotic flame transition location was observed to be influenced by the homogeneity of the mixture downstream of the injection plane.

Journal article

Zadrazil I, Corzo C, Voulgaropoulos V, Markides C, Xu XYet al., 2020, A combined experimental and computational study of the flow characteristics in a Type B aortic dissection: effect of primary and secondary tear size, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol: 160, Pages: 240-253, ISSN: 0263-8762

Aortic dissection is related to the separation of the tunica intima from the aortic wall, which can cause blood to flow through the newly formed lumen, thereby further damaging the torn vessel. This type of pathology is the most common catastrophic event that affects the aorta and is associated with complications such as malperfusion. In this work, an idealised, simplified geometric model of Type B aortic dissection is investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and numerically using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The flow characteristics through the true and false lumina are investigated parametrically over a range of tear sizes. Specifically, four different tear sizes and size ratios are considered, each representing a different dissection case or stage, and the experimental and numerical results of the flow-rate profiles through the two lumina in each case, along with the phase-averaged velocity vector maps at mid-acceleration, mid-deceleration, relaminarisation and peak systole, and their corresponding velocity profiles are compared. The experimental and numerical results are in good qualitative as well as quantitative agreement. The flow characteristics found here provide insight into the importance of the re-entry tear. We observe that an increase in the re-entry tear size increases considerably the flow rate in the false lumen, decreases significantly the wall shear stress (WSS) and decreases the pressure difference between the false and the true lumen. On the contrary, an increase in the entry tear, increases the flow rate through the false lumen, increases slightly the WSS and increases the pressure difference between the false and the true lumen. These are crucial findings that can help interpret medical diagnosis and accelerate prevention and treatment, especially in high-risk patients.

Journal article

An JS, Cherdantsev A, Zadrazil I, Markides Cet al., 2020, Study of disturbance wave development in downwards annular flows with a moving frame‐of‐reference brightness‐based laser‐induced fluorescence method, Experiments in Fluids, Vol: 61, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 0723-4864

A novel moving frame-of-reference brightness-based laser-induced fluorescence (MFoR-BBLIF) method was developed and demonstrated in downwards co-current air–water annular flows. The method was applied to study the downstream develop- ment of individual disturbance waves in flows over a range of conditions (ReL = 276–1321, ReG = 39,500–79,000). In this method, the optical measurement system, and hence, the region of interrogation (ROI) was translated physically along the length of the test-section with a velocity close to that of individual disturbance waves to obtain the velocities of individual disturbance-waves as a function of downstream distance from the inlet. It was found that the velocities of individual distur- bance waves increase with both downstream distance and gas–liquid flow conditions. In addition, the variation in the wave velocities was more significant at higher gas and liquid Reynolds numbers. The approach can be integrated with many other contactless measurement methods, and can also be used over a range of translation speeds (not necessarily in a “Lagrangian” manner) to study the evolution of important advecting flow phenomena.

Journal article

Olympios AV, Le Brun N, Acha S, Shah N, Markides CNet al., 2020, Stochastic real-time operation control of a combined heat and power (CHP) system under uncertainty, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 216, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0196-8904

In this paper we present an effort to design and apply a multi-objective real-time operation controller to a combined heat and power (CHP) system, while considering explicitly the risk-return trade-offs arising from the uncertainty in the price of exported electricity. Although extensive research has been performed on theoretically optimizing the design, sizing and operation of CHP systems, less effort has been devoted to an understanding of the practical challenges and the effects of uncertainty in implementing advanced algorithms in real-world applications. In this work, a two-stage control architecture is proposed which applies an optimization framework to a real CHP operation application involving intelligent communication between two controllers to monitor and control the engine continuously. Since deterministic approaches that involve no measure of uncertainty provide limited insight to decision-makers, the methodology then proceeds to develop a stochastic optimization technique which considers risk within the optimization problem. The uncertainty in the forecasted electricity price is quantified by using the forecasting model’s residuals to generate prediction intervals around each forecasted electricity price. The novelty of the proposed tool lies in the use of these prediction intervals to formulate a bi-objective function that represents a compromise between maximizing the expected savings and minimizing the associated risk, while satisfying specified environmental objectives. This allows decision-makers to operate CHP systems according to the risk they are willing to take. The actual operation costs during a 40–day trial period resulting from the installation of the dynamic controller on an existing CHP engine that provides electricity and heat to a supermarket are presented. Results demonstrate that the forecasted electricity price almost always falls within the developed prediction intervals, achieving savings of 23% on energy costs against

Journal article

Hart M, Austin W, Acha S, Le Brun N, Markides CN, Shah Net al., 2020, A roadmap investment strategy to reduce carbon intensive refrigerants in the food retail industry, Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN: 0959-6526

High global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant leakage is the second-highest source of carbon emissions across UK supermarket retailers and a major concern for commercial organizations. Recent stringent UN and EU regulations promoting lower GWP refrigerants have been ratified to tackle the high carbon footprint of current refrigerants. This paper introduces a data-driven modelling framework for optimal investment strategies supporting the food retail industry to transition from hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigeration systems to lower GWP systems by 2030, in line with EU legislation. Representative data from a UK food retailer is applied in a mixed integer linear model, making simultaneous investment decisions across the property estate. The model considers refrigeration-system age, capacity, refrigerant type, leakage and past-performance relative to peer systems in the rest of the estate. This study proposes two possible actions for high GWP HFC refrigeration systems: a) complying with legislation by retrofitting with an HFO blend (e.g. R449-A) or b) installing a new natural refrigerant system (e.g. R744). Findings indicate that a standard (i.e. business-as-usual) investment level of £6 m/yr drives a retrofitting strategy enabling significant reduction in annual carbon emissions of 71% by the end of 2030 (against the 2018 baseline), along with meeting regulatory compliance. The strategy is also highly effective at reducing emissions in the short term as total emissions during the 12-year programme are 59% lower than would have been experienced if the HFC emissions continued unabated. However, this spending level leaves the business at significant risk of refrigeration system failures as necessary investments in new systems are delayed resulting in an ageing, poorly performing estate. The model is further tested under different budget and policy scenarios and the financial, environmental, and business-risk implications are analysed. For example, under a more agg

Journal article

Olympios A, Hoisenpoori P, Mersch M, Pantaleo A, Simpson M, Sapin P, Mac Dowell N, Markides Cet al., 2020, Optimal design of low-temperature heat-pumping technologies and implications to the whole energy system, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems.

This paper presents a methodology for identifying optimal designs for air-source heat pumps suitable for domestic heating applications from the whole-energy system perspective, accounting explicitly for a trade-off between cost and efficiency, as well as for the influence of the outside air temperature during off-design operation. The work combines dedicated brazed-plate and plate-fin heat-exchanger models with compressor efficiency maps, as well as equipment costing techniques, in order to develop a comprehensive technoeconomic model of a low-temperature air-source heat pump with a single-stage-compressor, based on the vapour-compression cycle. The cost and performance predictions are validated against manufacturer data and a non-linear thermodynamic optimisation model is developed to obtain optimal component sizes for a set of competing working fluids and design conditions. The cost and off-design performance of different configurations are integrated into a whole-energy system capacity-expansion and unit-dispatch model of the UK power and heat system. The aim is to assess the system value of proposed designs, as well as the implications of their deployment on the power generation mix and total transition cost of electrifying domestic heat in the UK as a pathway towards meeting a national net-zero emission target by 2050. Refrigerant R152a appears to have the best design and off-design performance, especially compared to the commonly used R410a. The size of the heat exchangers has a major effect on heat pump performance and cost. From a wholesystem perspective, high-performance heat pumps enable a ~20 GW (~10%) reduction in the required installed power generation capacity compared to smaller-heat-exchanger, low-performance heat pumps, which in turn requires lower and more realistic power-grid expansion rates. However, it is shown that the improved performance as a result of larger heat exchangers does not compensate overall for the increased technology cost, with

Conference paper

Song J, Li X, Ren X, Tian H, Shu G, Markides Cet al., 2020, Supercritical CO2-cycle configurations for internal combustion engine waste-heat recovery: A comparative techno-economic investigation, 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2020), Publisher: ECOS

Supercritical-CO2(S-CO2) cycle systems have appeared as an attractive option for waste-heat recovery from internal combustion engines(ICEs) thanks to the advantages offered by CO2as a working fluid, which is nontoxic and non-flammable, and does not suffer decomposition at high temperatures. Since the high density of CO2in the supercritical region enables compact component design, various S-CO2cycle systemconfigurations have been presented involving different layouts and combinations of heat exchangers with which to enhance heat recovery from both engine exhaust gases and jacket waterstreams. Despite the thermodynamicperformance improvement offered by more complex configurations, the additional heat exchangers bring extra costs and therefore key thermo-economic decisions need to be considered carefully during the design and development of suchsystems. This paper seeks to conduct both thermodynamic and economic (cost) assessments of a variety of S-CO2cycle system configurationsin ICE waste-heat recovery applications, with results indicating that in some cases a significant thermodynamic performance improvement can compensate the extra costs associated with a morecomplex system structure. The comparison results across a range ofICEs can also be a valuable guide for the early-stage S-CO2cycle system design in ICE waste-heat recovery andother similar applications.

Conference paper

Schuster S, Markides CN, White AJ, 2020, Design and off-design optimisation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with an integrated radial turbine model, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol: 174, ISSN: 1359-4311

This paper investigates the design and thermodynamic optimisation of both sub- and transcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems featuring radial turbines via performance calculations using mean-line models. The emphasis is on rapid performance predictions for a given turbine geometry, as well as geometric optimisation for a given heat source. From three specified quantities, which are the turbine inlet temperature, inlet pressure and mass flow rate, the other flow properties (e.g., outlet pressure and temperature) are computed, together with derived quantities which are required for cycle- or system-level assessments, such as the isentropic efficiency of the turbine. Experimental investigations from the open literature suitable for validation purposes are summarised and analysed with respect to their strengths and weaknesses. Similar computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are also used to complement the available experimental data. The main contributions of this paper are that it provides a comprehensive overview of radial turbine performance modelling, and that it proposes a detailed framework that can be used for the improved development of efficient thermodynamic power systems based on a unified mean-line model that is validated against experimental data and supported by CFD results. Specifically, predictions from the mean-line model show good accuracy over a wide range of operating conditions for different turbine designs and fluids with compressibility factors from 0.6 - 1.0. Finally, in order to demonstrate its efficacy, the integrated radial turbine and ORC system design framework is used in a case study of a nominally 400-kW power system with propane as the working fluid in low-grade waste-heat application, where the turbine inlet temperature is fixed at 150 ° C and the condenser temperature is fixed at 15 ° C. The novelty of this work arises from the optimisation of the turbine nozzle vane position at off-design conditions. This fe

Journal article

Al Kindi A, Markides C, Pantaleo A, Wang Ket al., 2020, Optimal system configuration and operation strategies of flexible hybrid nuclear-solar power plants, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Publisher: ECOS

Nuclear power plants are commonly used for baseload power supply due to their high reliability, low variable costs, as well as relatively low thermal efficiencies and limited load-following capabilities; especially, in the case of light water reactors. At the same time, concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is gaining attention, but is still considered an intermittent source of power with a limited availability factor. In an effort to propose a very different performance characteristic for both technologies, a hybrid power system combining nuclear and CSP plants and integrated with a thermal energy storage system is considered in this paper. The integration of the technologies is achieved by adding an indirect solar superheater and a solar reheater to a small modular nuclear reactor (NuScale). The work includes modelling of the integrated hybrid system, thermodynamic performance analysis and operational optimization aimed at maximizing the profitability of such a hybrid power plant in Oman. The results show that the hybrid system has the potential to deliver more efficient and flexible power (operating between 55% and 100% of nominal load) with the nuclear reactor operated continuously at its full rated power. The hybridization concept can potentially produce a competitive levelized cost of electricity, especially with the integration of thermal energy storage. The study concludes that the installation of such a system in Oman is not yet economically viable unless electricity tariffs increase by 70% to UK levels.

Conference paper

Sapin P, Simpson M, Olympios A, Mersch M, Markides Cet al., 2020, Cost-benefit analysis of reversible reciprocating-piston engines with adjustable volume ratio in pumped thermal electricity storage, 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2020), Publisher: ECOS

Decarbonisation of heating, cooling and/or power services through the utilisation of renewable en-ergy sources relies on the development of efficient and economically-viable energy storage technolo-gies, ideally without geographical constraints. Pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) is a strongcandidate technology – along with reversible Rankine cycle, (advanced adiabatic) compressed airenergy storage (CAES), and liquid air energy storage (LAES). One of the leading PTES variants isthe reversible Joule-Brayton cycle engine, where energy is stored as sensible heat in hot and coldthermal stores, while the temperature difference is achieved through gas compression and expansionprocesses. For cost reasons, and to achieve high round-trip efficiencies, it is advantageous for thecompression and expansion machines used in PTES plants to be reversible. Positive-displacementdevices offer this possibility. In particular, recent developments in pneumatically or electromagneti-cally actuated intake and exhaust valves could pave the way for high-efficiency reversible reciprocat-ing compression-expansion devices based on variable-valve control in real time. Advanced variablevalve timing (VVT) is a promising feature that allows piston machines not only to be operated bothas reversible compression and expansion devices, but also to maintain high efficiencies over a widerange of operating conditions, thanks to the possibility of adjusting the built-in volume ratio of a par-ticular machine. With enhanced part-load performance, such disruptive piston machines offer greatpotential for round-trip efficiency enhancement and cost minimisation of PTES storage plants. In thiswork, a cost-benefit analysis of innovative VVT-fitted reciprocating-piston technology is performedusing: (i) comprehensive dynamic reduced-order models to predict the compressor-expander perfor-mance for design optimisation, and (ii) Schumann-style one-dimensional models for simulating heatand mass transf

Conference paper

Slim N, Harraz A, Kheirabadi AN, Salamsi Y, Markides C, Athanasiou T, Casula Ret al., 2020, Innovating a Novel Brain Protection Device for Use in Cardiac Surgery and Cardiac Arrest: A Cool Solution Using Diffusion-Absorption-Refrigeration Technology, International Surgical Conference of the Association-of-Surgeons-in-Training, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 38-38, ISSN: 0007-1323

Conference paper

Voulgaropoulos V, Brun NL, Charogiannis A, Markides CNet al., 2020, Transient freezing of water between two parallel plates: A combined experimental and modelling study, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol: 153, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0017-9310

The transient freezing/solidification of water subjected to shear flow inside a rectangular cell is investigated under laminar flow conditions. A flow of freezing water is established inside the cell by cooling the top surface of the conductive, copper plate that forms the cell’s top side by contact with boiling liquid nitrogen (C). This heat removal results in an ice layer that forms and grows gradually on the ceiling of the cell, which is subjected to shear from the flow below it inside the channel. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the ice layer are recorded with optical, laser-based measurements and are compared with predictions from a transient freezing model that is developed for this purpose. Furthermore, tracer particles are introduced into the flow to aid the tracking of the ice layer and to allow for measurements based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) of the velocity field inside the flow during the ice-layer evolution. After an initial time-lag/‘buffer’ period (of s) that depends on the flow conditions, a quasi-linear growth of the ice layer is observed; at longer times the thickness of the ice layer reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The increase in the thickness, and hence thermal resistance, of the ice layer is counter-balanced by a decrease in the temperature of the copper plate and, therefore, a decrease in the temperature difference across the ice layer. Furthermore, it is found that the flow is associated with symmetric velocity profiles, recorded along the vertical spanwise length between the ice layer at the top of the cell and the floor of the cell, while an increase of the velocity maxima is recorded as the ice layer gradually thickens and, consequently, the flow cross-section is reduced. A constant heat flux of 19.7 × 103 W m is measured on the top side of the channel, while the heat transfer coefficient on the top side of the channel is found to be in the range of 90–110 W m K depending on the wa

Journal article

Gangar N, Macchietto S, Markides C, 2020, Recovery and utilization of low-grade waste heat in the oil-refining industry using heat engines and heat pumps: an international technoeconomic comparison, Energies, Vol: 13, Pages: 2560-2560, ISSN: 1996-1073

We assess the technoeconomic feasibility of onsite electricity and steam generation from recovered low-grade thermal energy in oil refineries using organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and mechanical vapour compression (MVC) heat pumps in various countries. The efficiencies of 34 ORC and 20 MVC current commercial systems are regressed against modified theoretical models. The resulting theoretical relations predict the thermal efficiency of commercial ORC engines within 4–5% and the coefficient of performance (COP) of commercial MVC heat pumps within 10–15%, on average. Using these models, the economic viability of ORC engines and MVC heat pumps is then assessed for 19 refinery streams as a function of heat source and sink temperatures, and the available stream thermal energy, for gas and electricity prices in selected countries. Results show that: (i) conversion to electrical power with ORC engines is, in general, economically feasible for heat-source temperatures >70 ◦C, however with high sensitivity to energy prices; and (ii) steam generation in MVC heat pumps, even more sensitive to energy prices, is in some cases not economical under any conditions—it is only viable with high gas/low electricity prices, for large heat sources (>2 MW) and higher temperatures (>140 ◦C). In countries and conditions with positive economics, payback periods down to two years are found for both technologies.

Journal article

Peng J, Yan J, Zhai Z, Markides CN, Lee ES, Eicker U, Zhao X, Kuhn TE, Sengupta M, Taylor RAet al., 2020, Solar energy integration in buildings, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 264, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

Georgios M, Emilio Jose S, Acha Izquierdo S, Shah N, Markides Cet al., 2020, CO2 refrigeration system heat recovery and thermal storage modelling for space heating provision in supermarkets: An integrated approach, Applied Energy, Vol: 264, ISSN: 0306-2619

The large amount of recoverable heat from CO2 refrigeration systems has led UK food retailers to examine the prospect of using refrigeration integrated heating and cooling systems to provide both the space heating and cooling to food cabinets in supermarkets. This study assesses the performance of a refrigeration integrated heating and cooling system installation with thermal storage in a UK supermarket. This is achieved by developing a thermal storage model and integrating it into a pre-existing CO2 booster refrigeration model. Five scenarios involving different configurations and operation strategies are assessed to understand the techo-economic implications. The results indicate that the integrated heating and cooling system with thermal storage has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 17–18% and GHG emissions by 12–13% compared to conventional systems using a gas boiler for space heating. These reductions are achieved despite a marginal increase of 2–3% in annual operating costs. The maximum amount of heat that can be stored and utilised is constrained by the refrigeration system compressor capacity. These findings suggest that refrigeration integrated heating and cooling systems with thermal storage are a viable heating and cooling strategy that can significantly reduce the environmental footprint of supermarket space heating provision and under the adequate circumstances can forsake the use of conventional fossil-fuel (natural gas) boiler systems in food-retail buildings.

Journal article

Gasparrini C, Rana D-S, Le Brun N, Horlait D, Markides C, Farnan I, Lee Wet al., 2020, On the stoichiometry of zirconium carbide, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

The dependencies of the enhanced thermomechanical properties of zirconium carbide (ZrCx) with sample purity and stoichiometry are still not understood due to discrepancies in the literature. Multiple researchers have recently reported a linear relation between the carbon to zirconium atomic ratio (C/Zr) and the lattice parameter, in contrast with a more established relationship that suggests that the lattice parameter value attains a maximum value at a C/Zr ~ 0.83. In this study, the relationship between C/Zr atomic ratio and the lattice parameter is critically assessed: it is found that recent studies reporting the thermophysical properties of ZrCx have unintentionally produced and characterised samples containing zirconium oxycarbide. To avoid such erroneous characterization of ZrCx thermophysical properties in the future, we propose a method for the accurate measurement of the stoichiometry of ZrCx using three independent experimental techniques, namely: elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Although a large scatter in the results (ΔC/Zr = 0.07) from these different techniques was found when used independently, when combining the techniques together consistent values of x in ZrCx were obtained.

Journal article

Nemati H, Moghimi MA, Sapin P, Markides CNet al., 2020, Shape optimisation of air-cooled finned-tube heat exchangers, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol: 150, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1290-0729

The use of annular fins in air-cooled heat exchangers is a well-known solution, commonly used in air-conditioning and heat-recovery systems, for enhancing the air-side heat transfer. Although associated with additional material and manufacturing costs, custom-designed finned-tube heat exchangers can be cost-effective. In this article, the shape of the annular fins in a multi-row air heat exchanger is optimised in order to enhance performance without incurring a manufacturing cost penalty. The air-side heat transfer, pressure drop and entropy generation in a regular, four-row heat exchanger are predicted using a steady-state turbulent CFD model and validated against experimental data. The validated simulation tool is then used to perform model-based optimisation of the fin shapes. The originality of the proposed approach lies in optimising the shape of each fin row individually, resulting in a non-homogenous custom bundle of tubes. Evidence of this local-optimisation potential is first provided by a short preliminary study, followed by four distinct optimisation studies (with four distinct objective functions), aimed at addressing the major problems faced by designers. Response-surface methods – namely, NLPQL for single-objective and MOGA for multi-objective optimisations – are used to determine the optimum configuration for each optimisation strategy. It is shown that elliptical annular-shaped fins minimise the pressure drop and entropy generation, while circular-shaped fins at the entrance region (i.e., first row) can be employed to maximise heat transfer. The results also show that, for the scenario in which the total heat transfer rate is maximised and the pressure drop minimised, the pressure drop is reduced by up to 31%, the fin weight is reduced up to 23%, with as little as a 14% decrease in the total air-side heat transfer, relative to the case in which all the fins across the tube bundle are circular. Moreover, in all optimised cases, the entropy

Journal article

Romanos P, Voumvoulakis E, Markides CN, Hatziargyriou Net al., 2020, Thermal energy storage contribution to the economic dispatch of island power systems, CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, Vol: 6, Pages: 100-110, ISSN: 2096-0042

In this paper the provision of flexible generation is investigated by extracting steam from Rankine-cycle power stations during off-peak demand in order to charge thermal tanks that contain suitable phase-change materials (PCMs); at a later time when this is required and/or is economically effective, these thermal energy storage (TES) tanks can act as the heat sources of secondary thermal power plants in order to generate power, for example as evaporators of, e.g., organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants that are suitable for power generation at reduced temperatures and smaller scales. This type of solution offers greater flexibility than TES-only technologies that store thermal energy and release it back to the base power station, since it allows both derating but also over-generation compared to the base power-station capacity. The solution is applied in a case study of a 50-MW rated oil-fired power station unit at the autonomous system of Crete. The optimal operation of the TES system is investigated, by solving a modified Unit Commitment – Economic Dispatch optimization problem, which includes the TES operating constraints. The results indicate that for most of the scenarios the discounted payback period is lower than 12 years, while in few cases the payback period is 5 years.

Journal article

Sarabia EJ, Acha Izquierdo S, Le Brun N, Soto V, Jose Manuel P, Shah N, Markides Cet al., 2020, Modelling of a CO2 refrigerant booster system for waste heat recovery applications in retail for space heating provision, 2020 ASHRAE Annual Conference (Virtual), Publisher: ASHRAE

This paper compares and quantifies the energy, environmental and economic benefits of various control strategies for recovering heat from a supermarket’s CO2 booster refrigeration system. There covered heat is used for space heating, with the goal of displacing natural gas fueled boilers. A theoretical model with thermal storage is presentedbased on a previous validated model from an existing refrigeration system in a food-retail building located in the UK. Sixheat recovery strategies are analysed by modifying thermal storage volumes and pressure levels in the gas-cooler/condenser. The model shows that a reduction of 30-40% in natural-gasc onsumption is feasible by the installation of a de-superheater and without any advanced operating strategy, and 40-50% by using a thermal storage tank. However, the CO2 system can fully supply the entire space-heating requirement by adopting alternative control strategies, albeit by penalising the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compressor. Results show that the best energy strategy can reduce total consumption by 35%, while the best economic strategy can reduce costs by 11%. Findings from this work suggest that heat recovery systems can bring substantial benefits to improve the overall efficiency of energy-intensive buildings,although trade-offs need to be carefully considered and further analysed before embarking on such initiatives.

Conference paper

Hart MBP, Olympios A, Le Brun N, Shah N, Markides C, Acha Izquierdo Set al., 2020, Pre-feasibility modelling and market potential analysis of a cloud-based CHP optimiser, 2020 ASHRAE Annual Conference (Virtual), Publisher: ASHRAE

Smart control system technologies for combined heat and power (CHP) units arenot previously reported in literature, and have potential to generate significant savings. Only minimal capital investment is required in infrastructure and software development. A live cloud-based solution has therefore been developed,and installed in a real UK supermarket store, to optimise CHP output based upon predicted price forecasts,and live electricity and head demand data. This has allowed validation of the optimiser price forecasts, and predicted cost savings, anda model of the optimiser has therefore been applied to three case study sites. The model itself has also been validated against the installed optimiser data.The pre-feasibility analysis undertaken indicates cost savings between 2% and 12%.CHP units sized within the feasible operating range, above a part loadlevelof 0.65, generate the greatest percentage savings. This is because the optimiser has the greatest flexibility to control the CHP output. However, larger units, even though less nearly optimal,may actually generate greater overall savings and would therefore be targeted for earlier optimiser implementation. Installation costs are not expected to vary greatly from site-to-site. Some stores, though,show no material improvement over the existing control systems, demonstrating the valueof the pre-feasibility analysis using the model.Though waste heat increases significantly with all strategies, the propensity to sell this heat within the UK is likely to improvein the near future.

Conference paper

Emadi MA, Chitgar N, Oyewunmi O, Markides Cet al., 2020, Working-fluid selection and thermoeconomic optimisation of a combined cycle cogeneration dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) waste heat recovery, Applied Energy, Vol: 261, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0306-2619

A novel combined-cycle system is proposed for the cogeneration ofelectricityand cooling, in which a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC)engine is used for waste-heat recovery from a solidoxide fuel cellsystem equipped witha gas turbine(SOFC-GT). Electricity is generated by the SOFC, its associated gas turbine, the two ORC turbines and a liquefied natural gas (LNG)turbine; the LNGsupply tothe fuel cell is also used as the heat sink to the ORC enginesandas a cooling medium for domestic applications. The performance of the system with 20 different combinationsof ORC working fluids isinvestigated by multi-objective optimisationof its capitalcostrateand exergy efficiency, using an integrationof a genetic algorithm and a neural network. The combination of R601(top cycle) and Ethane(bottom cycle)isproposed for the dual-loop ORC system, due to the satisfaction of the optimisationgoals, i.e., an optimal trade-off between efficiency and cost.With theseworking fluids, the overall system achieves an exergy efficiency of51.6%, a total electrical powergeneration of1040kW, with the ORC waste-heat recovery system supplying 20.7% of thispower,and a cooling capacityof 567kW. In addition, an economic analysisof theproposed SOFC-GT-ORCsystemshowsthat the cost of production of an electrical unit amounts to$33.2perMWh, which is 12.9%and 73.9%lowerthan the levelized cost of electricityofseparateSOFC-GT and SOFC systems,respectively. Exergy flow diagrams are usedto determine the flow rate of the exergy andthe value of exergy destructionin each component. In the waste heat recovery system,exergy destruction mainly occurs within theheat exchangers, the highestof which isin the LNG cooling unit followedby the LNG vaporiser and the evaporator ofthe bottom-cycleORCsystem, highlightingthe importance of these components’designin maximising the performance of the overall system.

Journal article

Pantaleo AM, Camporeale S, Sorrentino A, Miliozzi A, Shah N, Markides Cet al., 2020, Hybrid solar-biomass combined Brayton/organic Rankine-cycle plants integrated with thermal storage: Techno-economic feasibility in select Mediterranean areas, Renewable Energy, Vol: 147, Pages: 2913-2931, ISSN: 1879-0682

This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis and techno-economic assessment of a novel hybrid solar-biomass power-generation system configuration composed of an externally fired gas-turbine (EFGT) fuelled by biomass (wood chips) and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. The main novelty is related to the heat recovery from the exhaust gases of the EFGT via thermal energy storage (TES), and integration of heat from a parabolic-trough collectors (PTCs) field with molten salts as a heat-transfer fluid (HTF). The presence of a TES between the topping and bottoming cycles facilitates the flexible operation of the system, allows the system to compensate for solar energy input fluctuations, and increases capacity factor and dispatchability. A TES with two molten salt tanks (one cold at 200 °C and one hot at 370 °C) is chosen. The selected bottoming ORC is a superheated recuperative cycle suitable for heat conversion in the operating temperature range of the TES. The whole system is modelled by means of a Python-based software code, and three locations in the Mediterranean area are assumed in order to perform energy-yield analyses: Marseille in France, Priolo Gargallo in Italy and Rabat in Morocco. In each case, the thermal storage that minimizes the levelized cost of energy (LCE) is selected on the basis of the estimated solar radiation and CSP size. The results of the thermodynamic simulations, capital and operational costs assessments and subsidies (feed-in tariffs for biomass and solar electricity available in the Italian framework), allow estimating the global energy conversion efficiency and the investment profitability in the three locations. Sensitivity analyses of the biomass costs, size of PTCs, feed-in tariff and share of cogenerated heat delivered to the load are also performed. The results show that the high investment costs of the CSP section in the proposed size range and hybridization configuration allow investment profitability only in the

Journal article

Georgiou S, Aunedi M, Strbac G, Markides CNet al., 2020, On the value of liquid-air and Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage systems in low-carbon electricity systems, Energy, Vol: 193, ISSN: 0360-5442

We consider two medium-to-large scale thermomechanical electricity storage technologies currently under development, namely ‘Liquid-Air Energy Storage’ (LAES) and ‘Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage’ (PTES). Consistent thermodynamic models and costing methods based on a unified methodology for the two systems from previous work are presented and used with the objective of integrating the characteristics of the technologies into a whole-electricity system assessment model and assessing their system-level value in various scenarios for system decarbonization. It is found that the value of storage depends on the cumulative installed capacity of storage in the system, with storage technologies providing greater marginal benefits at low penetrations. The system value of PTES was found to be slightly higher than that of LAES, driven by a higher storage duration and efficiency, although these results must be seen in light of the uncertainty in the (as yet, not demonstrated) performance of key PTES components, namely the reciprocating-piston compressors and expanders. At the same time, PTES was also found to have a higher power capital cost. The results indicate that the complexity of the decarbonization challenge makes it difficult to identify clearly a ‘best’ technology and suggest that the uptake of either technology can provide significant system-level benefits.

Journal article

Qiu L, Zhu N, Feng Y, Michaelides E, Żyła G, Jing D, Zhang X, Pamela N, Markides C, Mahian Oet al., 2020, A review of recent advances in thermophysical properties at the nanoscale: from solid state to colloids, Physics Reports, Vol: 843, Pages: 1-81, ISSN: 0370-1573

Nanomaterials possess superior optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which have made them suitable for a multitude of applications. The present review paper deals with recent advances in the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties at the nanoscale (from the solid state to colloids). For this purpose, first, various techniques for the measurement of the solid state properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat capacity, are introduced. The main factors that affect the solid state properties are grain size, grain boundaries, surface interactions, doping, and temperature, which are discussed in detail. After that, methods for the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties of colloids (nanofluids), including thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, specific heat capacity, and density, are presented. The main parameters affecting these properties, such as size, shape, and concentration of nanoparticles, aggregation, and sonication time are studied. Furthermore, the properties of not only simple nanofluids but also hybrid nanofluids (which are composed of more than one type of nanoparticles) are investigated. Finally, the main research gaps and challenges are listed.

Journal article

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